Nuestros investigadores

Rosa María Tordera Baviera

Farmacología y Toxicología
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Mecanismo de acción de los fármacos antidepresivos, mecanismos epigenéticos implicados en la depresión y en la terapia antidepresiva, mecanimso de acción de los agonistas melatoninérgicos
Índice H
14, (Scopus, 27/05/2013)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Matrov, D.; Kaart, T. ; Lanfumey, L.; et al.
ISSN 0166-4328  Vol. 356  2019  págs. 435 - 443
The psychopathology of depression is highly complex and the outcome of studies on animal models is divergent. In order to find brain regions that could be metabolically distinctively active across a variety of mouse depression models and to compare the interconnectivity of brain regions of wild-type and such genetically modified mice, histochemical mapping of oxidative metabolism was performed by the measurement of cytochrome oxidase activity. We included mice with the heterozygous knockout of the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT(1)(-/+)), full knockout of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1(-/-)), an anti-sense knockdown of the gluco- corticoid receptor (GRi) and overexpression of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (h5-HTT). Altogether 76 mouse brains were studied to measure oxidative metabolism in one hundred brain regions, and the obtained dataset was submitted to a variety of machine learning algorithms and multidimensional scaling. Overall, the top brain regions having the largest contribution to classification into depression model were the lateroanterior hypothalamic nucleus, the anterior part of the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, claustrum, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and the anterior hypothalamic area. In terms of the patterns of inter-regional relationship between wild-type and genetically modified mice there was little overall difference, while the most deviating brain regions were cortical amygdala and ventrolateral and ventral posteromedial thalamic nuclei. The GRi mice that most clearly differed from their controls exhibited deviation of connectivity for a number of brain regions, such as ventrolateral thalamic nucleus, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, the anteriodorsal part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus, the medial division of the central amygdaloid nucleus, ventral pallidum, nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, anteroventral parts of the thalamic nucleus and parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Conclusively, the GRi mouse model was characterized by changes in the functional connectivity of the extended amygdala and stress response circuits.
Autores: Zwergel, C.; et al.
ISSN 0033-3158  Vol. 235  Nº 10  2018  págs. 2831 - 2846
Rationale Antidepressant action has been linked to increased synaptic plasticity in which epigenetic mechanisms such as histone posttranslational acetylation could be involved. Interestingly, the histone deacetylases HDAC5 and SIRT2 are oppositely regulated by stress and antidepressants in mice prefrontal cortex (PFC). Besides, the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y line is an in vitro neuronal model reliable to study drug effects with clear advantages over animals. Objectives We aimed to characterize in vitro the role of HDAC5 and SIRT2 in antidepressant regulation of neuroplasticity. Methods SH-SY5Y cultures were incubated with imipramine, fluoxetine, and reboxetine (10 mu M, 2 and 24 h) as well as the selective HDAC5 (MC3822, 5 mu M, 24 h) or SIRT2 (33i, 5 mu M, 24 h) inhibitors. The regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), the acetylated histones 3 (AcH3) and 4 (AcH4), HDAC5, and SIRT2 was studied. Comparatively, the long-term effects of these antidepressants (21 days, i.p.) in the mice (C57BL6, 8 weeks) PFC were studied. Results Antidepressants increased both in vitro and in vivo expression of BDNF, VGLUT1, AcH3, and AcH4. Moreover, imipramine and reboxetine increased the phosphorylated form of HDAC5 (P-HDAC5), mediating its cytoplasmic export. Further, SIRT2 was downregulated by all antidepressants. Finally, specific inhibition of HDAC5 and SIRT2 increased neuroplasticity markers. Conclusions This study supports the validity of the SH-SY5Y model for studying epigenetic changes linked to synaptic plasticity induced by antidepressants as well as the effect of selective HDAC inhibitors. Particularly, nucleocytoplasmic export of HDAC5 and SIRT2 downregulation mediated by antidepressants could enhance synaptic plasticity markers leading to antidepressant action.
