Detalle Publicación

Synergistic and Detrimental Effects of Alcohol Intake on Progression of Liver Steatosis

Autores: Di Ciaula, A.; Bonfrate, L.; Krawczyk, M.; Fruhbeck Martínez, Gema; Portincasa, P. (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN: 1422-0067
Volumen: 23
Número: 5
Páginas: 2636
Fecha de publicación: 2022
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are the most common liver disorders worldwide and the major causes of non-viral liver cirrhosis in the general population. In NAFLD, metabolic abnormalities, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are the driving factors for liver damage with no or minimal alcohol consumption. ALD refers to liver damage caused by excess alcohol intake in individuals drinking more than 5 to 10 daily units for years. Although NAFLD and ALD are nosologically considered two distinct entities, they show a continuum and exert synergistic effects on the progression toward liver cirrhosis. The current view is that low alcohol use might also increase the risk of advanced clinical liver disease in NAFLD, whereas metabolic factors increase the risk of cirrhosis among alcohol risk drinkers. Therefore, special interest is now addressed to individuals with metabolic abnormalities who consume small amounts of alcohol or who binge drink, for the role of light-to-moderate alcohol use in fibrosis progression and clinical severity of the liver disease. Evidence shows that in the presence of NAFLD, there is no liver-safe limit of alcohol intake. We discuss the epidemiological and clinical features of NAFLD/ALD, aspects of alcohol metabolism, and mechanisms of damage concerning steatosis, fibrosis, cumulative effects, and deleterious consequences which include hepatocellular carcinoma.