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Nuestros investigadores
Jesús Bañales Asurmendi
Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)
Autores: Rodrigues, P. M.; Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN   0269-2813  Vol.   55    2  2022  págs.   247 - 248
Autores: Nakanishi, T.; Pigazzini, S.; Degenhardt, F.; et al.
ISSN   0021-9738  Vol.   131    23  2021  págs.   e152386
BACKGROUND. There is considerable variability in COVID-19 outcomes among younger adults, and some of this variation may be due to genetic predisposition. METHODS. We combined individual level data from 13,888 COVID-19 patients (n = 7185 hospitalized) from 17 cohorts in 9 countries to assess the association of the major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor (chromosome 3 locus tagged by rs10490770) with mortality, COVID-19-related complications, and laboratory values. We next performed metaanalyses using FinnGen and the Columbia University COVID-19 Biobank. RESULTS. We found that rs10490770 risk allele carriers experienced an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7). Risk allele carriers had increased odds of several COVID-19 complications: severe respiratory failure (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6-2.6), venous thromboembolism (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4), and hepatic injury (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0). Risk allele carriers age 60 years and younger had higher odds of death or severe respiratory failure (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.8-3.9) compared with those of more than 60 years (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8; interaction, P = 0.038). Among individuals 60 years and younger who died or experienced severe respiratory failure, 32.3% were risk-variant carriers compared with 13.9% of those not experiencing these outcomes. This risk variant improved the prediction of death or severe respiratory failure similarly to, or better than, most established clinical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS. The major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, which are more pronounced among individuals 60 years or younger. The effect was similar in magnitude and more common than most established clinical risk factors, suggesting potential implications for future clinical risk management.
Autores: Vallejo Blanco, Adrián; Erice Azparren, Oihane; Entrialgo Cadierno, Rodrigo; et al.
ISSN   1600-0641  Vol.   75    2  2021  págs.   363 - 376
Background & aims: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a neoplasia of the biliary tract driven by genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms. Herein, we investigated the role of the transcription factor FOSL1, as well as its downstream transcriptional effectors, in the development and progression of CCA. Methods: FOSL1 was investigated in human CCA clinical samples. Genetic inhibition of FOSL1 in human and mouse CCA cell lines was performed in in vitro and in vivo models using constitutive and inducible short-hairpin RNAs. Conditional FOSL1 ablation was done using a genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model of CCA (mutant KRAS and Trp53 knockout). Follow-up RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing analyses were carried out and downstream targets were validated using genetic and pharmacological inhibition. Results: An inter-species analysis of FOSL1 in CCA was conducted. First, FOSL1 was found to be highly upregulated in human and mouse CCA, and associated with poor patient survival. Pharmacological inhibition of different signalling pathways in CCA cells converged on the regulation of FOSL1 expression. Functional experiments showed that FOSL1 is required for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in vitro, and for tumour growth and tumour maintenance in both orthotopic and subcutaneous xenograft models. Likewise, FOSL1 genetic abrogation in a GEM model of CCA extended mouse survival by decreasing the oncogenic potential of transformed cholangiocytes. RNA and ChIP sequencing studies identified direct and indirect transcriptional effectors such as HMGCS1 and AURKA, whose genetic and pharmacological inhibition phenocopied FOSL1 loss. Conclusions: Our data illustrate the functional and clinical relevance of FOSL1 in CCA and unveil potential targets amenable to pharmacological inhibition that could enable the implementation of novel therapeutic strategies. Lay summary: Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer) development and progression stands as a critical step for the development of novel therapies. Through an inter-species approach, this study provides evidence of the clinical and functional role of the transcription factor FOSL1 in cholangiocarcinoma. Moreover, we report that downstream effectors of FOSL1 are susceptible to pharmacological inhibition, thus providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
Autores: Prieto Valtueña, Jesús María (Autor de correspondencia); Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús; Medina Cabrera, Juan Francisco
ISSN   0267-1379  Vol.   37    2  2021  págs.   91 - 98