Autores: Díaz-Perdigón, T.; et al.
ISSN 0028-3908  Vol. 117  2017  págs. 195 - 208
Growing evidence suggests that changes in histone acetylation in specific sites of the chromatin modulate neuronal plasticity and contribute to antidepressant-like action. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a class III NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase involved in transcriptional repression of genes regulating synaptic plasticity. Importantly, a key role for the glutamate system in prefrontal cortex (PFC) synaptic plasticity changes induced by antidepressants has been suggested. Here, we asked whether SIRT2 could be a pharmacological target for depression therapy. The compound 2-{3-(3-fluorophenethyloxy)phenylamino}benzamide (33i), a selective SIRT2 inhibitor in vitro, was studied in mice (C57Bl6). Firstly, the inhibitory effect of subchronic 33i (5-15 mg/kg, 10 days) on SIRT2 activity in the PFC was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of SIRT2 inhibition on the expression of synaptic plasticity markers linked to glutamate neurotransmission (VGLUT1, synaptophysin, mGluR4, GluA1, GluN2B, GluN2A) and on serotonin levels was studied. Further, neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic (5 weeks) 33i (15 mg/kg) on the chronic mild stress (CMS) model were analyzed. Subchronic 33i inhibited SIRT2, increased GluN2A, GluN2B and serotonin levels in the PFC. Moreover, chronic 33i reverted CMS-induced anhedonia and social avoidance.
Autores: Belloch, F. B.; et al.
ISSN 0166-4328  Vol. 335  2017  págs. 128 - 131
Some histone deacetylase (HDACs) enzymes have been proposed as epigenetic targets involved in the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant-like action. Among them, we have recently identified SIRT2, a class III NAD(+)-dependent HDAC, as being oppositely regulated by stress and antidepressants. Moreover, SIRT2 inhibition has shown antianhedonic-like action in the chronic mild stress model of depression. Here we have extended the study using an alternative model of depression based in a genetic manipulation of glutamate function. Specifically, mice heterozygous for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1 + / -) were used. Firstly, mRNA expression of the different members of the HDAC superfamily in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of VGLUT1 + / - mice and WT littermates were studied by RT-PCR. Secondly, the effect of repeated treatment with the selective SIRT2 inhibitor 33i and the antidepressant imipramine on anhedonic behaviour of VGLUT1 + / - mice was studied by weekly monitoring of sucrose intake. Further, the interaction of 33i towards specific monoaminergic targets such as serotonin or noradrenaline transporters as well as the monoaminooxidase enzyme was studied. The mRNA occurance of the different members of HDAC superfamily was not altered in the PFC of VGLUT1 + / - mice. While repeated imipramine showed an anti-anhedonic action in both VGLUT1 + / - and WT, the selective SIRT2 inhibitor 33i fully reversed anhedonia of VGLUT1 + / -. Further, 33i showed no interaction with the above mentioned monoaminergic molecular targets. These results confirm that SIRT2 inhibition is able to reverse anhedonia in different animal models and highlight the need to further investigate the role of SIRT2 inhibitors as new antidepressant agents.
Autores: Tordera, R.M.; Gil, Francisco Javier; et al.
ISSN 1050-9631  Vol. 26  Nº 10  2016  págs. 1303 - 1312
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized phenotypically by memory impairment, histologically by accumulation of pTau and beta-amyloid peptide and morphologically by a loss of nerve terminals in cortical and hippocampal regions. As glutamate is the principle excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS), the glutamatergic system may play an important role in AD. To date, not many studies have addressed the deleterious effects of A beta on glutamatergic terminals; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate how A beta affects glutamatergic terminals and to assess the extent to which alterations in the glutamatergic neurotransmission could impact susceptibility to the illness. The present study shows that A beta caused a loss of glutamatergic terminals, measured by VGLUT1 protein levels, in Tg2576 primary cell cultures, Tg2576 mice and AD patient brains, and also when A beta was added exogenously to hippocampal cell cultures. Interestingly, no correlation was found between cognition and decreased VGLUT1 levels. Moreover, when A beta(1-42) was intracerebroventricularlly administered into VGLUT1+/-mice, altered synaptic plasticity and increased neuroinflammation was observed in the hippocampus of those animals. In conclusion, the present study not only revealed susceptibility of glutamatergic nerve terminals to A beta induced toxicity but also underlined the importance of VGLUT1 in the progression of AD, as the decrease of this protein levels ...
