Mechanisms Underlying Type 2 Diabetes Remission After Metabolic Surgery
Type 2 diabetes prevalence is increasing dramatically worldwide. Metabolic surgery is the most effective treatment for selected patients with diabetes and/or obesity. When compared to intensive medical therapy and lifestyle intervention, metabolic surgery has shown superiority in achieving glycemic improvement, reducing number of medications and cardiovascular risk factors, which translates in long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying diabetes improvement after metabolic surgery have not yet been clearly understood but englobe a complex interaction among improvements in beta cell function and insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, intestinal gluconeogenesis, changes in glucose utilization, and absorption by the gut and changes in the secretory pattern and morphology of adipose tissue. These are achieved through different mediators which include an enhancement in gut hormones release, especially, glucagon-like peptide 1, changes in bile acids circulation, gut microbiome, and glucose transporters expression. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive appraisal of what is known so far to better understand the mechanisms through which metabolic surgery improves glycemic control facilitating future research in the field.