Nuestros investigadores

Susana Santiago Neri

Líneas de investigación
Epidemiología Nutricional
Índice H
6, (WoS, 20/12/2018)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Santiago, Susana, (Autor de correspondencia); Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 36  2019  págs. 39 - 46
Introduction: Navarra is a Community that presents a great geographical and climatic variety, which results in a wide food supply. Objectives: to review the typical gastronomy of Navarra, as well as the available evidence on dietary patterns, nutritional profile and health indicators of Navarra population. Results: Navarra has 7 Protected Designations of Origin and 6 Protected Geographical Indications. Its gastronomic identity is mainly associated with vegetables, lamb, veal and local sausages, which is reflected in dietary patterns. Comparatively, Navarra population consumes more vegetables and fresh fruits, but also has a frequent and excessive intake of meat (especially red) and sausages. The studies available on nutritional profile show high intakes of proteins and fats in the adult population, and inadequacy in some micronutrients in children. In the national context, Navarra has lower rates of overweight, obesity and sedentariness in the adult population, and there is a downward trend in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Conclusions: the food and gastronomic offer of Navarra is varied and with a great prominence of vegetables, although dietary patterns can be improved. To achieve a healthy and sustainable diet, it is essential to promote culinary knowledge and skills from an early age.
Autores: Lahortiga F; Unzueta, C.; Zazpe I; et al.
Revista: BMC PSYCHIATRY
ISSN 1471-244X  Vol. 18  Nº 1  2018  págs. 241
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests a possible etiologic role of certain personality traits (not necessary dysfunctional) in the risk of depression, but the longitudinal long-term available evidence is currently scarce. We longitudinally assessed whether 3 common personality traits (competitiveness, tension and dependency) were associated with the risk of depression after a maximum follow-up of 15 years. METHODS: We assessed 15,604 university graduates free of depression at baseline through a self-administered questionnaire including personality traits. Simple, Likert-type, questions with 11 possible answers ranging from 0 to 10 were used at baseline to assess the 3 personality traits. We compared participants with high scores (7-10) versus those with low scores (0-4). New medical diagnoses of depression during follow-up were used as the outcome. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.1 y, we prospectively identified 902 new medical diagnoses of depression. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for depression were 1.85 (1.52-2.24) for participants with higher baseline tension (7-10 versus 0 to 4), P-trend <¿0.001; and 1.23 (1.06-1.44) for high versus low baseline dependence levels, P-trend¿=¿0.004. Higher levels of competitiveness were marginally associated with lower risk of depression, with hazard ratio¿=¿0.78 (0.61-1.01), P-trend¿=¿0.105. CONCLUSION: A simple scoring system of personality traits shows an independent association with the future occurrence of depression. This finding underscores, with now prospective evidence, the importance of personality traits in the aetiology of depression and can provide a clinically useful tool for gathering valid information about depression-related personality traits.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
ISSN 1660-4601  Vol. 15  Nº 10  2018  págs. E2104
The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of self-rated health (SRH) perception in Spanish adults. This cross-sectional study including data from 11,342 participants from the Spanish PLENUFAR VI study. SRH status was grouped in two categories ('good'/'poor') and the associations of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyles, diet adequacy and chronic disease with SRH were assessed. After adjusting for relevant confounders, the risk ratios (RR) and (95% confidence intervals) for poor SRH were 1.05 (1.03-1.07) for each hour of increment of sitting, 1.56 (1.30-1.88) for short (>= 5 h vs. 7-8 h) sleep duration, 0.63 (0.55-0.72) for vigorous (vs. light) physical activity, 0.61 (0.50-0.74) for adequate (vs. non-adequate) diet. Activities like jogging [RR for each unit of increment in the METs-h/day = 0.87 (0.82-0.92)], gymnastics [0.87 (0.81-0.93)], biking [0.91 (0.85-0.98)], and track and field [0.94 (0.89-0.98)], were associated with better health perception. Normally weight participants with any chronic disease had lower probability to report poor SRH than overweight/obese participants with any chronic disease. Frequent consumption of bread (>2 servings/day) was associated with a lower adjusted mean of health perception scale, while higher consumption of vegetables and fruit or fish were associated with higher values, concerning good SRH. We can conclude that normal-weight participants even suffering a chronic disease had lower probability to report poor health perception than participants with overweight/obesity and a chronic disease especially for hypertension and diabetes. Activities like jogging, gymnastics, biking, and track and field, and a higher consumption of fruits, vegetables and fish, were associated with better health rated perception.