Autores: Martisová, Eva; Aisa, Bárbara; Tordera, R.M.; et al.
ISSN 0166-4328  Vol. 292  2015  págs. 79 - 82
It is believed that glucocorticoids control the proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and this process is highly involved in mood disorders and cognitive processes. Using the maternal separation model of chronic neonatal stress, it has been found that stress induced depressive-like behavior, cognitive deficits and a decrease in proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Venlafaxine reversed all deleterious effects of chronic stress by modulating HPA activity. These outcomes suggest modulation of stress-mediated glucocorticoid secretion as a target for the treatment of mood disorders and neurodegenerative processes.
Autores: Domínguez-Andrés, J.; et al.
ISSN 0924-977X  Vol. 25  Nº 11  2015  págs. 2036 - 2048
Changes in histone acetylation could contribute to the pathogenesis of depression and antidepressant therapy. Using the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression and different antidepressant treatments we studied the regulation of histone deacetylases (Hdac's) and synaptic plasticity markers in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Further, functional implication of identified Hdac's in brain plasticity was explored. Mice were exposed to CSDS (10 days) followed by saline or imipramine (4 weeks). PFC Hdac's mRNA abundance was studied and compared to human's. Further, protein expression of acetylated histones (AcH3 and AcH4), neuroplasticity markers (CREB and pro-BDNF) and selected Hdac's were analyzed. Moreover, other antidepressants (fluoxetine and reboxetine) and selective HDAC inhibitors were studied. CSDS increased Hdac5 and Sirt2 mRNA whereas repeated imipramine did the opposite. Accordingly, stress and imipramine induced opposite changes on AcH3, AcH4 and CREB expression. At protein level, CSDS upregulated nuclear fraction of Hdac5 and repeated imipramine and reboxetine increased its phosphorylated form (p-Hdac5), mainly located in the cytoplasm. Moreover, Sirt2 was downregulated by all monoaminergic antidepressants. Further, repeated treatment with the class IIa Hdac inhibitor MC1568 and the Sirt2 inhibitor 33i for three weeks increased synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex. Our results suggest that Hdac5 and Sirt2 upregulation could constitute stable stress-induced neuronal adaptations. Noteworthy, the SIRT2 upregulation in depressed patients supports the interest of this target for therapeutic intervention. On the other hand, cytoplasmic Hdac5 export and Sirt2 downregulation induced by monoaminergic antidepressants could contribute to the well-known beneficial effects of antidepressants on brain plasticity.
Autores: Jordán, J.; et al.
ISSN 1079-5006  Vol. 70  Nº 6  2015  págs. 675 - 685
The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8), used as a model of aging, displays many established pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive impairments and increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau are found in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice along with an increased ß-secretase activity and amyloid-ß (Aß) depositions that increase in number and extent with age. Based on a previous study from our laboratory showing an amelioration of cognitive impairments and tau pathology by sildenafil, in this study we tested whether this drug could also modulate the amyloid precursor protein amyloidogenic processing in this mouse model. Our results show that the protein levels of the ß-secretases ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and cathepsin B are higher in the hippocampus of 9-month-old SAMP8 mice than those of age-matched senescence-resistant-1. Sildenafil (7.5mg/kg for 4 weeks) attenuated learning and memory impairments shown by SAMP8 mice in the passive avoidance test. The increased expression of ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 was also reduced by sildenafil, an effect paralleled to decreases in the activities of two ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 modulators, calpain and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 protein. Interestingly, sildenafil enhanced both Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (ser9) phosphorylation, which could be mediating the reduction in cathepsin B levels found in the hippocampus of sildenafil-treated SAMP8 mice. Sildenafil-induced reduction in ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and cathepsin B expression in SAMP8 mice was associated with a decrease in hippocampal Aß42 levels which, in turn, could mediate the parallel decline in glial fibrillary acidic protein expression observed in these animals. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of sildenafil in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.
