Nuestros investigadores

Silvestre Vicent Cambra

Departamento
. Fundación para la Investigación Médica Aplicada
Líneas de investigación
KRAS oncogene, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, mouse genetics, functional genomics, mechanisms of resistance
Índice H
16, (WoS, 16/05/2019)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Ajona, Daniel; et al.
Revista: NATURE CANCER
ISSN 2662-1347  Vol. 1  2020  págs. 75 - 85
Harnessing the immune system by blocking the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway has been a major breakthrough in non-small-cell lung cancer treatment. Nonetheless, many patients fail to respond to PD-1 inhibition. Using three syngeneic models, we demonstrate that short-term starvation synergizes with PD-1 blockade to inhibit lung cancer progression and metastasis. This antitumor activity was linked to a reduction in circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and a downregulation of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling in tumor cells. A combined inhibition of IGF-1R and PD-1 synergistically reduced tumor growth in mice. This effect required CD8 cells, boosted the intratumoral CD8/Treg ratio and led to the development of tumor-specific immunity. In patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, high plasma levels of IGF-1 or high IGF-1R expression in tumors was associated with resistance to anti-PD-1¿programmed death-ligand 1 immunotherapy. In conclusion, our data strongly support the clinical evaluation of IGF-1 modulators in combination with PD-1 blockade.
Autores: Erice, O.; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; et al.
Revista: CANCERS
ISSN 2072-6694  Vol. 11  Nº 12  2019  págs. 1868
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a genetically and histologically complex disease with a highly dismal prognosis. A deeper understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of human CCA will increase our current knowledge of the disease and expedite the eventual development of novel therapeutic strategies for this fatal cancer. This endeavor is effectively supported by genetic mouse models, which serve as sophisticated tools to systematically investigate CCA pathobiology and treatment response. These in vivo models feature many of the genetic alterations found in humans, recapitulate multiple hallmarks of cholangiocarcinogenesis (encompassing cell transformation, preneoplastic lesions, established tumors and metastatic disease) and provide an ideal experimental setting to study the interplay between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma. This review is intended to serve as a compendium of CCA mouse models, including traditional transgenic models but also genetically flexible approaches based on either the direct introduction of DNA into liver cells or transplantation of pre-malignant cells, and is meant as a resource for CCA researchers to aid in the selection of the most appropriate in vivo model system.
Autores: Vicent, Silvestre; Lieshout, R.; Saborowski, A.; et al.
Revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
ISSN 1478-3223  Vol. 39  Nº Supl. 1  2019  págs. 79 - 97
Human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive tumour entity arising from the biliary tree, whose molecular pathogenesis remains largely undeciphered. Over the last decade, the advent of high-throughput and cell-based techniques has significantly increased our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease while, at the same time, unravelling CCA complexity. In particular, it becomes clear that CCA displays pronounced inter- and intratumoural heterogeneity, which is presumably the consequence of the interplay between distinct tissues and cells of origin, the underlying diseases, and the associated molecular alterations. To better characterize these events and to design novel and more effective therapeutic strategies, a number of CCA experimental and preclinical models have been developed and are currently generated. This review summarizes the current knowledge and understanding of these models, critically underlining their translational usefulness and limitations. Furthermore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on cells of origin, cancers stem cells and their dynamic interplay within CCA tissue.
Autores: Roman, M.; Guruceaga, Elisabet; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 79  Nº 3  2019  págs. 625 - 638
Because of the refractory nature of mutant KRAS lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) to current therapies, identification of new molecular targets is essential. Genes with a prognostic role in mutant KRAS LUAD have proven to be potential molecular targets for therapeutic development. Here we determine the clinical, functional, and mechanistic role of inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1) in mutant KRAS LUAD. Analysis of LUAD cohorts from TCGA and SPORE showed that high expression of Id1 was a marker of poor survival in patients harboring mutant, but not wild-type KRAS. Abrogation of Id1 induced G(2)-M arrest and apoptosis in mutant KRAS LUAD cells. In vivo, loss of Id1 strongly impaired tumor growth and maintenance as well as liver metastasis, resulting in improved survival. Mechanistically, Id1 was regulated by the KRAS oncogene through JNK, and loss of Id1 resulted in down-regulation of elements of the mitotic machinery via inhibition of the transcription factor FOSL1 and of several kinases within the KRAS signaling network. Our study provides clinical, functional, and mechanistic evidence underscoring Id1 as a critical gene in mutant KRAS LUAD and warrants further studies of Id1 as a therapeutic target in patients with LUAD. Significance: These findings highlight the prognostic significance of the transcriptional regulator Id1 in KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and provide mechanistic insight into how it controls tumor growth and metastasis.
