Introduction. Infantile cerebral palsy is a well-known condition, the prevalence of which has varied only slightly over the years. The most common subtype is spastic diplegia, and spasticity is the most disabling symptom. Its treatment involves a multidisciplinary intervention that includes rehabilitation, the use of drugs, and orthopaedic and nervous system surgery, where selective dorsal rhizotomy is a prominent procedure.
Aim. To present a thorough review of the use, indication and long-term consequences of selective dorsal rhizotomy.
Development. It is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at reducing spasticity in the lower extremities in order to improve the ability to walk, lessen pain, facilitate care in everyday life and diminish the need for orthopaedic surgery. The literature contains a wide range of criteria for its use, and the main indication is spastic diplegia with the absence of dystonia. It is routinely performed in several countries, while we have no evidence of its application in ours.
Conclusions. Following the literature review, we believe there is enough experience to state that selective dorsal rhizotomy is a safe and simple technique from which many patients with spasticity of the lower limbs secondary to infantile cerebral palsy can benefit in both the short and the long term.