Serum levels of IL-1 RA increase with obesity and type 2 diabetes in relation to adipose tissue dysfunction and are reduced after bariatric surgery in parallel to adiposity
Background: Excess adiposity leads to a dysfunctional adipose tissue that contributes to the development of obesity-associated comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) is a naturally occurring antagonist of the IL-1 receptor with anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to compare the circulating concentrations of IL-1RA and its mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in subjects with normal weight (NW), obesity with normoglycemia (OB-NG), or obesity with impaired glucose tolerance or T2D (OB-IGT&T2D) and to analyze the effect of changes in body fat percentage (BF%) on IL-1RA levels. Methods: Serum concentrations of IL-1RA were measured in 156 volunteers. Expression of IL1RN mRNA in VAT obtained from 36 individuals was determined. In addition, the concentrations of IL-1RA were measured before and after weight gain as well as weight loss following a dietetic program or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Results: Serum levels of IL-1RA were significantly increased in individuals with obesity, being further increased in the OBIGT&T2D group (NW 440 +/- 316, OB-NG 899 +/- 562, OB-IGT&T2D 1265 +/- 739 pg/mL; P<0.001) and associated with markers of inflammation and fatty liver. IL1RN mRNA expression in VAT was significantly increased in the OB-IGT&T2D group and correlated in the global cohort with the mRNA expression of SPP1, CCL2, CD68, and MMP9. Levels of IL-1RA were not modified after modest changes in BF%, but RYGB-induced weight loss significantly decreased IL-1RA concentrations from 1233 +/- 1009 to 660 +/- 538 pg/ mL (P<0.001). Conclusion: Serum IL-1RA concentrations are increased in patients with obesity being further elevated in obesity-associated IGT and T2D in association with markers of adipose tissue dysfunction. The mRNA expression of IL1RN is markedly increased in VAT of subjects with obesity and T2D in relation with genes involved in macrophage recruitment, inflammation and matrix remodeling. Serum IL-1RA concentrations are reduced when a notable amount of BF% is loss. Measurement of IL-1RA is an excellent biomarker of adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity-associated metabolic alterations.