Autores: Giordano, F; Vaira, V; Cortinovis, D; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 1756-9966  Vol. 38  2019 
Autores: Kim, J. W.; Marquez, C. P.; Kostyrko, K.; et al.
Revista: NATURE MEDICINE
ISSN 1078-8956  Vol. 25  Nº 11  2019  págs. 1783 - 1795
Proinflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment can promote tumor growth, yet their value as therapeutic targets remains underexploited. We validated the functional significance of the cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 (CLCF1)-ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) signaling axis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and generated a high-affinity soluble receptor (eCNTFR-Fc) that sequesters CLCF1, thereby inhibiting its oncogenic effects. eCNTFR-Fc inhibits tumor growth in multiple xenograft models and in an autochthonous, highly aggressive genetically engineered mouse model of LUAD, driven by activation of oncogenic Kras and loss of Trp53. Abrogation of CLCF1 through eCNTFR-Fc appears most effective in tumors driven by oncogenic KRAS. We observed a correlation between the effectiveness of eCNTFR-Fc and the presence of KRAS mutations that retain the intrinsic capacity to hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate, suggesting that the mechanism of action may be related to altered guanosine triphosphate loading. Overall, we nominate blockade of CLCF1-CNTFR signaling as a novel therapeutic opportunity for LUAD and potentially for other tumor types in which CLCF1 is present in the tumor microenvironment.
Autores: Villalba. M.; Redrado M; et al.
Revista: CANCER LETTERS
ISSN 0304-3835  Vol. 453  2019  págs. 21 - 33
High mortality rates caused by NSCLC show the need for the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In this study we have investigated the biological effects and molecular mechanisms elicited by TMPRSS4 in NSCLC. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 in LKR13¿cells increased malignancy, subcutaneous tumor growth and multiorganic metastasis. In conditional knock-down (KD) experiments, abrogation of TMPRSS4 in H358 and H2170¿cells altered proliferation, clonogenicity, tumor engraftment and tumor growth. Reduction in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, decreased BrdU incorporation and increased apoptosis was also found. Transcriptomic analysis in KD cells revealed downregulation of genes involved in DNA replication, such as MCM6, TYMS and CDKN1A (p21). In patients, expression of a signature of MCM6/TYMS/TMPRSS4 genes was highly associated with poor prognosis. Downregulation of TMPRSS4 significantly increased sensitivity to chemotherapy agents. In experiments using cisplatin, apoptosis and expression of the DNA-damage marker ¿-H2A was higher in cells lacking TMPRSS4. Moreover, in vivo assays demonstrated that tumors with no TMPRSS4 were significantly more sensitive to cisplatin than controls. These results show that TMPRSS4 can be considered as a novel target in NSCLC, whose inhibition increases chemosensitivity.
Autores: Roman, M; Baraibar, Iosune; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR CANCER
ISSN 1476-4598  Vol. 17  2018 
Lung neoplasms are the leading cause of death by cancer worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes more than 80% of all lung malignancies and the majority of patients present advanced disease at onset. However, in the last decade, multiple oncogenic driver alterations have been discovered and each of them represents a potential therapeutic target. Although KRAS mutations are the most frequently oncogene aberrations in lung adenocarcinoma patients, effective therapies targeting KRAS have yet to be developed. Moreover, the role of KRAS oncogene in NSCLC remains unclear and its predictive and prognostic impact remains controversial. The study of the underlying biology of KRAS in NSCLC patients could help to determine potential candidates to evaluate novel targeted agents and combinations that may allow a tailored treatment for these patients. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge about KRAS-mutated lung adenocarcinoma, including a historical overview, the biology of the molecular pathways involved, the clinical relevance of KRAS mutations as a prognostic and predictive marker and the potential therapeutic approaches for a personalized treatment of KRAS-mutated NSCLC patients.
