Nuestros investigadores

María Esther Lasheras Adot

Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de Navarra
Índice H
12, (Google Scholar, 20/01/2021)
9, (WoS, 20/01/2021)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Ruiz Ardanaz, I.; Lasheras Adot, María Esther; Durán Benito, Adrián (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 2075-163X  Vol. 11  Nº 2  2021  págs. 153
Several medieval tiles from Tiebas Castle in Navarre, classified as carreaux de pavement, were mineralogically analyzed. The aim was to add information to the very scarce analytical data available for carreaux de pavement in order to provide a quality primary work, mainly descriptive, in this topic. The characterization techniques applied were: optical microscopy (OM), colorimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA-TG), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, petrographic microscopy (PM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The tiles comprised three layers: a top glaze with mainly silicon and lead-based compounds; a thin layer of silicoaluminate (very possibly kaolinite) called engobe under it; and the pastes, composed of quartz, hematite, potassium feldspars and calcite. Honey glazes were richer in iron, being copper-based compounds responsible for dark green glazes. The orangish-reddish color of the pastes was provided by hematite. Although the tiles were found in three different locations within the castle, no significant differences were detected among them. The carreaux de pavement from Tiebas had similarities with that from the Bordeaux region. According to the composition data and thickness of tiles from other French carreaux de pavement, the Tiebas artifacts were dated to the 13th century.
Autores: Morera Gomez, Yasser (Autor de correspondencia); Alonso-Hernandez, C. M.; Santamaría Ulecia, Jesús Miguel; et al.
ISSN 0944-1344  Vol. 27  Nº 2  2020  págs. 2184 - 2193
Road dust is an indicator widely used when monitoring contamination and evaluating environmental and health risks in urban ecosystems. We conducted an exhaustive characterization of road dust samples coupling their chemical characteristics and stable isotope compositions (C and N) with the aim of evaluating the levels and spatial distribution of local contamination as well as to identify its main source(s) in the coastal city of Cienfuegos (Cuba). Results indicate that the concentrations of several elements(total nitrogen, S, Ca, V, Cu, Zn, Mo, Sn, Hg, and Pb) exceed the background values reported for both Cuban soils and the upper continental crust (UCC) and showed high variability among the sampling sites. We show that road dust contamination in Cienfuegos induces high associated ecological risks. Among the studied elements, Cd and Hg are the major contributors to environmental contamination in the city, mainly along busy roads and downtown.¿13Cand¿15N, coupled to a multivariate statistical analysis, help associate the studied elements to several local sources of contamination: mineral matter derived from local soils, cement plant and related activities, road pavement alteration, power plant, road traffic, and resuspension of particulate organic matter (POM). Our results suggest that incorporating the chemical and isotope monitoring of road dust may help implement more effective environmental management measures in order to reduce their adverse impact on ecosystems.
Autores: Morera Gomez, Yasser (Autor de correspondencia); Alonso-Hernandez, C. M.; Widory, D.; et al.
ISSN 1309-1042  Vol. 11  Nº 7  2020  págs. 1091 - 1098
This study investigates the contents, distribution patterns, and sources of lanthanoid elements (La to Lu) in aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter <= 10 mu m (PM10) in a coastal Caribbean region in order to better constrain the origin of the atmospheric PM contamination. We sampled and analysed PM10 aerosols during 2015 simultaneously at a rural and an urban site in Cienfuegos (Cuba) as well as particles samples from regional contamination sources. Results showed that the sum of the studied lanthanoids concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 13.42 ng m(-3) and from 0.51 to 18.75 ng m(-3) at the rural and the urban site, respectively. Time variations for the lanthanoid concentrations displayed similar trends and showed that the highest concentrations corresponded to the influence of the African dust for both sites, but presented distinct variability and lower concentrations when dust intrusions were less frequent. The lanthanoid distribution patterns in the rural and urban sites were significantly different, due to the impact of different local combustion sources. Our results were comforted by comparing the degree of fractionation of the lighter and heavier lanthanoids and the delta Eu and delta Ce anomalies between our PM10 samples and those of the local sources of contamination. Ultimately, we highlight the added value of lanthanoid elements as reliable indicators for discriminating emission sources and for tracking the origin of atmospheric particulate matter.
