Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium falciparum co-infection in Nigeria 2001-2018: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Malaria and schistosomiasis continue to contribute a big burden to infectious disease prevalence in the tropical areas, mainly in sub Saharan African countries. We previously reported high levels of schistosome specific antibody IgG3 in children coinfected with malaria and schistosomiasis. The aim of the current study was to examine the current co-infection rates of these diseases in Nigeria. Published and unpublished studies on co-infection of human urogenital schistosomiasis and malaria carried out in Nigeria between 2001 and August 2018 were retrieved through literature searches in PubMed, Google Scholar, AJOL, and university theses repositories. The filtered and relevant articles were reviewed and combined in a meta-analysis. Studies involving children reported higher rates of coinfection. The fourteen research articles involving 6,559 individuals were combined in a meta-analysis. Our analyses revealed an estimated 15% co-infection for the country, though with wide variability depending on location. In addition, there are few and well-designed research publications in Nigeria on prevalence and mechanism of malaria and schistosomiasis coinfection.