Purpose of review Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is characterized by autoimmune damage of intrahepatic bile ducts associated with a loss of tolerance to mitochondrial antigens. PBC etiopathogenesis is intriguing because of different perplexing features, namely: a) although mitochondria are present in all cell types and tissues, the damage is mainly restricted to biliary epithelial cells (BECs); b) despite being an autoimmune disorder, it does not respond to immunosuppressive drugs but rather to ursodeoxycholic acid, a bile salt that induces HCO3- rich choleresis; c) the overwhelming female preponderance of the disease remains unexplained. Here we present an etiopathogenic view of PBC which sheds light on these puzzling facts of the disease. Recent findings PBC develops in patients with genetic predisposition to autoimmunity in whom epigenetic mechanisms silence the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger AE2 in both cholangiocytes and lymphoid cells. Defective AE2 function can produce BECs damage as a result of decreased biliary HCO3- secretion with disruption of the protective alkaline umbrella that normally prevents the penetration of toxic apolar bile salts into cholangiocytes. AE2 dysfunction also causes increased intracellular pH (pHi) in cholangiocytes, leading to the activation of soluble adenylyl cyclase, which sensitizes BECs to bile salt-induced apoptosis. Recently, mitophagy was found to be inhibited by cytosolic alkalization and stimulated by acidification. Accordingly, we propose that AE2 deficiency may disturb mitophagy in BECs, thus, promoting the accumulation of defective mitochondria, oxidative stress and presentation of mitochondrial antigens to the immune cells. As women possess a more acidic endolysosomal milieu than men, mitophagy might be more affected in women in an AE2-defective background. Apart from affecting BECs function, AE2 downregulation in lymphocytes may also contribute to alter immunoregulation facilitating autoreactive T-cell responses. Summary PBC can be considered as a disorder of Cl-/HCO3- exchange in individuals with genetic predisposition to autoimmunity.
Autores: Miszczuk, G. S.; Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús; Zucchetti, A. E.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN   1932-6203  Vol.   14    2  2019 
In obstructive cholestasis, there is an integral adaptive response aimed to diminish the bile flow and minimize the injury of bile ducts caused by increased intraluminal pressure and harmful levels of bile salts and bilirrubin. Canalicular bicarbonate secretion, driven by the anion exchanger 2 (AE2), is an influential determinant of the canalicular bile salt-independent bile flow. In this work, we ascertained whether AE2 expression and/or activity is reduced in hepatocytes from rats with common bile duct ligation (BDL), as part of the adaptive response to cholestasis. After 4 days of BDL, we found that neither AE2 mRNA expression (measured by quantitative real-time PCR) nor total levels of AE2 protein (assessed by western blot) were modified in freshly isolated hepatocytes. However, BDL led to a decrease in the expression of AE2 protein in plasma membrane fraction as compared with SHAM control. Additionally, AE2 activity (J(OH)-, mmol/L/min), measured in primary cultured hepatocytes from BDL and SHAM rats, was decreased in the BDL group versus the control group (1.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.2, p<0.005). cAMP-stimulated AE2 activity, however, was not different between SHAM and BDL groups (3.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.3), suggesting that cAMP stimulated insertion into the canalicular membrane of AE2-containing intracellular vesicles, that had remained abnormally internalized after BDL. In conclusion, our results point to the existence of a novel adaptive mechanism in cholestasis aimed to reduce biliary pressure, in which AE2 internalization in hepatocytes might result in decreased canalicular HCO3- output and decreased bile flow.
Autores: Colyn, L.; Alvarez-Sola, G.; Latasa Sada, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN   0168-8278  Vol.   70    Supl. 1  2019  págs.   E27 - E28
Autores: Bárcena Varela, Marina; Caruso, S. ; Llerena, S. ; et al.
ISSN   0270-9139  Vol.   69    2  2019  págs.   587 - 603
Epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation functionally cooperate in fostering tumor growth, including that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pharmacological targeting of these mechanisms may open new therapeutic avenues. We aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of action of our dual G9a histone-methyltransferase and DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor in human HCC cells and their crosstalk with fibrogenic cells. The expression of G9a and DNMT1, along with that of their molecular adaptor ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains-1 (UHRF1), was measured in human HCCs (n = 268), peritumoral tissues (n = 154), and HCC cell lines (n = 32). We evaluated the effect of individual and combined inhibition of G9a and DNMT1 on HCC cell growth by pharmacological and genetic approaches. The activity of our lead compound, CM-272, was examined in HCC cells under normoxia and hypoxia, human hepatic stellate cells and LX2 cells, and xenograft tumors formed by HCC or combined HCC+LX2 cells. We found a significant and correlative overexpression of G9a, DNMT1, and UHRF1 in HCCs in association with poor prognosis. Independent G9a and DNMT1 pharmacological targeting synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth. CM-272 potently reduced HCC and LX2 cells proliferation and quelled tumor growth, particularly in HCC+LX2 xenografts. Mechanistically, CM-272 inhibited the metabolic adaptation of HCC cells to hypoxia and induced a differentiated phenotype in HCC and fibrogenic cells. The expression of the metabolic tumor suppressor gene fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), epigenetically repressed in HCC, was restored by CM-272. Conclusion: Combined targeting of G9a/DNMT1 with compounds such as CM-272 is a promising strategy for HCC treatment. Our findings also underscore the potential of differentiation therapy in HCC.
