Neurodegenerative diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders whose common characteristic is the progressive degeneration of neuronal structure and function. Although much knowledge has been accumulated on the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases over the years, more efforts are needed to understand the processes that underlie these diseases and hence to propose new treatments. Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional peptide involved in vasodilation, hormone secretion, antimicrobial defense, cellular growth, and angiogenesis. In neurons, AM and related peptides are associated with some structural and functional cytoskeletal proteins that interfere with microtubule dynamics. Furthermore, AM may intervene in neuronal dysfunction through other mechanisms such as immune and inflammatory response, apoptosis, or calcium dyshomeostasis. Alterations in AM expression have been described in neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia. This review addresses the current state of knowledge on AM and its possible implication in neurodegenerative diseases.