Autores: Morera Gomez, Yasser (Autor de correspondencia); Alonso-Hernandez, C. M. ; Cartas-Aguila, H. A.; et al.
ISSN 0169-8095  Vol. 243  2020  págs. 105038
In this study, PM10 aerosol samples were collected at 4 urban and 1 rural sites in the region of Cienfuegos (Cuba) and analyzed for their chemical compositions (total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), NH4+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42-) and their stable carbon (delta C-13) and nitrogen (delta N-15), and radioactive (Pb-210, Be-7, Cs-137 and K-40) isotope systematics, in order to better constrain both their sources of pollution and their atmospheric dynamics. The average PMic, concentrations varied from 21.67 +/- 8.54 mu g.m(-3) at the rural site to 39.01 +/- 8.23 mu g m(-3) at an urban site characterized by high road traffic. Chemical compositions showed low variability and similar abundances of the ionic species, but we observed strong correlations between i) NH4+ and SO42- that indicates the formation of secondary ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4), and ii) between PM10, and TC highlighting the significant influence of carbonaceous aerosols. We are reporting here the first Pb-210 aerosol concentrations in this region and demonstrate that, coupled with the corresponding Be-7 concentrations, they allow characterizing the dynamics of the regional continental air masses. delta C-13 values in PM10, appear to be controlled by i) emissions from different types of combustion sources, including fossil fuel and biomass burning and ii) carbonate inputs from the industrial activities located around the limestone quarries, east of the city.
Autores: Morera Gomez, Yasser (Autor de correspondencia); Santamaría Ulecia, Jesús Miguel; Elustondo Valencia, David; et al.
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 202  2019  págs. 93 - 104
Atmospheric deposition is considered to be the major pathway by which substances from the atmosphere enter to the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This study constitutes the first exhaustive report on trace metal deposition in Cuba and is aimed to determine the monthly atmospheric flux of 47 major and trace elements in a Caribbean coastal site and investigate the main sources contributing to deposition.
Autores: Morera Gomez, Yasser; Elustondo Valencia, David; Lasheras Adot, María Esther; et al.
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 192  2018  págs. 182 - 192
The deterioration of the air quality is a global concern. Daily PM10 samples were simultaneously collected and chemically characterized at an urban and a rural site in Cienfuegos, Cuba between January 2015 and January 2016. A source apportionment study was conducted in order to identify and quantify the main contributions of both local and long-range sources. Concentrations of PM10 varied similarly at the urban and rural site, with annual averages of 35.4 and 24.8 ug m-3, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed between March and August at both sites, when a strong influence of Saharan dust was identified. The PM10 daily limit (50 ug m-3) established in the Cuban legislation for air quality was exceeded by 3 and 8 times in the rural and urban site, respectively. The chemical characterization of PM10 showed important contributions of mineral matter, total carbon and secondary inorganic compounds in the region, with the highest concentrations observed at the urban site. Marine contribution, by contrast, was higher at the rural site. The highest EFs were obtained for the typical road traffic tracers Mo and Cu. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis coupled with conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) identified 5 main sources in the studied sites: Saharan intrusions, marine aerosol, combustion sources and secondary aerosols, road traffic and cement plant.
Autores: López Aizpún, María; Arango-Mora, C.; Santamaría Elola, Carolina; et al.