Autores: Rodríguez, Javier; Vicent, Silvestre; Chopitea, Ana; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 24  Nº 16  2018  págs. 3787 - 3789
Although molecular subtype-based stratification and genomic signatures of increasing complexity are becoming a new strategy to guide therapeutic decisions in stage II/III colon cancer, several prognostic factors that can be easily obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens should be considered to create combined models that better define individual patients' needs. (C) 2018 AACR.
Autores: Ajona, Daniel; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 197  Nº 9  2018  págs. 1164 - 1176
RATIONALE: C5aR1 (CD88), a receptor for complement anaphylatoxin C5a, is a potent immune mediator. Its impact on malignant growth and dissemination of non-small cell lung cancer cells is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of the C5a/C5aR1 axis to the malignant phenotype of non-small cell lung cancer cells, particularly in skeletal colonization, a preferential lung metastasis site. METHODS: Association between C5aR1 expression and clinical outcome was assessed in silico and validated by immunohistochemistry. Functional significance was evaluated by lentiviral gene silencing and ligand l-aptamer inhibition in in vivo models of lung cancer bone metastasis. In vitro functional assays for signaling, migration, invasion, metalloprotease activity, and osteoclastogenesis were also performed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: High levels of C5aR1 in human lung tumors were significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and bone metastasis. Silencing of C5aR1 in lung cancer cells led to a substantial reduction in skeletal metastatic burden and osteolysis in in vivo models. Furthermore, metalloproteolytic, migratory, and invasive tumor cell activities were modulated in vitro by C5aR1 stimulation or gene silencing. l-Aptamer blockade or C5aR1 silencing significantly reduced the osseous metastatic activity of lung cancer cells in vivo. This effect was associated with decreased osteoclastogenic activity in vitro and was rescued by the exogenous addition of the chemokine CXCL16. CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of C5aR1 signaling in lung cancer cells abrogates their tumor-associated osteoclastogenic activity, impairing osseous colonization. This study unveils the role played by the C5a/C5aR1 axis in lung cancer dissemination and supports its potential use as a novel therapeutic target.
Autores: Cortazar, A.R.; Torrano, V.; Martín-Martín, N.; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 78  Nº 21  2018  págs. 6320 - 6328
With the advent of OMICs technologies, both individual research groups and consortia have spear-headed the characterization of human samples of multiple pathophysiologic origins, resulting in thousands of archived genomes and transcriptomes. Although a variety of web tools are now available to extract information from OMICs data, their utility has been limited by the capacity of nonbioinformatician researchers to exploit the information. To address this problem, we have developed CANCERTOOL, a web-based interface that aims to overcome the major limitations of public transcriptomics dataset analysis for highly prevalent types of cancer (breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal). CANCERTOOL provides rapid and comprehensive visualization of gene expression data for the gene(s) of interest in well-annotated cancer datasets. This visualization is accompanied by generation of reports customized to the interest of the researcher (e.g., editable figures, detailed statistical analyses, and access to raw data for reanalysis). It also carries out gene-to-gene correlations in multiple datasets at the same time or using preset patient groups. Finally, this new tool solves the time-consuming task of performing functional enrichment analysis with gene sets of interest using up to 11 different databases at the same time. Collectively, CANCERTOOL represents a simple and freely accessible interface to interrogate well-annotated datasets and obtain publishable representations that can contribute to refinement and guidance of cancer-related investigations at all levels of hypotheses and design.Significance: In order to facilitate access of research groups without bioinformatics support to public transcriptomics data, we have developed a free online tool with an easy-to-use interface that allows researchers to obtain quality information in a readily publishable format.
