FNDC4, a novel adipokine that reduces lipogenesis and promotes fat browning in human visceral adipocytes
Background: Fibronectin type IIIdomain-containing protein 4 (FNDC4) constitutes a secreted factor showing a high homology in the fibronectin type III and transmembrane domains with the exercise-associated myokine irisin (FNDC5). We sought to evaluate whether FNDC4 mimics the anti-obesity effects of FNDC5/irisin in human adipose tissue.
Methods: Plasma and adipose tissue samples of 78 patients with morbid obesity undergoing bariatric surgery and 26 normal-weight individuals were used in the present study.
Results: Plasma FNDC4 was decreased in patients with morbid obesity, related to obesity-associated systemic inflammation and remained unchanged six months after bariatric surgery. Visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity showed higher expression of FNDC4 and its putative receptor GPR116 regardless of the degree of insulin resistance. FNDC4 content was regulated by lipogenic, lipolytic and proinflammatory stimuli in human visceral adipocytes. FNDC4 reduced intracytosolic lipid accumulation and stimulated a brown-like pattern in human adipocytes, as evidenced by an upregulated expression of UCP-1 and the brown/beige adipocyte markers PRDM16, TMEM26 and CD137. Moreover, FNDC4 treatment upregulated mitochondrial DNA content and factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM, NRF1 and NRF2). Human FNDC4-knockdown adipocytes exhibited an increase in lipogenesis and a reduction of brown/beige-specific fat markers as well as factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis.
Conclusions: Taken together, the novel adipokine FNDC4 reduces lipogenesis and increases fat browning in human visceral adipocytes. The upregulation of FNDC4 in human visceral fat might constitute an attempt to attenuate the adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and impaired beige adipogenesis in the obese state.