ISSN 0038-0717  Vol. 116  2018  págs. 378 - 387
The present work was carried out to assess the effect of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on soil physicochemical properties, soil enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase -ß-GLU-, nitrate reductase ¿NR-, urease ¿UR-, protease ¿PRO-, acid phosphatase ¿PHO-, dehydrogenase ¿DHA-), soil microbial biomass and soil respiration. The study was conducted along a NH3 gradient in a Q. pubescens Milld. forest in the vicinity of two livestock farms. Because of NHy (NHy: NH3 and NH4+) deposition, N saturation was detected up to 330 m from the farms. This excess of N led to a decrease in soil C:N and an increase in soil nitrification processes, which resulted in an accumulation of the heavy N isotope (15N) in the soil. N saturation was also reflected in the activity of NR enzyme, which was inhibited. On the other hand, while UR enzyme was inhibited close to the farms possibly due to the high amount of N-NH4+ resulting from the hydrolysis of NH3, PRO activity was stimulated by the presence of organic nitrogen compounds and the need of soil organisms to meet the C demand. In addition, the activity of PHO and ß-GLU enzymes was regulated by the relative amount of C and P that organisms need. Regarding biological variables, enhanced NH3 reduced soil microbial biomass and biomass respiratory efficiency. Finally, soil enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass have proved to be good biological indicators of soil quality.
Autores: Izquieta Rojano, Sheila; López Aizpún, María; Irigoyen Iparrea, Juan José; et al.
ISSN 0048-9697  Vol. 619-620  2018  págs. 883 - 895
Ammonia (NH3) emissions are linked to eutrophication, plant toxicity and ecosystem shifts from N to P limitation. Bryophytes are key components of terrestrial ecosystems, yet highly sensitive to N deposition. Hence, physiological responses of mosses may be indicative of NH3-related impacts, and thus useful to foresee future ecosystem damages and establish atmospheric Critical Levels (CLEs). In this work, samples of Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. were seasonally collected along a well-defined NH3 concentration gradient in an oak woodland during a one-year period. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of tissue chemistry, stoichiometry, metabolic enzymes, antioxidant response, membrane damages, photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein content and N and C isotopic fractionation. Our results showed that all the physiological parameters studied (except P, K, Ca and C) responded to the NH3 gradient in predictable ways, although the magnitude and significance of the response were dependent on the sampling season, especially for enzymatic activities and pigments content. Nutritional imbalances, membrane damages and disturbance of cellular C and N metabolism were found as a consequence to NH3 exposure, being more affected the mosses more exposed to the barn atmosphere. These findings suggested significant implications of intensive farming for the correct functioning of oak woodlands and highlighted the importance of seasonal dynamics in the study of key physiological processes related to photosynthesis, mosses nutrition and responses to oxidative stress. Finally, tissue N showed the greatest potential for the identification of NH3-related ecological end points (estimated CLE = 3.5 mu g m(-3)), whereas highly scattered physiological responses, although highly sensitive, were not suitable to that end.
Autores: Rodríguez-Oroz, D. ; Lasheras Adot, María Esther; Elustondo Valencia, David; et al.
ISSN 0007-4861  Vol. 98  Nº 1  2017  págs. 91 - 96
The objective of the present work was to verify and compare the performance of different geochemical indices employed to identify the anthropogenic origin of selected heavy metals and other trace elements in soils. To that end, two background values, the upper continental crust and the metal content in the bed rock, were used and obtained from a forested basin of the western Pyrenees. The enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I-geo), and contamination factor (C-i (f)) were finally evaluated for their ability to determine anthropogenic contamination: Results indicate that an in-depth knowledge of the bed rock geochemistry and the geological background content is essential to distinguish between the natural variability of soils and any anthropogenic contribution of heavy metals. Although both EF and C-i (f) show a similar ability to detect soil contamination, the latter is proposed as a more appropriate and sensitive marker given its ability for finding episodically elevated contamination levels.
Autores: Izquieta Rojano, Sheila; García Gómez, H.; Aguillaume, L.; et al.
