En-bloc rectosigmoid and mesorectum resection as part of pelvic cytoreductive surgery in advanced ovarian cancer
Objective: "En-bloc" resection of pelvic tumor in ovarian cancer (OC) is still controversial. The aim was to analyze results in an OC series from a single center, all of whom underwent "en-bloc" resection as part of cytoreductive surgery. Material and Methods: Clinical and surgical records from sixty patients with ovarian carcinoma who underwent "en-bloc" resection surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Patients' mean age was 56 years; 36 patients had primary disease and 24 had recurrent disease. Carcinomatosis was present in 46.7% of patients. Primary surgery was performed in 49 and interval debulking surgery in eleven. Complete cytoreduction was achieved in 55.0% and optimal in 38.3% of patients. Carcinomatosis significantly decreased the probability of complete cytoreduction [odds ratio (OR): 0.22; p=0.021]. Mesorectal infiltration occurred in 83% of patients. Risk of death was non-significantly higher (hazard ratio: 1.9) in women with mesorectal infiltration. Median overall survival was longer for patients without infiltration (46.1 vs 79.1 months; p=0.15). Eighty-five percent suffered from mild to moderate complications and colorectal anastomosis (CRA) leak occurred in two patients (3.6%) with CRA below 6 cm. Diaphragm resection had >5 times the risk for major complications (OR: 5.35; p=0.014). There was no three month mortality. Conclusion: When contiguous gross extension of disease to pelvic peritoneum and sigmoid colon is found, in patients with advanced OC, microscopic involvement of the mesorectum and intestinal wall is present in most cases making "en-bloc" resection necessary if complete cytoreduction is to be achieved. The associated morbidity is acceptable.