Autores: Erburu, M.; Cajaleón, L.; Guruceaga, E.; et al.
ISSN 0091-3057  Vol. 135  2015  págs. 227 - 236
Many studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a target limbic region for stress response because a dysfunction here is linked to anhedonia, a decrease in reactivity to rewards, and to anxiety. It is suggested that stress-induced persistent molecular changes in this brain region could bring some light on the mechanisms perpetuating depressive episodes. In order to address this issue, here we have studied the long-term PFC gene expression pattern and behavioral effects induced by a chronic mild stress (CMS) model and antidepressant treatment in mice. CMS was applied to mice for six weeks and imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline treatment was administered for five weeks starting from the third week of CMS. Mice were sacrificed one month after CMS and following two weeks after the discontinuation of drug treatment and the PFC was dissected and prepared for gene (mRNA) and protein expression studies. Using the same experimental design, a separate group of mice was tested for anhedonia, recognition memory, social interaction and anxiety. CMS induced a long-term altered gene expression profile in the PFC that was partially reverted by imipramine. Specifically, the circadian rhythm signaling pathway and functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders were affected. Of these, some changes of the circadian rhythm pathway (Hdac5, Per1, and Per2) were validated by RT-PCR and western-blot. Moreover, CMS induced long-lasting anhedonia that was reverted by imipramine treatment. Impaired memory, decreased social interaction and anxiety behavior were also induced by chronic stress. We have identified in the PFC molecular targets oppositely regulated by CMS and imipramine that could be relevant for chronic depression and antidepressant action. Among these, a possible candidate for further investigation could be the circadian rhythm pathway.
Autores: Harro, J.; Kanarik, M.; Kaart, T.; et al.
ISSN 0166-4328  Vol. 267  2014  págs. 83 - 94
The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects.
Autores: Ramírez, M.J.; Lai, M.K.P.; Tordera, R.M.; et al.
Revista: DRUGS
ISSN 0012-6667  Vol. 74  Nº 7  2014  págs. 729 - 736
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Research focused on identifying compounds that restore cognition and memory in AD patients is a very active investigational pursuit. Cholinesterase inhibitors for the symptomatic treatment of cognitive decline in AD have been in use for more than a decade but provide only modest benefits in most patients. Preclinical research is constantly providing new information on AD. The involvement of the serotonergic system in higher cognitive processes such as memory and learning has been widely described and extensive serotonergic denervation has been reported in AD. This review aims to explain the rationale behind testing serotonergic therapies for AD in terms of current knowledge about the pathophysiology of the disease. Based on preclinical studies, certain serotonin (5-HT) receptor ligands have been suggested to have the ability to modify or improve memory/cognition, specifically 5-HT receptors acting at 5-HT1A, 5-HT4 and 5-HT6 receptors. This article summarizes the pharmacology, efficacy, safety and tolerability data for the various serotonergic agents currently in clinical development for AD.
