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Measurable residual disease in elderly acute myeloid leukemia: results from the PETHEMA-FLUGAZA phase 3 clinical trial

Autores: Simoes Pinto, Cátia Patricia; Paiva, Bruno; Martínez Cuadrón, D.; Bergua, J. M.; Vives, S.; Algarra, L.; Tormo, M.; Martínez Sánchez, P.; Serrano, J.; Herrera Puente, P.; Ramos, F.; Salamero, O.; Lavilla Rubira, E.; Gil, C.; López, J. L.; Vidriales, M. B.; Labrador, J.; Falantes, J. F.; Sayas, M. J.; Ayala Díaz, R.; Martínez López, J.; Villar Fernández, Sara; Calasanz Abinzano, María José; Prosper Cardoso, Felipe; San Miguel Izquierdo, Jesús; Sanz, M. A.; Montesinos, P. (Autor de correspondencia)
Título de la revista: BLOOD ADVANCES
ISSN: 2473-9529
Volumen: 5
Número: 3
Páginas: 760 - 770
Fecha de publicación: 2021
The value of measurable residual disease (MRD) in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is inconsistent between those treated with intensive vs hypomethylating drugs, and unknown after semi-intensive therapy. We investigated the role of MRD in refining complete remission (CR) and treatment duration in the phase 3 FLUGAZA clinical trial, which randomized 283 elderly AML patients to induction and consolidation with fludarabine plus cytarabine (FLUGA) vs 5-azacitidine. After consolidation, patients continued treatment if MRD was ¿0.01% or stopped if MRD was <0.01%, as assessed by multidimensional flow cytometry (MFC). On multivariate analysis including genetic risk and treatment arm, MRD status in patients achieving CR (N = 72) was the only independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR, 3.45;P= .002). Achieving undetectable MRD significantly improved RFS of patients with adverse genetics (HR, 0.32;P= .013). Longer overall survival was observed in patients with undetectable MRD after induction though not after consolidation. Although leukemic cells from most patients displayed phenotypic aberrancies vs their normal counterpart (N = 259 of 265), CD34 progenitors from cases with undetectable MRD by MFC carried extensive genetic abnormalities identified by whole-exome sequencing. Interestingly, the number of genetic alterations significantly increased from diagnosis to MRD stages in patients treated with FLUGA vs 5-azacitidine (2.2-fold vs 1.1-fold;P