ISSN 0269-7491  Vol. 210  2016  págs. 104 - 112
Deposition of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in both bulk precipitation (BD) and canopy throughfall (TF) has been measured for the first time in the western Mediterranean. The study was carried out over a year from 2012 to 2013 at four evergreen holm oak forests located in the Iberian Peninsula: two sites in the Province of Barcelona (Northeastern Spain), one in the Province of Madrid (central Spain) and the fourth in the Province of Navarra (Northern Spain). In BD the annual volume weighted mean (VWM) concentration of DON ranged from 0.25 mg l-1 in Madrid to 1.14 mg l-1 in Navarra, whereas in TF it ranged from 0.93 mg l-1 in Barcelona to 1.98 mg l-1 in Madrid. The contribution of DON to total nitrogen deposition varied from 34% to 56% in BD in Barcelona and Navarra respectively, and from 38% in Barcelona to 72% in Madrid in TF. Agricultural activities and pollutants generated in metropolitan areas were identified as potential anthropogenic sources of DON at the study sites. Moreover, canopy uptake of DON in Navarra was found in spring and autumn, showing that organic nitrogen may be a supplementary nutrient for Mediterranean forests, assuming that a portion of the nitrogen taken up is assimilated during biologically active periods.
Autores: Izquieta Rojano, Sheila; Elustondo Valencia, David; Ederra Indurain, Alicia; et al.
ISSN 1470-160X  Vol. 60  Nº 1  2016  págs. 1221 - 1228
There is a significant lack of data in biomonitoring surveys from southern Europe and other Mediterranean biogeographic areas. This scarcity is mainly due to the impossibility of finding the commonly recommended species in a great portion of these dry environments. The present work was carried out with the aim of assessing the validity of the moss Pleurochaete squarrosa (Brid.) Lindb. (PS) as a feasible alternative in these regions. The study was developed in the Mediterranean area of Navarra, in northern Spain, where the response of PS to multiple atmospheric pollutants (N, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and Zn) was compared to that of Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. (HC), an accepted and widely used species in biomonitoring surveys. Moreover, N isotopic signatures from both species were studied to evaluate their effectiveness when identifying nitrogen emission sources. The enrichment factor (EF) approach was used to evaluate the heavy metal uptake, showing a similar behaviour for both species: low EF for Al, As, Cr and Fe; intermediate for Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb; and high for Cd, Cr, Hg and Zn. Equally, both species depicted the same N deposition patterns across the study area. However, regarding ¿15N, PS gave a more congruent picture with the location of the main sources of N emissions in the area. These data suggest that PS may be a suitable biomonitor to fill the aforementioned gaps in Mediterranean biogeographic areas.
Autores: Bermejo Orduna, Raúl; McBride, J.R.; Shiraishi, K.; et al.
ISSN 0048-9697  Vol. 490  2014  págs. 205 - 212
To assess the impact of vehicular emissions on a mixed conifer forest, we measured the contents of the trace elements, N, C, and their respective natural isotopes (delta(15)N and delta(13)C), in the epiphytic lichen, L. vulpina. The samples were collected along transects perpendicular to Interstate 80 (I-80) and along a more remote, secondary forest road (R07). Distance to the road verge, trunk cover, and stand basal area were also recorded. Percent N ranged from 1.10% to 2.00% near I-80 and from 0.78% to 1.13% along R07. Concentrations of N, (15)N, Na, As, Pb, and Zn were enhanced in lichen samples near I-80 and were negatively correlated with distance from the road. Trunk cover values differed between roads (p<0.001) and were negatively correlated with %N (r(2)=0.74; p<0.001). The results indicate that vehicular N emissions are significant enough to alter the surrounding ecosystem, modifying the presence of a sensitive component such as L. vulpina, and suggest that a clean-site threshold of 1.0%N may be too high as an indicator of critical N load exceedance. The study also underscored the potential role of wolf lichen in a large-scale assessment of N deposition and source identification.
Autores: Aldabe Salinas, Janire; Santamaría Elola, Carolina; Elustondo Valencia, David; et al.
