Novel protective role of kallistatin in obesity by limiting adipose tissue low grade inflammation and oxidative stress
Objective: Kallistatin plays an important role in the inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and angiogenesis. We aimed to determine the impact of kallistatin on obesity and its associated metabolic alterations as well as its role in adipocyte inflammation and oxidative stress.
Methods: Samples obtained from 95 subjects were used in a case-control study. Circulating concentrations and expression levels of kallistatin as well as key inflammation, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix remodelling-related genes were analyzed. Circulating kallistatin concentrations were measured before and after weight loss achieved by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The impact of kallistatin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-mediated inflammatory as well as oxidative stress signalling pathways was evaluated.
Results: We show that the reduced (P < 0.00001) circulating levels of kallistatin in obese patients increased (P < 0.00001) after RYGB. Moreover, gene expression levels of SERPINA4, the gene coding for kallistatin, were down regulated (P < 0.01) in the liver from obese subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Additionally, we revealed that kallistatin reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of inflammation-related genes (CCL2, IL1B, IL6, IL8, TNFA, TGFB) and, conversely, upregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of ADIPOQ and KLF4 in human adipocytes in culture. Kallistatin inhibited (P < 0.05) LPS- and INF-alpha-induced inflammation in human adipocytes via downregulating the expression and secretion of key inflammatory markers. Furthermore, kallistatin also blocked (P < 0.05) TNF-alpha-mediated lipid peroxidation as well as NOX2 and HIF1A expression while stimulating (P < 0.05) the. expression of SIRT1 and FOXO1.
Conclusions: These findings provide, for the first time, evidence of a novel role of kallistatin in obesity and its associated comorbidities by limiting adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress.