Prevalence of endocrine disorders in obese patients: systematic review and meta-analysis
van-Hulsteijn, L. T. (Autor de correspondencia); Pasquali, R.; Casanueva, F.; Haluzik, M.; Ledoux, S.; Monteiro, M. P.; Salvador Rodríguez, Javier
; Santini, F.; Toplak, H.; Dekkers, O. M.
Objective: The increasing prevalence of obesity is expected to promote the demand for endocrine testing. To facilitate evidence guided testing, we aimed to assess the prevalence of endocrine disorders in patients with obesity. The review was carried out as part of the Endocrine Work-up for the Obesity Guideline of the European Society of Endocrinology. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Methods: A search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and COCHRANE Library for original articles assessing the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hypercortisolism, hypogonadism (males) or hyperandrogenism (females) in patients with obesity. Data were pooled in a random-effects logistic regression model and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Sixty-eight studies were included, concerning a total of 19.996 patients with obesity. The pooled prevalence of overt (newly diagnosed or already treated) and subclinical hypothyroidism was 14.0% (95% CI: 9.7-18.9) and 14.6% (95% CI: 9.2-20.9), respectively. Pooled prevalence of hypercortisolism was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.3-1.6). Pooled prevalence of hypogonadism when measuring total testosterone or free testosterone was 42.8% (95% CI: 37.6-48.0) and 32.7% (95% CI: 23.1-43.0), respectively. Heterogeneity was high for all analyses. Conclusions: The prevalence of endocrine disorders in patients with obesity is considerable, although the underlying mechanisms are complex. Given the cross-sectional design of the studies included, no formal distinction between endocrine causes and consequences of obesity could be made.