Autores: Conconi, D.; Giordano, F.; Vaira, V. ; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER
ISSN 0959-8049  Vol. 103  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. E10 - E10
Autores: Gil, Ignacio; Baraibar, Iosune; Moreno, M. R. ; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 13  Nº 10  2018  págs. S375 - S376
Autores: Vicent, Silvestre, (Autor de correspondencia)
Revista: MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ONCOLOGY
ISSN 2372-3556  Vol. 4  Nº 3  2017  págs. e1314239
KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS) remains refractory to current therapies. We devised an integrative cross-tumor approach to expose common core elements up-regulated in mutant KRAS cancers that could provide new treatment opportunities. This approach identified FOSL1 (Fos-like antigen 1) as a clinically and functionally relevant gene in mutant KRAS-driven lung and pancreatic cancers, and unveiled downstream transcriptional targets amenable to pharmacological inhibition
Autores: Vallejo, A.; Guruceaga, Elisabet; et al.
Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 21  Nº 8  2017  págs. 14294
KRAS mutated tumours represent a large fraction of human cancers, but the vast majority remains refractory to current clinical therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by KRAS oncogene may yield alternative therapeutic strategies. Here we report the identification of a common transcriptional signature across mutant KRAS cancers of distinct tissue origin that includes the transcription factor FOSL1. High FOSL1 expression identifies mutant KRAS lung and pancreatic cancer patients with the worst survival outcome. Furthermore, FOSL1 genetic inhibition is detrimental to both KRAS-driven tumour types. Mechanistically, FOSL1 links the KRAS oncogene to components of the mitotic machinery, a pathway previously postulated to function orthogonally to oncogenic KRAS. FOSL1 targets include AURKA, whose inhibition impairs viability of mutant KRAS cells. Lastly, combination of AURKA and MEK inhibitors induces a deleterious effect on mutant KRAS cells. Our findings unveil KRAS downstream effectors that provide opportunities to treat KRAS-driven cancers.
Autores: Martinez Canarias, S.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY
ISSN 1756-8722  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2017  págs. 23
Background: Activated protein C/endothelial protein C receptor (APC/EPCR) axis is physiologically involved in anticoagulant and cytoprotective activities in endothelial cells. Emerging evidence indicates that EPCR also plays a role in breast stemness and human tumorigenesis. Yet, its contribution to breast cancer progression and metastasis has not been elucidated. Methods: Transcriptomic status of EPCR was examined in a cohort of 286 breast cancer patients. Cell growth kinetics was evaluated in control and EPCR and SPARC/osteonectin, Cwcv, and kazal-like domains proteoglycan (SPOCK1/testican 1) silenced breast cancer cells in 2D, 3D, and in co-culture conditions. Orthotopic tumor growth and lung and osseous metastases were evaluated in several human and murine xenograft breast cancer models. Tumor-stroma interactions were further studied in vivo by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. An EPCR-induced gene signature was identified by microarray analysis. Results: Analysis of a cohort of breast cancer patients revealed an association of high EPCR levels with adverse clinical outcome. Interestingly, EPCR knockdown did not affect cell growth kinetics in 2D but significantly reduced cell growth in 3D cultures. Using several human and murine xenograft breast cancer models, we showed that EPCR silencing reduced primary tumor growth and secondary outgrowths at metastatic sites, including the skeleton and the lungs. Interestingly, these effects were independent of APC ligand stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptomic analysis of EPCR-silenced tumors unveiled an effect mediated by matricellular secreted proteoglycan SPOCK1/testican 1. Interestingly, SPOCK1 silencing suppressed in vitro 3D growth. Moreover, SPOCK1 ablation severely decreased orthotopic tumor growth and reduced bone metastatic osteolytic tumors. High SPOCK1 levels were also associated with poor clinical outcome in a subset breast cancer patients. Our results suggest that EPCR through SPOCK1 confers a cell growth advantage in 3D promoting breast tumorigenesis and metastasis. Conclusions: EPCR represents a clinically relevant factor associated with poor outcome and a novel vulnerability to develop combination therapies for breast cancer patients.