Autores: Guerra, I.; Bujanda, L. ; Castro, J.; et al.
ISSN   1873-9946  Vol.   12    Supl. 1  2018  págs.   S239 - S240
Autores: Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús
ISSN   1389-4501  Vol.   18    8  2017  págs.   888
Autores: Fernandez-Barrena, M. G.; Perugorría Montiel, María Jesús; Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús
Revista: GUT
ISSN   0017-5749  Vol.   66    7  2017  págs.   1177 - 1178
Autores: Concepción González, Axel Rolando; Salas Tavita, January; Sarvide Plano, Sarai; et al.
ISSN   0014-2980  Vol.   44    5  2014  págs.   1341 - 1351
Mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes involves alkalinization of intracellular pH (pHi ). Subsequent pHi regulation may involve HCO3 (-) extrusion through Cl(-) /HCO3 (-) exchangers and/or Na(+) -HCO3 (-) co-transporters with acid-loading capability. Abnormalities in these mechanisms could result in immune dysfunctions, as suggested by the CD8(+) T-cell expansion encountered in mice lacking Ae2 (a widely expressed acid loader with electroneutral and Na(+) -independent Cl(-) /HCO3 (-) anion-exchange activity). Here we report that CD8(+) T cells but not CD4(+) T cells or other lymphocyte populations, are crucially dependent on Ae2 for pHi regulation. While total lymphocytes (including isolated CD4(+) T cells) exhibit Ae1 expression and Na(+) -HCO3 (-) co-transport with acidifying potential, CD8(+) T cells lack these acid-loading mechanisms. In Ae2-KO mice, CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T cells upregulate these potential Ae2 surrogates. As a consequence, Ae2-KO CD8(+) T cells exhibit alkalinized pHi , and dramatically increase their pHi upon CD3 stimulation. Moreover, stimulated Ae2-deficient CD8(+) T cells show enhanced intracellular production of IL-2 and membrane expression of its receptor IL-2R¿, together with increased cell proliferation and activation. These findings demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells are critically dependent on Ae2 for pHi homeostasis and tuning of cell proliferation and activation. Ae2 thus constitutes a novel target to modulate CD8(+) T-cell responses.
Autores: del Pozo León, José Luis; Fernández Ros, Nerea; Sáez de Blas, Elena; et al.
ISSN   0066-4804  Vol.   58    7  2014  págs.   4227 - 4229
Mitochondrial toxicity has been recently suggested to be the underlying mechanism of long-term linezolid-associated toxicity in patients with 16S rRNA genetic polymorphisms. Here, we report for the first time two cases of lactic acidosis due to long-term linezolid exposure in liver transplant recipients who presented an A2706G mitochondrial DNA polymorphism.
Autores: García Irigoyen, Oihane; Carotti, S.; Latasa Sada, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN   1478-3223  Vol.   34    7  2013  págs.   e257 - e270
Background & Aims Upon tissue injury, the liver mounts a potent reparative and regenerative response. A role for proteases, including serine and matrix metalloproteinases ( MMPs), in this process is increasingly recognized. We have evaluated the expression and function of MMP10 (stromelysin-2) in liver wound healing and regeneration. Methods The hepatic expression of MMP10 was examined in two murine models: liver regeneration after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) and bile duct ligation (BDL). MMP10 was detected in liver tissues by qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The effect of growth factors and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonists on MMP10 expression was studied in cultured parenchymal and biliary epithelial cells and macrophages respectively. The role of MMP10 was evaluated by comparing the response of Mmp10+/+ and Mmp10¿/¿ mice to PH and BDL. The intrahepatic turnover of the extracellular matrix proteins fibrin (ogen) and fibronectin was examined. Results MMP10 mRNA was readily induced after PH and BDL. MMP10 protein was detected in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and macrophages. In cultured liver epithelial cells, MMP10 expression was additively induced by transforming growth factor-ß and epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. TLR4 ligands also stimulated MMP10 expression in macrophages. Lack of MMP10 resulted in increased liver injury upon PH and BDL. Resolution of necrotic areas was impaired, and Mmp10¿/¿ mice showed increased fibrogenesis and defective turnover of fibrin (ogen) and fibronectin. Conclusions MMP10 expression is induced during mouse liver injury and participates in the hepatic wound healing response. The profibrinolytic activity of MMP10 may be essential in this novel hepatoprotective role.