Autores: Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 12  2018  págs. 1875
Parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes play a fundamental role in their children's food knowledge. However, little is known about their influence on their children's diet quality and micronutrient intake. Thus, we aimed to assess the association of parental nutrition knowledge and healthy-eating attitudes with their children's adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and micronutrient adequacy. Parental healthy-eating attitudes and knowledge of the quality of their child's diet as well as anthropometric, lifestyle, and nutrient intake characteristics were recorded with a basal questionnaire that included a 140-item-food frequency-questionnaire. A total of 287 pre-school children were included in the analyses. Intake adequacy was defined using the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) cut-off point method. We developed a parental nutrition knowledge and healthy-eating attitudes scores and evaluated whether they were independently associated with 1) children's inadequate intake (probability of failing to meet 3 EAR) of micronutrients, using logistic regression analyses, and 2) children's diet quality (adherence to the Mediterranean Diet according to a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents, the KIDMED index), using multiple linear regression models. A higher score in the parental healthy-eating attitudes score was associated with lower risk of failing to meet 3 EAR compared with the reference category (odds ratio (OR): 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.95; p for trend: 0.037) and a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the most adjusted model ( coefficient: 0.34; 95% CI 0.01-0.67; p for trend: 0.045). Our results suggest a positive association of parental healthy-eating attitudes with nutritional adequacy and diet quality in a sample of Spanish preschoolers. Public health strategies should focus on encouraging parental healthy-eating attitudes rather than simply educating parents on what to feed their children, recognizing the important influence of parental behavior on children's practices.
Autores: Unzueta, C. R.; Lahortiga F; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH
ISSN 0033-3506  Vol. 157  2018  págs. 32 - 42
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the differences in lifestyles according to levels of self-perceived competitiveness, psychological tension, and dependency in a Mediterranean cohort of university graduates. STUDY DESIGN: Levels of personality traits, food consumption, nutrient intake, eating attitudes, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were assessed through a questionnaire administered at baseline. This was a cross-sectional study in the context of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort. Participants are 15,346 Spanish adults. RESULTS: Participants with a high level of self-perceived competitiveness consumed more vegetables and fish but less refined grains; they had higher protein intake and healthier eating attitudes. They were more physically active and less likely to be smokers. Participants with a high level of tension or dependency were less physically active, and participants more dependent also had poorer adherence to the Mediterranean diet. CONCLUSIONS: Self-perceived personality traits, especially the trait of competitiveness, are likely to be associated with healthier dietary patterns, better nutrient profile, better eating attitudes, physical activity, and less exposure to smoking. The use of short questions about self-perceived levels of competitiveness, psychological tension, and dependency can contribute to add additional information when assessing lifestyles and diet in adults.
Autores: Zazpe I; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 57  Nº 7  2018  págs. 2409 - 2419
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the association between micronutrient intake adequacy and risk of depression. METHODS: This dynamic cohort study involves Spanish university graduates (SUN Project). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Micronutrient intake adequacy for vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, A, D, E, folic acid, zinc, iodine, selenium, iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and chrome was estimated. Inadequate intake for each nutrient was defined when the intake of the nutrient was below the estimated average requirements (EAR) if available or the adequate intake levels, if EARs were not available. We compared participants with inadequate intake for ¿4 nutrients vs. those with one nutrient. Participants were classified as having incident depression if they had no previous history of depression or antidepressants use at baseline, but they reported during follow-up a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician, use of antidepressant drugs, or both. Time-dependent multivariable Cox regression models were fitted. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 953 new cases of depression were observed among 13,983 participants. Participants with inadequate intake for ¿4 nutrients showed a significantly higher risk of depression [multivariable hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.85]. When the analyses were updated with repeated assessments of intakes, the association was attenuated and it was no longer statistically significant (Multivariable HR = 1.11; 95% CI 0.82-1.51). CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient inadequacy in four or more micronutrients could exert a moderate role in the development of depression.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION HEALTH AND AGING
ISSN 1279-7707  Vol. 22  Nº 4  2018  págs. 526 - 533
To examine the association between a dietary fat quality index (FQI), and the risk of incident cardiovascular events or deaths in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Longitudinal analysis during 10.1 years of median follow-up. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD) according to tertiles of FQI and of different fat subtypes. University of Navarra, Spain. 19,341 middle-aged adults. Fat intake was measured with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The FQI was calculated according to the ratio: (monounsaturated+polyunsaturated) / (saturated+trans fatty acids). We observed 140 incident cases of CVD. No association was found for FQI (HR=0.94, 95 %CI 0.61-1.47 for the highest vs the lowest tertile, p for trend=0.884). No significant associations were found for different dietary fat subtypes on CVD risk. The results suggest no clear association between a higher FQI and a higher amount of energy from fat and incidence of CVD (p for interaction: 0.259 and p for trend only among participants with a percentage of energy from fat ae<yen>35% of total energy: 0.272). In this Mediterranean cohort, the FQI was not associated with cardiovascular events. A "heart-healthy diet" should focus its attention on dietary fat sources and should use an overall dietary pattern approach, rather than limiting the focus on fat subtypes. More research is needed to validate dietary advice on specific fatty acids intake or saturated fatty acids replacements for reducing CVD risk.