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0924-977X  Vol. 23  Nº 7  2013  págs. 697 - 708
Major depression is a mental disorder often preceded by exposure to chronic stress or stressful life events. Recently, animal models based on social conflict such as chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) are proposed to be more relevant to stress-induced human psychopathology compared to environmental models like the chronic mild stress (CMS). However, while CMS reproduces specifically core depressive symptoms such as anhedonia and helplessness, CSDS studies rely on the analysis of stress-induced social avoidance, addressing different neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we study comparatively the two models from a behavioural and neurochemical approach and their possible relevance to human depression. Mice (C57BL/6) were exposed to CMS or CSDS for six weeks and ten days. Anhedonia was periodically evaluated. A battery of test applied during the fourth week after the stress procedure included motor activity, memory, anxiety, social interaction and helplessness. Subsequently, we examined glutamate, GABA, 5-HT and dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and brainstem. CMS induced a clear depressive-like profile including anhedonia, helplessness and memory impairment. CSDS induced anhedonia, hyperactivity, anxiety and social avoidance, signs also common to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders. While both models disrupted the excitatory inhibitory balance in the prefrontal cortex, CMS altered importantly this balance in the brainstem. Moreover, CSDS decreased dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and brainstem. We suggests that while depressive-like behaviours might be associated to altered aminoacid neurotransmission in cortical and brain stem areas, CSDS induced anxiety behaviours might be linked to specific alteration of dopaminergic pathways involved in rewarding processes.
Autores: Solas, Maite; Aisa, Bárbara; Tordera, R.M.; et al.
ISSN 0006-3002  Vol. 1832  Nº 12  2013  págs. 2332 - 2339
It is becoming evident that chronic exposure to stress not only might result in insulin resistance or cognitive deficits, but may also be considered a risk factor for pathologies such as depression or Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is great interest in determining the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions between stress, aging, memory and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have used the chronic mild stress (CMS) model to study the effects of chronic stress on the aging process and the development of central insulin resistance and AD pathology. CMS aged mice showed cognitive impairments in the novel object recognition test. In addition, CMS aged mice displayed both peripheral insulin resistance, as shown by HOMA index, and decreased hippocampal levels of pIRS and downstream intracellular signaling (pAKT, pGSK and pERK1/2). Interestingly, there was a significant increase in both C99:C83 ratio and BACE1 levels in the hippocampus of CMS aged mice. Increased expression of the AD marker pTau was also found in stressed aged mice. Increased expression of the stress-activated protein kinase JNK was found in CMS aged mice, accompanied by significant decreases in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and increases in mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression. It is suggested that the interaction of stress with aging should be considered when studying determinants of the onset and progression of AD.
Autores: Martín-de-Saavedra, M. D.; Budni, J.; Cunha, M. P.; et al.
ISSN 0306-4530  Vol. 38  Nº 10  2013  págs. 2010 - 2022
A causative relationship between inflammation and depression is gradually gaining consistency. Because Nrf2 participates in inflammation, we hypothesized that Nrf2 could play a role in depressive disorders. In this study, we have observed that Nrf2 deletion in mice results in: (i) a depressive-like behavior evaluated as an increase in the immobility time in the tail-suspension test and by a decrease in the grooming time in the splash test, (ii) reduced levels of dopamine and serotonin and increased levels of glutamate in the prefrontal cortex, (iii) altered levels of proteins associated to depression such as VEGF and synaptophysin and (iv) microgliosis. Furthermore, treatment of Nrf2 knockout mice with the anti-inflammatory drug rofecoxib reversed their depressive-like behavior, while induction of Nrf2 by sulforaphane, in an inflammatory model of depression elicited by LPS, afforded antidepressant-like effects. In conclusion, our results indicate that chronic inflammation due to a deletion of Nrf2 can lead to a depressive-like phenotype while induction of Nrf2 could become a new and interesting target to develop novel antidepressive drugs.
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0028-3908  Vol. 70  2013  págs. 190-199
Unraveling the mechanisms of 5-HT neuron control might provide new insights into depression pathophysiology. In addition to the inhibitory 5-HT1A autoreceptors, cortico-raphe glutamatergic descending pathways are suggested to modulate 5-HT activity in the DRN. Here we studied how decreased VGLUT1 levels in the brain stem affect glutamate regulation of 5-HT function. VGLUT1+/- mice (C57BL/6) and wild type (WT) littermates were used. VGLUT1 expression in the DRN, 5-HT turnover and immuno histochemical analysis of neuronal activity in different areas was studied. Moreover, the functionality of the inhibitory 5-HT1A autoreceptor was assessed using electrophysiological, biochemical and pharmacological approaches. VGLUT1 immunoreactivity was markedly lower in the DRN of the VGLUT1+/- mice and specifically, in the surroundings of GABA and 5-HT cell bodies. These mice showed decreased induced neuronal activity in 5-HT cells bodies and in different forebrain areas, as well as decreased hippocampal cell proliferation and 5-HT turnover. Further, 5-HT1A autoreceptor desensitization was evidenced by electrophysiological studies, GTP-¿-S coupling to 5-HT1A autoreceptor and a lower hypothermic response to 5-HT1A activation. This study shows first time that VGLUT1 dependent glutamate innervation of the DRN could modulate 5-HT function.