Autores: Masyuk, TV; Radtke, BN; Stroope, AJ; et al.
ISSN   0016-5085  Vol.   142    3  2012  págs.   622 - 633
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In polycystic kidney disease and polycystic liver disease (PLD), the normally nonproliferative hepato-renal epithelia acquire a proliferative, cystic phenotype that is linked to overexpression of cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25)A phosphatase and cell-cycle deregulation. We investigated the effects of Cdc25A inhibition in mice and rats via genetic and pharmacologic approaches. METHODS: Cdc25A(+/-) mice (which have reduced levels of Cdc25A) were cross-bred with polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (Pkhd1(del2/del2)) mice (which have increased levels of Cdc25A and develop hepatic cysts). Cdc25A expression was analyzed in livers of control and polycystic kidney (PCK) rats, control and polycystic kidney 2 (Pkd2(ws25/-)) mice, healthy individuals, and patients with PLD. We examined effects of pharmacologic inhibition of Cdc25A with vitamin K3 (VK3) on the cell cycle, proliferation, and cyst expansion in vitro; hepatorenal cystogenesis in PCK rats and Pkd2(ws25/-) mice; and expression of Cdc25A and the cell-cycle proteins regulated by Cdc25A. We also examined the effects of the Cdc25A inhibitor PM-20 on hepato-renal cystogenesis in Pkd2(ws25/-) mice. RESULTS: Liver weights and hepatic and fibrotic areas were decreased by 32%-52% in Cdc25A(+/-): Pkhd1(del2/del2) mice, compared with Pkhd1(del2/del2) mice. VK3 altered the cell cycle and reduced proliferation of cultured cholangiocytes by 32%-83% and decreased growth of cultured cysts by 23%-67%. In PCK rats and Pkd2(ws25/-) mice, VK3 reduced liver and kidney weights and hepato-renal cystic and fibrotic areas by 18%-34%. PM-20 decreased hepato-renal cystogenesis in Pkd2(ws25/-) mice by 15%. CONCLUSIONS: Cdc25A inhibitors block cell-cycle progression and proliferation, reduce liver and kidney weights and cyst growth in animal models of polycystic kidney disease and PLD, and might be developed as therapeutics for these diseases.
Autores: Hijona, E; Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús; Hijona, L; et al.
Revista: Cancer Cell International
ISSN   1475-2867  Vol.   12  2012  págs.   5
Background: Statins may have therapeutic effects on hepatocarcinoma (HCC). This type of disorder is the most common malignant primary tumour in the liver. Our objective was to determine whether pravastatin had a therapeutic effect in vitro and in vivo models. Method: We design in vitro and in vivo model. In vitro we used PLC and determine cell proliferation. In vivo, we used and animal model to determined, PCNA and MAT1A expression and transaminases levels. Results: We found that pravastatin decreases cell proliferation in vitro (cell proliferation in pravastatin group was 82%, in sorafenib group 51% and in combined group 40%) and in vivo (in pravastatin group 80%, in sorafenib group 76.4% and in combined group 72.72%). The MAT1A levels, was significantly higher in Pravastatin group (D 62%, P 94%, S 71%, P + S 91%). The transaminases levels, decreased significantly in Pravastatin group (GOT and GPT levels D 619.5 U/L; 271 U/L) (P 117.5 U/L; 43.5 U/L) (S 147 U/L; 59 U/L) (P + S 142 U/L; 59 U/L). Conclusion: The combination of pravastatin + sorafenib were more effective than Sorafenib alone.
Autores: Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús; Sáez de Blas, Elena; Úriz Baraibar, Miriam; et al.
