Nutritional adequacy according to carbohydrates and fat quality

Autores: Sánchez Tainta, Ana; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Bullo, M.; Sorlí, J. V.; Corella, D.; Covas, M. I.; Arós, F.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Fiol, M.; García-de-la-Corte, F.; Serra-Majem, L.; Pinto, X.; Schröeder, H.; Ros, E.; López-Savater, M. C.; Estruch, R.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
ISSN: 1436-6207
Volumen: 55
Número: 1
Páginas: 93 - 106
Fecha de publicación: 2016
Purpose To investigate the association between carbohydrate quality, fat quality or adherence to the Mediterranean diet and intake adequacy of 19 micronutrients in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel group and primary prevention trial conducted in Spain. Methods We assessed baseline dietary intake of 6,542 elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk through a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) score. We used a multidimensional carbohydrate quality index (CQI) using four criteria and a fat quality index (FQI) according to the ratio (MUFA + PUFA)/(SFA + TFA). The probability of intake adequacy was calculated comparing the intakes to DRI, and also using the probabilistic approach. Absolute and adjusted probability of having inadequate intake for either ¿6 DRI or ¿8 DRI were estimated to assess nutritional adequacy according to quintiles of each index. Results The lowest prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake (¿8 DRI) was found in the highest quintile of CQI or Med-diet score, and in the lowest quintile of FQI (adjusted fold risk: 1.4, 3.4 and 10.2 respectively in comparison with the lowest quintile). P for trend <0.001 in three multivariable models. A higher CQI or Med-Diet score and a lower FQI were significantly associated with a lower fold risk of unmet EAR values. Conclusions A multidimensional assessment of CQI can be a useful tool to evaluate the quality of carbohydrates. This score and a 14-item Med-diet score were positively related to overall micronutrient adequacy in elderly participants.