Autores: de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 35  Nº 1  2018  págs. 153 - 161
Introduction and objectives: Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the association between egg consumption and dyslipidemia in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods: We followed-up 13,104 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 8 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Self-reported blood concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides were evaluated according to categories of egg consumption after 6 and 8 years of follow-up. We also assessed the association between baseline egg consumption and the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-c concentrations and hypertriglyceridemia during follow-up. Results: We observed a significant inverse association for intermediate levels of egg consumption (2 to 4 eggs/week vs. less than 1 egg/week) and hypertriglyceridemia with OR = 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54 to 0.93, p < 0.05) in the multivariable-adjusted model. Using HDL-c values after 8-year follow-up, we found an association between higher egg consumption and lower HDL-c levels (p for trend = 0.02) with an adjusted difference of -4.01 mg/dl (-7.42 to -0.61) for > 4 vs. < 1 egg/week. Lower means of triglycerides were found in each of the three upper categories of egg consumption compared to the lowest category (< 1 egg/week) with significant results for some of these categories both after 6 and 8 year follow-up. Conclusions: Our data do not support that higher egg consumption was associated with abnormal blood levels of total cholesterol or triglycerides; an inverse association with HDL-c as a quantitative variable was found only in one of our analyses.
Autores: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Zazpe I; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl 1  2018  págs. 174 - 175
Autores: Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 119  Nº 2  2017  págs. 211 - 221
The association between added sugars or sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of depression, as well as the role of carbohydrate quality in depression risk, remains unclear. Among 15 546 Spanish university graduates from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) prospective cohort study, diet was assessed with a validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. Cumulative average consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and an overall carbohydrate quality index (CQI) were calculated. A better CQI was associated with higher whole-grain consumption and fibre intake and lower glycaemic index and consumption of solid (instead of liquid) carbohydrates. Clinical diagnoses of depression during follow-up were classified as incident cases. Multivariable time-dependent Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of depression according to consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and CQI. We observed 769 incident cases of depression. Participants in the highest quartile of added sugars consumption showed a significant increment in the risk of depression (HR=1·35; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·67, P=0·034), whereas those in the highest quartile of CQI (upper quartile of the CQI) showed a relative risk reduction of 30 % compared with those in the lowest quartile of the CQI (HR=0·70; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·88). No significant association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and depression risk was found. Higher added sugars and lower quality of carbohydrate consumption were associated with depression risk in the SUN Cohort. Further studies are necessary to confirm the reported results.
Autores: Andrade, L.; Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0731-5724  Vol. 36  Nº 5  2017  págs. 319 - 329
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the within-subject longitudinal changes in self-perceived healthy eating attitudes after 10 years of follow-up and to identify predictors of long-term changes in a middle-aged adult cohort. METHODS: Four thousand five hundred seventy-two participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. The FFQ was expanded with a brief 10-item questionnaire about eating attitudes with 2 possible answers: yes or no. A baseline score and a 10-year score were calculated with these 10 items (range from 0 to 10). Participants were categorized into 3 groups according to this score. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine changes at follow-up and associations between baseline characteristics and improvement in the score. RESULTS: After 10 years of follow-up, a statistically significant favorable change (p < 0.001) was achieved in all questions about eating attitudes, particularly in these items: "Do you try to eat less sweets and pastries?" (12%), "Do you try to eat less meat?" (11.1%), and "Do you try to reduce your fat intake?" (10%). Being female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.39), being 35-50 or ¿ 50 years old (OR = 1.24, 95% CI, 1.07-1.44 and OR = 1.74, 95% CI, 1.38-2.18, respectively), a high level of physical activity (OR for third vs first tertile = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.02-1.41), and a higher Mediterranean diet score (OR for second and third tertiles = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.01-1.37 and OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.04-1.52, respectively) were associated with a higher probability of improving the eating attitudes score, while a low body mass index (BMI; OR = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.51-1.00) and snacking between meals (OR = 0.84, 95% CI, 0.73-0.97) were associated with a lower probability of improving their score. CONCLUSIONS: The eating attitudes of the participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort became more favorable after 10 years of follow-up. Certain sociodemographic or clinical variables may predict a positive change.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 68  Nº 5  2017  págs. 595 - 604
There is an emerging use of brief dietary questionnaires to investigate diet-health relation. We prospectively assess the association between eating attitudes (yes/no) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 19,138 participants of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Cohort. We calculated a baseline healthy-eating attitudes score (in quartiles), positively weighting answers on more fruit, vegetables, fish and fiber and less meat, sweets and pastries, fat, butter, fatty meats and added sugar in drinks. We observed 139 incident cases of CVD. A higher score was associated with a lower risk of CVD [3-5 points Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.38 (95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.81); 6-8 points: 0.57 (0.29-1.12); 9-10 points: 0.31 (0.15-0.67), compared to 0-2 points]. Key contributors were the attitude to increase fruit [HR: 0.59 (0.40-0.87)], vegetables [HR: 0.57 (0.29-1.12)] and fiber intake [HR: 0.69 (0.48-0.98)]. Brief questionnaire on attitudes towards healthy-eating may be a useful tool for the primary prevention of CVD.