ISSN 1759-9660  Vol. 5  Nº 2  2013  págs. 554-559
A microwave digestion method in a closed vessel was developed for the simultaneous determination of trace and major elements, with the highest possible recoveries, in atmospheric aerosols using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method was developed to quantify the concentration of Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce and Pb present in quartz filters containing particulate matter (PM10). The performance of the procedure was evaluated by analysis of the standard reference material NIST 1633b and CTA-FFA-1. Different combinations of nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) were tested to improve the recovery factors for the studied elements. The addition of a large amount (3 mL) of HF was required to fully dissolve the quartz filters. This fact made difficult the obtention of high recoveries for alkali (Rb, Cs), alkaline earth (Mg, Ca, Ba), and rare earth (La, Ce) elements, which showed the lowest recoveries. In this study three different digestion methods were assessed using a closed evaporation system, the addition of boric acid and a mixture of both procedures to minimize the effects of residual fluoride.
Autores: Santamaría Ulecia, Jesús Miguel; Moraza Zorrilla, María Lourdes; Elustondo Valencia, David; et al.
ISSN 1582-9596  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2012  págs. 1159 - 1169
Mites and springtails are important members of soil mesofauna and have been proven to be good bioindicators of airborne pollutants. We studied the surrounding area of a steel mill located in a mountain valley of North Spain. Previous studies had documented the existence of a pollution gradient in this area due to the emissions of the factory, thus providing an interesting site to investigate the potential effects of pollutants (heavy metals and nitrogen) on soil biodiversity. The density of Acari and Collembola significantly decreased with the increase in concentration of Cr, Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb. Mites appeared to be more sensitive to heavy metal pollution than springtails. Likewise, the density of these microarthropoda was lower in those soils exhibiting higher nitrogen content. The species composition of the community of Acari and Collembola changed according to heavy metal pollution. Significant differences in abundance, species richness and diversity were observed between the communities of the sampling sites. Some species were exclusive of the less polluted sites, while other appeared in the most contaminated ones. This different response of soil mesofauna to pollutants suggests that some mite or springtail species could be used as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution.
Autores: Rodríguez Oroz, María Delia; Lasheras Adot, María Esther; Aldabe Salinas, Janire; et al.
ISSN 1582-9596  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2012  págs. 1149 - 1158
In this study we explore the processes of sorption and mobility in experimental soil columns in order to assess the response of natural soils to a hypothetical increase of pollution. The soils were sampled in a forest catchment situated in the Bertiz Natural Park at the western end of the Pyrenees. 21 columns, reproducing 21 soil profiles, were treated with a solution of heavy metals four times more concentrated than under actual conditions of deposition. An undisturbed soil column was tested simultaneously. The competition between cations and the content of clay and oxi-hydroxide compounds in the soils were the main factors determining the mobility of metals along with the influence of temperature. Calculated distribution coefficients show retention of Cr3+ Cu2+, and As5+, and in a lesser extent of Pb2+ and leaching of Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+. Consequently, Mn2+ and Zn2+ have a greater tendency to contribute to groundwater pollution, whereas Cr3+ and Cu2+ are more likely to remain on soil surface. In undisturbed soil column, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were preferably sorbed onto dissolved organic matter (DOC), and the sorption of Mn2+ Cu2+ and Zn2+ was controlled by the ambient temperature. The simulation shows the presence of weakly sorbed metals and of others clearly desorbed (Ni2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+), which suggests that in the near future they will reach groundwater becoming a risk for its quality and for the biota. This kind of experiments in disturbed soils did not prove to be successful, hence their analysis in undisturbed soils is suggested.
Autores: Ariño Plana, Arturo; Bermejo Orduna, Raúl; Ibáñez Gastón, Ricardo; et al.
ISSN 1238-7312  Nº 18  2011  págs. 53 - 57
Autores: Aldabe Salinas, Janire; Elustondo Valencia, David; Santamaría Elola, Carolina; et al.
Revista: Atmospheric research
ISSN 0169-8095  Vol. 102  Nº 1  2011  págs. 191 - 205
Autores: González Miqueo, Laura; Elustondo Valencia, David; Lasheras Adot, María Esther; et al.