Autores: Briones, A; Gagno, S; Martisová, Eva; et al.
ISSN 0007-1188  Vol. 165  Nº 4  2012  págs. 897-907
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0033-3158  Vol. 224  Nº 2  2012  págs. 313 - 325
Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) has been proposed as a model of depression. However, most CSDS studies rely only on the analysis of stress-induced social avoidance. Moreover, the predictive validity of the model has been poorly analyzed, let alone its interaction with biological risk factors. Here, we explore the validity of CSDS as a depression model. Further, the effect of decreased vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), as a potential factor enhancing a depressive-like phenotype, was studied. Mice were exposed to CSDS (10 days) followed by saline, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, or tianeptine treatment (30 days). The battery of behaviors included motor activity, memory, anxiety, social interaction, helplessness, and anhedonic-like behavior. Moreover, the behavioral effect of CSDS in VGLUT1 heterozygous (VGLUT1+/-) mice was studied, as well as the regulation of VGLUT1 mRNA. CSDS induced anhedonia, helplessness, hyperactivity, anxiety, social avoidance, and freezing, as well as downregulation of VGLUT1 mRNA in the amygdala. Repeated venlafaxine showed antidepressant-like activity and both venlafaxine and tianeptine behaved as effective anxiolytics. CSDS-induced social avoidance was reverted by tianeptine. Fluoxetine failed to revert most of the behavioral alterations. VGLUT1+/- mice showed an enhanced vulnerability to stress-induced social avoidance. We suggest that CSDS is not a pure model of depression. Indeed, it addresses relevant aspects of anxiety-related disorders. Firstly, CSDS-induced anhedonia and social avoidance are not associated in this model. Moreover, CSDS might be affecting brain areas mainly involved in the processing of social behavior, such as the amygdala, where the glutamatergic mechanism could play a key role.
Autores: Martisová, Eva; Solas, Maite; Horrillo, I; et al.
ISSN 0028-3908  Vol. 62  Nº 5-6  2012  págs. 1944 - 1953
The objective of the present work was to study the effects of an early-life stress (maternal separation, MS) in the excitatory/inhibitory ratio as a potential factor contributing to the ageing process, and the purported normalizing effects of chronic treatment with the antidepressant venlafaxine. MS induced depressive-like behaviour in the Porsolt forced swimming test that was reversed by venlafaxine, and that persisted until senescence. Aged MS rats showed a downregulation of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and 2 (VGIut1 and VGIut2) and GABA transporter (VGAT) and increased expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) in the hippocampus. Aged rats showed decreased expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), while the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) was affected only by stress. Glutamate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A and GIuR4 were upregulated in stressed rats, and this effect was reversed by venlafaxine. NR2B, GluR1 and GluR2/3 were not affected by either stress or age. MS, both in young and aged rats, induced an increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone. Corticosterone induced an increase glutamate and a decrease in GABA release in hippocampal slices, which was reversed by venlafaxine. Chronic treatment with corticosterone recapitulated the main biochemical findings observed in MS. The different effects that chronic stress exerts in young and adult animals on expression of proteins responsible for glutamate/GABA cycling may explain the involvement of glucocorticoids in ageing-related diseases. Modulation of glutamate/GABA release may be a relevant component of the therapeutic action of antidepressants, such as venlafaxine.
Autores: Jahanshahi, A; Le Maitre, E; Temel, Y; et al.