Autores: de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Zazpe I; et al.
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
ISSN 2173-1292  Vol. 21   Nº Supl. 1  2017  págs. 28 - 29
Autores: de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
ISSN 1471-2458  Vol. 16  Nº 209  2016  págs. 203
Nutritional adequacy implies sufficient intake of essential nutrients needed to [...] Background The assessment of changes in dietary habits provides interesting information on whether or not the observed trends are in line with accepted nutritional guidelines. The objective was to evaluate within-subject longitudinal changes in food consumption and nutrient intake and in a 10-year follow-up study. Methods The SUN ( ) project is a prospective Spanish cohort study. Diet was assessed using a 136-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), previously validated in Spain. The participants were 3036 university graduates (55.8 % women) of Spain and the main outcome measures the changes in dietary quality and in food consumption and nutrient intake. Paired t-tests and conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate within-subject longitudinal dietary changes and the risk of inadequacy respectively, after 10 years of follow-up. Results During follow-up, participants showed a relevant and significant increase (p 0.001) in the consumption of fruits (7.4 %), vegetables (8.6 %), low-fat dairy products (35.2 %), lean meat (12.4 %), fish (2.9 %), whole grains (53.2 %), nuts (52.4 %) and a significant decrease in legumes (-7.4 %), whole-fat dairy products (-44.2 %), red meat (-17.6 %), sugar-sweetened beverages (-58.7 %) and wine (-11.9 %). With respect to nutrients, we found a higher proportion of carbohydrates (3.6 %) and fiber (7.4 %) and a decrease in total energy intake (2.7 %), total fat (-4.5 %), SFA (-9.4 %), MUFA (-4.9 %), PUFA (-12.7 %), w-3 and w-6 fatty acids (-9.1 and -20.5 % respectively) and cholesterol (-9.6 %). Conclusions In this Mediterranean cohort study, mainly beneficial changes in the consumption of most foods and macronutrients were observed after 10 years of follow-up.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Babio, N.; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 26  Nº 6  2016  págs. 468 - 475
Background and aims Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly. Methods and results 4545 individuals at high cardiovascular risk were prospectively followed. Total, whole-fat and low-fat yogurt consumption were assessed using food frequency questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between yogurt consumption and waist circumference change (measured at baseline and yearly during the follow-up). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the reversion rate of abdominal obesity for each quintile of yogurt consumption compared with the lowest quintile. After multivariable adjustment, the average yearly waist circumference change in the quintiles of whole-fat yogurt consumption was: Q1: 0.00, Q2: 0.00 (¿0.23 to 0.23), Q3: ¿0.15 (¿0.42 to 0.13), Q4: 0.10 (¿0.21 to 0.42), and Q5: ¿0.23 (¿0.46 to ¿0.00) cm; p for trend = 0.05. The ORs for the reversion of abdominal obesity for whole-fat yogurt consumption were Q1: 1.00, Q2: 1.40 (1.04¿1.90), Q3: 1.33 (0.94¿1.89), Q4: 1.21 (0.83¿1.77), and Q5: 1.43 (1.06¿1.93); p for trend = 0.26. Conclusion Total yogurt consumption was not significantly associated with reversion of abdominal obesity status and a lower waist circumference. However, consumption of whole-fat yogurt was associated with changes in waist circumference and higher probability for reversion of abdominal obesity. Therefore, it seems that whole-fat yogurt has more beneficial effects in management of abdominal obesity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.