Revista: Hepatology
ISSN   0270-9139  Vol.   56    2  2012  págs.   687 - 697
Cl-/HCO?3- anion exchanger 2 (AE2) participates in intracellular pH homeostasis and secretin-stimulated biliary bicarbonate secretion. AE2/SLC4A2 gene expression is reduced in liver and blood mononuclear cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Our previous findings of hepatic and immunological features mimicking PBC in Ae2-deficient mice strongly suggest that decreased AE2 expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Here, we tested the potential role of microRNA 506 (miR-506) predicted as candidate to target AE2 mRNA for the decreased expression of AE2 in PBC. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that miR-506 expression is increased in PBC livers versus normal liver specimens. In situ hybridization in liver sections confirmed that miR-506 is up-regulated in the intrahepatic bile ducts of PBC livers, compared with normal and primary sclerosing cholangitis livers. Precursor-mediated overexpression of miR-506 in SV40-immortalized normal human cholangiocytes (H69 cells) led to decreased AE2 protein expression and activity, as indicated by immunoblotting and microfluorimetry, respectively. Moreover, miR-506 overexpression in three-dimensional (3D)-cultured H69 cholangiocytes blocked the secretin-stimulated expansion of cystic structures developed under the 3D conditions. Luciferase assays and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that miR-506 specifically may bind the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of AE2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and prevent protein translation. Finally, cultured PBC cholangiocytes showed decreased AE2 activity, together with miR-506 overexpression, compared to normal human cholangiocytes, and transfection of PBC cholangiocytes with anti-miR-506 was able to improve their AE2 activity. Conclusion: miR-506 is up-regulated in cholangiocytes from PBC patients, binds the 3'UTR region of AE2 mRNA, and prevents protein translation, leading to diminished AE2 activity and impaired biliary secretory functions. In view of the putative pathogenic role of decreased AE2 in PBC, miR-506 may constitute a potential therapeutic target for this disease.
Autores: Úriz Baraibar, Miriam; Sáez de Blas, Elena; Prieto Valtueña, Jesús María; et al.
Revista: PLoS One
ISSN   1932-6203  Vol.   6    12  2011  págs.   28717
Background & Aims: Secretin induces bicarbonate-rich hydrocholeresis in healthy individuals, but not in untreated patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) - the first choice treatment for PBC - restores the secretin response. Compared with humans, secretin has poor effect in experimental normal-rat models with biliary drainage, although it may elicit hydrocholeresis when the bile-acid pool is maintained. In view of the benefits of UDCA in PBC, we used normal-rat models to unravel the acute contribution of UDCA (and/or taurine-conjugated TUDCA) for eliciting the biliary secretin response. Methods: Intravascular and/or intrabiliary administration of agonists and inhibitors was performed in normal rats with biliary monitoring. Secretin/bile-acid interplay was analyzed in 3D cultured rat cholangiocytes that formed expansive cystic structures with intralumenal hydroionic secretion. Results: In vivo, secretin stimulates hydrocholeresis upon UDCA/TUDCA infusion, but does not modify the intrinsic hypercholeretic effect of dehydrocholic acid (DHCA). The former effect is dependent on microtubule polymerization, and involves PKC alpha, PI3K and MEK pathways, as shown by colchicine (i.p.) and retrograde biliary inhibitors. In vitro, while secretin alone accelerates the spontaneous expansion of 3D-cystic structures, this effect is enhanced in the presence of TUDCA, but not UDCA or DHCA. Experiments with inhibitors and Ca(2+)-chelator confirmed that the synergistic effect of secretin plus TUDCA involves microtubules, intracellular Ca(2+), PKC alpha, PI3K, PKA and MEK pathways. Gene silencing also demonstrated the involvement of the bicarbonate extruder Ae2.
Autores: Gradilone, S. A.; Masyuk, T. V.; Huang, B. Q.; et al.
ISSN   0016-5085  Vol.   139    1  2010  págs.   304 - 314
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In polycystic liver diseases, cyst formation involves cholangiocyte hyperproliferation. In polycystic kidney (PCK) rats, an animal model of autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), decreased intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) in cholangiocytes is associated with hyperproliferation. We recently showed transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (Trpv4), a calcium-entry channel, is expressed in normal cholangiocytes and its activation leads to [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Thus, we hypothesized that pharmacologic activation of Trpv4 might reverse the hyperproliferative phenotype of PCK cholangiocytes. METHODS: Trpv4 expression was examined in liver of normal and PCK rats, normal human beings, and patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease or ARPKD. Trpv4 activation effect on cell proliferation and cyst formation was assessed in cholangiocytes derived from normal and PCK rats. The in vivo effects of Trpv4 activation on kidney and liver cysts was analyzed in PCK rats. RESULTS: Trpv4 was overexpressed both at messenger RNA (8-fold) and protein (3-fold) levels in PCK cholangiocytes. Confocal and immunogold electron microscopy supported Trpv4 overexpression in the livers of PCK rats and ARPKD or autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease patients. Trpv4 activation in PCK cholangiocytes increased [Ca(2+)](i) by 30%, inhibiting cell proliferation by approximately 25%-50% and cyst growth in 3-dimensional culture (3-fold). Trpv4-small interfering R
Autores: Uriarte Díaz-Varela, Iker; Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús; Sáez de Blas, Elena; et al.
