Recent investigations have increased the interest on the connection between the microorganisms inhabiting the gut (gut microbiota) and human health. An imbalance of the intestinal bacteria representation (dysbiosis) could lead to different diseases, ranging from obesity and diabetes, to neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The term "gut-brain axis" refers to a crosstalk between the brain and the gut involving multiple overlapping pathways, including the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune systems as well as bacterial metabolites and neuromodulatory molecules. Through this pathway, microbiota can influence the onset and progression of neuropathologies such as AD. This review discusses the possible interaction between the gut microbiome and AD, focusing on the role of gut microbiota in neuroinflammation, cerebrovascular degeneration and A beta clearance.