High myopia and the subsequent degenerative changes of the retina, choroid, and sclera, known as myopic maculopathy (MM), are a serious visual problem in many Asian countries, and are beginning to be so in the south of Europe, especially in the Mediterranean. It is therefore necessary to carry out genetic and environmental studies to determine the possible causes of this disease. This study aims to verify if the genetic factors that have been most related to Asian populations are also associated in two Spanish cohorts. Eight SNPs from six genes (PAX6,SCO2,CCDC102B,BLID,chromosome 15q14, andCOL8A1) along with demographic, ophthalmic and environmental factors were analysed in two cohorts from a total of 365 highly myopic subjects and 177 control subjects. The genetic analysis showed thatCOL8A1SNP rs13095226 was associated with the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and also seems to play an important role in the increase of axial length. The SNP rs634990 ofchromosome 15q14also showed a significant association with MM, although this was lost after the Bonferroni correction. Additional demographic and environmental factors, namely age, sex, smoking status, and pregnancy history, were also found to be associated with MM and CNV in this population.