Revista: Chemosphere
ISSN 0045-6535  Vol. 78  Nº 8  2010  págs. 965 - 971
A biomonitoring survey using the moss species Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was conducted in the surroundings of two steel plants located in the North of Spain. Levels of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and N were determined. Very high concentrations in the areas of study were detected when compared to nearby unaffected regions. Similar trends were observed for all the elements in the differently orientated transects, showing an appreciable influence of the NW prevailing winds of the region in the dispersion of pollutants, as well as a clear decreasing gradient in the concentrations of metals in mosses within a distance of 1500 meters from the facilities. A differentiation between the elements emitted by the chimney as result of the industrial activity (V, Cr, Ni, Cu and As) and those with a high presence in steel slag deposits (Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was observed. The range of contamination was also established by means of the Contamination Factor, indicating a category 4 out of 6 categories, which shows the high levels reported in the areas of study. A different dynamic was registered for nitrogen regarding the rest of the heavy metals analysed except for Hg, probably due to the elevated volatility and mobility of both elements, as well as their high persistence in the atmosphere.
Autores: González Miqueo, Laura; Elustondo Valencia, David; Lasheras Adot, María Esther; et al.
ISSN 0049-6979  Vol. 210  Nº 1-4  2010  págs. 335 - 346
Autores: Foan, L.; Sablayrolles, C.; Elustondo Valencia, David; et al.
Revista: Atmospheric environment
ISSN 1352-2310  Vol. 44  Nº 26  2010  págs. 3207 - 3214
Autores: Santamaría Elola, Carolina; Elustondo Valencia, David; Lasheras Adot, María Esther; et al.
Libro:  Chromatographic analysis of the environment : mass spectrometry based approaches
2017  págs. 427 - 452
Autores: Santamaría Ulecia, Jesús Miguel (Editor); Ariño Plana, Arturo; León Anguiano, Bienvenido; et al.
Recoge los principales resultados generados durante la realización del proyecto LIFE+RESPIRA, llevado a cabo en la ciudad de Pamplona (Navarra, España) por un equipo interdisciplinar constituido por más de 30 investigadores pertenecientes a la Universidad de Navarra, el Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT) y Gestión Ambiental de Navarra (GAN-NIK). El libro, que se ha publicado en castellano y en inglés, se ha dividido en 7 capítulos: 1. ¿Ciudades sostenibles? 2. Exposición de los ciudadanos a la contaminación atmosférica 3. Papel de la vegetación urbana en la calidad del aire 4. Modelos de alta resolución para evaluar la calidad del aire 5. Impactos de la contaminación urbana 6. Movilidad y sostenibilidad urbanas 7. Comunicación y educación ambiental. Este libro pretende ser una guía de utilidad para científicos, gestores y ciudadanos, aportando un conjunto de herramientas que permitan mejorar la calidad de vida de nuestras ciudades. Además, quiere rendir un homenaje a todos los voluntarios ciclistas que han participado en dicho proyecto y que son los verdaderos artífices del mismo, ya que gracias a su dedicación incondicional durante más de dos años, han proporcionado una cantidad ingente de datos sobre la calidad del aire de la ciudad de Pamplona.
Autores: Santamaría Ulecia, Jesús Miguel (Editor); Ariño Plana, Arturo; León Anguiano, Bienvenido; et al.
This book collects the main outcomes that were generated during the implementation of the LIFE+RESPIRA project (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000417), carried out in the city of Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. The research was conducted by a cross-functional team made up of more than 30 researchers belonging to three entities: The University of Navarra, the Centre for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT) and Environmental Management of Navarra (GAN-NIK).



Organización y Gestión de Proyectos. 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Ciencias.

Management of natural and protected areas. 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Ciencias.

Cristalografía y mineralogía (F.Ciencias). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Ciencias.

Geología (F.Ciencias). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Ciencias.

Geology (F: Ciencias). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Ciencias.