Autores: Ajona, Daniel; Ortiz Espinosa, S.; Moreno, H. ; et al.
Revista: CANCER DISCOVERY
ISSN 2159-8274  Vol. 7  Nº 7  2017  págs. 694 - 703
Disruption of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway with immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major breakthrough in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that combined inhibition of C5a/C5aR1 and PD-1 signaling may have a synergistic antitumor effect. The RMP1-14 antibody was used to block PD-1, and an L-aptamer was used to inhibit signaling of complement C5a with its receptors. Using syngeneic models of lung cancer, we demonstrate that the combination of C5a and PD-1 blockade markedly reduces tumor growth and metastasis and leads to prolonged survival. This effect is accompanied by a negative association between the frequency of CD8 T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells within tumors, which may result in a more complete reversal of CD8 T-cell exhaustion. Our study provides support for the clinical evaluation of anti-PD-1 and anti-C5a drugs as a novel combination therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Using a variety of preclinical models of lung cancer, we demonstrate that the blockade of C5a results in a substantial improvement in the efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibodies against lung cancer growth and metastasis. This study provides the preclinical rationale for the combined blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 and C5a to restore antitumor immune responses, inhibit tumor cell growth, and improve outcomes of patients with lung cancer. (C) 2017 AACR.
Autores: Moreno, M. R.; Vicent, Silvestre; Baraibar, Iosune; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl 5  2017  págs. 34P
Autores: Ajona, Daniel; Moreno, H.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2017  págs. S391 - S391
Autores: Ormazábal, Cristina; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY
ISSN 0022-3417  Vol. 239  Nº 4  2016  págs. 438-49
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most prevalent osseous tumour in children and adolescents and, within this, lung metastases remain one of the factors associated with a dismal prognosis. At present, the genetic determinants driving pulmonary metastasis are poorly understood. We adopted a novel strategy using robust filtering analysis of transcriptomic profiling in tumour osteoblastic cell populations derived from human chemo-naive primary tumours displaying extreme phenotypes (indolent versus metastatic) to uncover predictors associated with metastasis and poor survival. We identified MGP, encoding matrix-Gla protein (MGP), a non-collagenous matrix protein previously associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification. Using different orthotopic models, we found that ectopic expression of Mgp in murine and human OS cells led to a marked increase in lung metastasis. This effect was independent of the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues required for its physiological role. Abrogation of Mgp prevented lung metastatic activity, an effect that was rescued by forced expression. Mgp levels dramatically altered endothelial adhesion, trans-endothelial migration in vitro and tumour cell extravasation ability in vivo. Furthermore, Mgp modulated metalloproteinase activities and TGFß-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In the clinical setting, OS patients who developed lung metastases had high serum levels of MGP at diagnosis. Thus, MGP represents a novel adverse prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in OS. Microarray datasets may be found at: http://bioinfow.dep.usal.es/osteosarcoma/ Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
Revista: ONCOGENE
ISSN 0950-9232  Vol. 35  Nº 36  2016  págs. 4719 - 4729
Resisting death is a central hallmark of cancer cells. Tumors rely on a number of genetic mechanisms to avoid apoptosis, and alterations in mRNA alternative splicing are increasingly recognized to have a role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we identify the splicing regulator SLU7 as an essential factor for the preservation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells viability. Compared with hepatocytes, SLU7 expression is reduced in HCC cells; however, further SLU7 depletion triggered autophagy-related cellular apoptosis in association with the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, these responses were not observed in primary human hepatocytes or in the well-differentiated HepaRG cell line. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that SLU7 binds the C13orf25 primary transcript in which the polycistronic oncomir miR-17-92 cluster is encompassed, and is necessary for its processing and expression. SLU7 knockdown altered the splicing of the C13orf25 primary transcript, and markedly reduced the expression of its miR-17, miR-20 and miR-92a constituents. This led to the upregulation of CDKN1A (P21) and BCL2L11 (BIM) expression, two bona fide targets of the miR-17-92 cluster and recognized mediators of its pro-survival and tumorigenic activity. Interestingly, altered splicing of miR-17-92 and downregulation of miR-17 and miR-20 were not observed upon SLU7 knockdown in non-transformed hepatocytes, but was found in other (HeLa, H358) but not in all (Caco2) non-hepatic tumor cells. The functional relevance of miR-17-92 dysregulation upon SLU7 knockdown was established when oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis were reversed by co-transfection of HCC cells with a miR-17 mimic. Together, these findings indicate that SLU7 is co-opted by HCC cells and other tumor cell types to maintain survival, and identify this splicing regulator as a new determinant for the expression of the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. This novel mechanism may be exploited for the development of antitumoral strategies in cancers displaying such SLU7-miR-17-92 crosstalk.
