This work comprises an exhaustive study of Spanish decorative leathers dating from the 12th to 14th centuries. These paintings are considered a key example of a crucible of artistic styles: Gothic, Islamic and Florentine Trecento. The goal of this work was to use the scientific information provided by a number of experimental techniques - namely EDX, micro-FTIR, micro-Raman and micro-XRD - to assess the dating of the wooden vault, leather preparation and filling fibres. Another goal was to assess the artistic technique based on the characterization of pigments and the differentiation between original materials and those added throughout its history. Gypsum was the original preparation layer extended over the leather. A new preparation stratum was added in further interventions with the artwork. The original pictorial materials and those used during refurbishments have been identified. Original pigments were: red lead, Mars red, red lake, cinnabar, lapis lazuli, red ochres, raw sienna, white lead and charcoal black. Gilding was also found. Pigments added during restoration were: barite, emerald green, rutile, anatase, Mars red, cadmium red, lithopone, cadmium yellow, charcoal black and orpiment.