ISSN 0891-0618  Vol. 41  Nº 4  2011  págs. 227 - 233
Depression and anxiety are among the leading causes of societal burden. Abnormalities in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) neurotransmission are known to be associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms. The rostral projections of brainstem dorsal (DRN) and median (MRN) raphe nuclei are the main sources of forebrain 5-HT. The expression, turnover and distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis in the DRN and MRN are complex, in keeping with the existence of different subpopulations of 5-HT neurons in this area. In the present study, we measured the expression of TPH2 mRNA in the DRN and MRN using in situ hybridization in three genetically modified mouse models, all relevant to depression and anxiety, and matched wild-type controls. Our results show quantitative modifications in TPH2 mRNA expression in the three main subregions of the DRN as well as the MRN in relation to changes in serotonergic, glutamatergic and endocannabinoid neurotransmission systems. Thus, there were significant decreases in TPH2 transcript levels in 5-HT transporter (5-HTT)-/- mutant mice, whereas increases were observed in the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 hemi knock out (VGLUT1+/-) and cannabinoid receptor 1 mutant (CB1R-/-) mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that TPH2 mRNA expression is under the influence of multiple messenger systems in relation to presynaptic and/or postsynaptic feedback control of serotonin synthesis that, 5-HTT, VGLUT1 and CB1R seem to be involved in these feedback mechanisms. Finally, our data are in line with previous reports suggesting that TPH2 activity within different raphe subregions is differentially regulated under specific conditions.
Autores: Hoyle, D; Juhasz, G; Aso, E; et al.
ISSN 0924-977X  Vol. 21  Nº 1 SI  2011  págs. 3 - 10
Autores: Tordera, R.M.; et al.
ISSN 0924-977X  Vol. 21  Nº 1  2011  págs. 23-32
Autores: Totterdell, S; et al.
ISSN 0033-3158  Vol. 210  Nº 3  2010  págs. 393 - 406
Autores: Pastor, PM; et al.
ISSN 0022-3042  Vol. 114  Nº 5  2010  págs. 1302 - 1314
Autores: Solas, Maite; Aisa, Bárbara; Mugueta, Carmen; et al.
ISSN 0893-133X  Vol. 35  Nº 8  2010  págs. 1664 - 1673
There is much interest in understanding the mechanisms responsible for interactions among stress, aging, memory and Alzheimer's disease. Glucocorticoid secretion associated with early life stress may contribute to the variability of the aging process and to the development of neuro- and psychopathologies. Maternal separation (MS), a model of early life stress in which rats experience 3 h of daily separation from the dam during the first 3 weeks of life, was used to study the interactions between stress and aging. Young (3 months) MS rats showed an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, depressive-like behavior in the Porsolt swimming test and cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze and new object recognition test that persisted in aged (18 months) rats. Levels of insulin receptor, phosphorylated insulin receptor and markers of downstream signaling pathways (pAkt, pGSK3 beta, pTau, and pERK1 levels) were significantly decreased in aged rats. There was a significant decrease in pERK2 and in the plasticity marker ARC in MS aged rats compared with single MS or aged rats. It is interesting to note that there was a significant increase in the C99 : C83 ratio, A beta levels, and BACE1 levels the hippocampus of MS aged rats, suggesting that in aged rats subjected to early life stress, there was an increase in the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). These results are integrated in a tentative mechanism through which aging interplay with stress to influence cognition as the basis of Alzheimer disease (AD). The present results may provide the proof-of-concept for the use of glucocorticoid-/insulin-related drugs in the treatment of AD.
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0924-977X  Vol. 20  Nº Supl. 3  2010  págs. S357 - S358
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0924-977X  Vol. 20  Nº Supl. 3  2010  págs. S360 - S361
Autores: Puerta, Elena; Tordera, R.M.; Ramírez, M.J.; et al.
Libro:  Cognitive dysfunctions: biological basis, management of symptoms and long-term neurological implications
2014  págs. 63 - 86