Autores: Roman, M.; Lopez, I.; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 27  Nº Supl. 6  2016  págs. 1270P
Autores: Vicent, Silvestre; Govindan, R.; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
ISSN 1073-449X  Vol. 192  Nº 7  2015  págs. 799 - 809
Autores:  et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR ONCOLOGY
ISSN 1574-7891  Vol. 8  Nº 2  2014  págs. 196 - 206
Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the most common lung cancer subtype and presents a high mortality rate. Clinical recurrence is often associated with the emergence of metastasis and treatment resistance. The purpose of this study was to identify genes with high prometastatic activity which could potentially account for treatment resistance. Global transcriptomic profiling was performed by robust microarray analysis in highly metastatic subpopulations. Extensive in vitro and in vivo functional studies were achieved by overexpression and by silencing gene expression. We identified the small GTPase RHOB as a gene that promotes early and late stages of metastasis in ADC. Gene silencing of RHOB prevented metastatic activity in a systemic murine model of bone metastasis. These effects were highly dependent on tumor-host interactions. Clinical analysis revealed a marked association between high RHOB levels and poor survival. Consistently, high RHOB levels promote metastasis progression, taxane-chemoresistance, and contribute to the survival advantage to ¿-irradiation. We postulate that RHOB belongs to a novel class of "genes of recurrence" that have a dual role in metastasis and treatment resistance.
Autores: Chen, R.; Khatri, P.; Mazur, P. K.; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 74  Nº 10  2014  págs. 2892 - 2902
Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and it continues to lack effective treatment. The increasingly large and diverse public databases of lung cancer gene expression constitute a rich source of candidate oncogenic drivers and therapeutic targets. To define novel targets for lung adenocarcinoma, we conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of genes specifically overexpressed in adenocarcinoma. We identified an 11-gene signature that was overexpressed consistently in adenocarcinoma specimens relative to normal lung tissue. Six genes in this signature were specifically overexpressed in adenocarcinoma relative to other subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among these genes was the little studied protein tyrosine kinase PTK7. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that PTK7 is highly expressed in primary adenocarcinoma patient samples. RNA interference-mediated attenuation of PTK7 decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in a subset of adenocarcinoma cell lines. Further, loss of PTK7 activated the MKK7-JNK stress response pathway and impaired tumor growth in xenotransplantation assays. Our work defines PTK7 as a highly and specifically expressed gene in adenocarcinoma and a potential therapeutic target in this subset of NSCLC.
Autores: Tran, P.T., (Autor de correspondencia); Shroff, E.H. ; Burns, T.F.; et al.
Revista: PLOS GENETICS
ISSN 1553-7390  Vol. 8  Nº 5  2012  págs. e1002650
KRAS mutant lung cancers are generally refractory to chemotherapy as well targeted agents. To date, the identification of drugs to therapeutically inhibit K-RAS have been unsuccessful, suggesting that other approaches are required. We demonstrate in both a novel transgenic mutant Kras lung cancer mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D) to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting the progression from benign adenomas to adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the suppression of Twist1 to physiological levels is sufficient to cause Kras mutant lung tumors to undergo senescence and lose their neoplastic features. Finally, we analyzed more than 500 human tumors to demonstrate that TWIST1 is frequently overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy.