Revista: Hepatology
ISSN   0270-9139  Vol.   51    3  2010  págs.   891 - 902
Autores: Masyuk, A. I.; Huang, B. Q.; Ward, C. J.; et al.
ISSN   0193-1857  Vol.   299    4  2010  págs.   G990 - G999
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that are thought to participate in intercellular communication. Recent work from our laboratory suggests that, in normal and cystic liver, exosome-like vesicles accumulate in the lumen of intrahepatic bile ducts, presumably interacting with cholangiocyte cilia. However, direct evidence for exosome-ciliary interaction is limited and the physiological relevance of such interaction remains unknown. Thus, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that biliary exosomes are involved in intercellular communication by interacting with cholangiocyte cilia and inducing intracellular signaling and functional responses. Exosomes were isolated from rat bile by differential ultracentrifugation and characterized by scanning, transmission, and immunoelectron microscopy. The exosome-ciliary interaction and its effects on ERK1/2 signaling, expression of the microRNA, miR-15A, and cholangiocyte proliferation were studied on ciliated and deciliated cultured normal rat cholangiocytes. Our results show that bile contains vesicles identified as exosomes by their size, characteristic "saucer-shaped" morphology, and specific markers, CD63 and Tsg101. When NRCs were exposed to isolated biliary exosomes, the exosomes attached to cilia, inducing a decrease of the phosphorylated-to-total ERK1/2 ratio, an increase of miR-15A expression, and a decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation. All these effects of biliary exosomes were abolished by the pharmacological removal of cholangiocyte cilia. Our findings suggest that bile contains exosomes functioning as signaling nanovesicles and influencing intracellular regulatory mechanisms and cholangiocyte proliferation through interaction with primary cilia.
Autores: Rodríguez Ortigosa, Carlos Manuel; Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús; Olivas Martínez, Israel; et al.
Revista: Hepatology
ISSN   0270-9139  Vol.   52    2  2010  págs.   667 - 677
Autores: Latasa Sada, María Ujué; Gil Puig, Maria del Carmen; García Fernández de Barrena, Maite; et al.
Revista: PLoS One
ISSN   1932-6203  Vol.   5    12  2010  págs.   e15690
Background: Inflammation and fibrogenesis are directly related to chronic liver disease progression, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Currently there are few therapeutic options available to inhibit liver fibrosis. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic potential of orally-administered 59-methylthioadenosine (MTA) in Mdr2(-/-) mice, a clinically relevant model of sclerosing cholangitis and spontaneous biliary fibrosis, followed at later stages by HCC development. Methodology: MTA was administered daily by gavage to wild type and Mdr2(-/-) mice for three weeks. MTA anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects and potential mechanisms of action were examined in the liver of Mdr2(-/-) mice with ongoing fibrogenesis and in cultured liver fibrogenic cells (myofibroblasts). Principal Findings: MTA treatment reduced hepatomegaly and liver injury. alpha-Smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity and collagen deposition were also significantly decreased. Inflammatory infiltrate, the expression of the cytokines IL6 and Mcp-1, pro-fibrogenic factors like TGF beta 2 and tenascin-C, as well as pro-fibrogenic intracellular signalling pathways were reduced by MTA in vivo. MTA inhibited the activation and proliferation of isolated myofibroblasts and down-regulated cyclin D1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. The expression of JunD, a key transcription factor in liver fibrogenesis, was also reduced by MTA in activated myofibroblasts. Conclusions/Significance: Oral MTA administration was well tolerated and proved its efficacy in reducing liver inflammation and fibrosis. MTA may have multiple molecular and cellular targets. These include the inhibition of inflammatory and profibrogenic cytokines, as well as the attenuation of myofibroblast activation and proliferation. Downregulation of JunD and cyclin D1 expression in myofibroblasts may be important regarding the mechanism of action of MTA. This compound could be a good candidate to be tested for the treatment of (biliary) liver fibrosis.