Fatty acids, epigenetic mechanisms and chronic diseases: a systematic review

Autores: Gonzalez-Becerra, K.; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Barron-Cabrera, E. ; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Martinez-Lopez, E. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Título de la revista: LIPIDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
ISSN: 1476-511X
Volumen: 18
Número: 1
Fecha de publicación: 2019
Lugar: WOS
Background Chronic illnesses like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases, are worldwide major causes of morbidity and mortality. These pathological conditions involve interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Recent advances in nutriepigenomics are contributing to clarify the role of some nutritional factors, including dietary fatty acids in gene expression regulation. This systematic review assesses currently available information concerning the role of the different fatty acids on epigenetic mechanisms that affect the development of chronic diseases or induce protective effects on metabolic alterations. Methods A targeted search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline databases using the keywords "fatty acids and epigenetic". The data were analyzed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results Consumption fatty acids like n-3 PUFA: EPA and DHA, and MUFA: oleic and palmitoleic acid was associated with an improvement of metabolic alterations. On the other hand, fatty acids that have been associated with the presence or development of obesity, T2D, pro-inflammatory profile, atherosclerosis and IR were n-6 PUFA, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and trans fatty acids (elaidic), have been also linked with epigenetic changes. Conclusions Fatty acids can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms and consequently result in positive or negative impacts on metabolic outcomes.