Autores: Vicent, Silvestre; Sayles, L.C.; Vaka, D. ; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 72  Nº 22  2012  págs. 5744 - 5756
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) have been reported to support tumor progression by a variety of mechanisms. However, their role in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poorly defined. In addition, the extent to which specific proteins secreted by CAFs contribute directly to tumor growth is unclear. To study the role of CAFs in NSCLCs, a cross-species functional characterization of mouse and human lung CAFs was conducted. CAFs supported the growth of lung cancer cells in vivo by secretion of soluble factors that directly stimulate the growth of tumor cells. Gene expression analysis comparing normal mouse lung fibroblasts and mouse lung CAFs identified multiple genes that correlate with the CAF phenotype. A gene signature of secreted genes upregulated in CAFs was an independent marker of poor survival in patients with NSCLC. This secreted gene signature was upregulated in normal lung fibroblasts after long-term exposure to tumor cells, showing that lung fibroblasts are "educated" by tumor cells to acquire a CAF-like phenotype. Functional studies identified important roles for CLCF1-CNTFR and interleukin (IL)-6-IL-6R signaling in promoting growth of NSCLCs. This study identifies novel soluble factors contributing to the CAF protumorigenic phenotype in NSCLCs and suggests new avenues for the development of therapeutic strategies.
Autores: Trejo, C.L.; Juan, J.; Vicent, Silvestre; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 72  Nº 12  2012  págs. 3048 - 3059
Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of lung tumorigenesis allow careful evaluation of lung tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Using GEM models of oncogene-induced lung cancer, we show the striking similarity of the earliest stages of tumorigenesis induced by KRAS(G12D) or BRAF(V600E). Cre-mediated expression of KRAS(G12D) or BRAF(V600E) in the lung epithelium of adult mice initially elicited benign lung tumors comprising cuboidal epithelial cells expressing markers of alveolar pneumocytes. Strikingly, in a head-to-head comparison, oncogenic BRAF(V600E) elicited many more such benign tumors and did so more rapidly than KRAS(G12D). However, despite differences in the efficiency of benign tumor induction, only mice with lung epithelium expression of KRAS(G12D) developed malignant non-small cell lung adenocarcinomas. Pharmacologic inhibition of mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)1/2 combined with in vivo imaging showed that initiation and maintenance of both BRAF(V600E)- or KRAS(G12D)-induced lung tumors was dependent on MEK¿ERK signaling. Although the tumors dramatically regressed in response to MEK1/2 inhibition, they regrew following cessation of drug treatment. Together, our findings show that RAF¿MEK¿ERK signaling is both necessary and sufficient for KRAS(G12D)-induced benign lung tumorigenesis in GEM models. The data also emphasize the ability of KRAS(G12D) to promote malignant lung cancer progression compared with oncogenic BRAF(V600E).
Autores: Luis-Ravelo; Vicent, Silvestre; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL METASTASIS
ISSN 0262-0898  Vol. 28  Nº 8  2011  págs. 779 - 791
Lung cancer comprises a large variety of histological subtypes with a frequent proclivity to form bone metastasis; a condition associated with dismal prognosis. To identify common mechanisms in the development of osteolytic metastasis, we systematically screened a battery of lung cancer cell lines and developed three models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a common proclivity to form osseous lesions, which represented different histological subtypes. Comparative analysis revealed different incidences and latency times. These differences were correlated with cell-type-specific secretion of osteoclastogenic factors, including macrophage inflammatory protein-1¿, interleukin-8 and parathyroid hormone-related protein, some of which were exacerbated in conditions that mimicked tumor-stroma interactions. In addition, a distinct signature of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity derived from reciprocal tumor-stroma interactions was detected for each tumor cell line. Thus, these results suggest subtle differences in the mechanisms of bone colonization for each lung cancer subtype, but share, although each to a different degree, dual MMP and osteoclastogenic activities that are differentially enhanced upon tumor-stromal interactions

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