Comparison of typical controllers for direct yaw moment control applied on an electric race car
Direct Yaw Moment Control (DYC) is an effective way to alter the behaviour of electric cars with independent drives. Controlling the torque applied to each wheel can improve the handling performance of a vehicle making it safer and faster on a race track. The state-of-the-art literature covers the comparison of various controllers (PID, LPV, LQR, SMC, etc.) using ISO manoeuvres. However, a more advanced comparison of the important characteristics of the controllers' performance is lacking, such as the robustness of the controllers under changes in the vehicle model, steering behaviour, use of the friction circle, and, ultimately, lap time on a track. In this study, we have compared the controllers according to some of the aforementioned parameters on a modelled race car. Interestingly, best lap times are not provided by perfect neutral or close-to-neutral behaviour of the vehicle, but rather by allowing certain deviations from the target yaw rate. In addition, a modified Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller showed that its performance is comparable to other more complex control techniques such as Model Predictive Control (MPC).