Autores: Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 26  Nº 11  2016  págs. 1048 - 1058
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beyond the quantity of carbohydrate intake, further research is needed to know the relevance of carbohydrate quality following operational indices. No previous longitudinal study has assessed the association between an index for quality of dietary carbohydrate intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we examined the association between a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the risk of CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a prospective follow-up study of 17,424 middle-aged adults from Spain. The CQI was defined by four criteria: dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole-grain/total-grain carbohydrate ratio, and solid/total carbohydrate ratio. We observed 129 incident cases of CVD during 10.1 y of median follow-up. An inverse association for CQI was found (hazard ratio = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.78 for the highest versus the lowest tertile, p for trend = 0.008). Participants in the highest tertile of the whole-grain/total-grain carbohydrate ratio had 47% lower risk of CVD (95% CI: 0.33-0.85, p for trend = 0.008). Participants with higher baseline CQI and higher baseline energy from carbohydrates had the lowest risk of CVD. CONCLUSION: In this Mediterranean cohort, a better quality of dietary carbohydrates measured by the CQI, showed a significant inverse association with the incidence of CVD. Specially, a higher proportion of carbohydrates from whole grains was strongly inversely associated with CVD. "Heart-healthy" diets should be focused not only on carbohydrate quantity but also on a multidimensional assessment of the type and quality of carbohydrates.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Cuervo, M; et al.
Revista: MENOPAUSE-THE JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN MENOPAUSE SOCIETY
ISSN 1072-3714  Vol. 22  Nº 7  2015  págs. 750 - 757
Objective: This study aims to assess the relationship of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, as well as the presence of menopausal symptoms, with overweight/obesity in Spanish perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 8,954 Spanish perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, and all women were interviewed to assess their adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, using a validated questionnaire and the Menopause and Health subscale of the validated Cervantes Scale. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between categories of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the odds of being overweight/obese. Multinomial logistic regression was used to study the association between menopausal symptoms and the odds of being overweight/obese (reference categories: participants in the low-adherence category and participants with no menopausal problems). Results: After adjustment for relevant confounders, the odds ratio (95% CI) for being overweight/obese among women in the highest category of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was 0.68 (0.60-0.78; P for trend <0.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) for being overweight/obese was 3.05 (1.98-4.71) for the category "severe problems" in comparison with the category "no problems." Conclusions: Higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern (Mediterranean diet) is inversely associated with overweight/obesity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The occurrence of low to severe problems during perimenopause or postmenopause is positively associated with overweight/obesity. Therefore, high adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and a body mass index of 25kg/m or lower might improve quality of life in women at these stages.
Autores: Villacis; Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 31  Nº 1  2015  págs. 466 - 474
Objetivo: Investigar la asociación entre la frecuencia de comidas fuera de casa (CFC) con a) la calidad de hidratos de carbono y b) la calidad de grasas. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluaron 19.371 participantes de la cohorte SUN que completaron un cuestionario basal de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos previamente validado. Se utilizaron los índices de calidad de hidratos de carbono (ICHC) en una escala de 4 a 20 y de grasas (ICG) en una escala de 0,62 a 5,92. En ambos casos, a mayor puntuación mayor calidad. Se utilizó la regresión lineal múltiple para determinar la asociación entre la frecuencia de CFC (4 categorías) y la puntuación de ambos índices, y la regresión logística para medir la asociación entre la frecuencia de CFC y un bajo ICHC o ICG (<percentil 25). Resultados: Los participantes mostraron una media de ICHC e ICG de 11,3 (DE 3,2) y 1,7 (DE 0,5), respectivamente. Una mayor frecuencia de CFC (¿ 2 veces / semana) se asoció con un menor ICHC (ß: -0,29, IC 95%: -0,41 a -0,17, p <0,001), y con un menor ICG (ß: -0,02, IC 95%: -0,03 a -0,001, p <0,03). Los participantes con CFC ¿ 2 veces/semana tuvieron mayor riesgo de peor ICHC (OR: 1,31, IC 95%: 1,17-1,46, p <0,001), pero no de peor ICG (OR: 0,93 IC 95%: 0,83-1,03, p 0,194). Conclusiones: Hacer con mayor frecuencia CFC se asoció con una peor calidad de grasas en la dieta y especialmente con peor calidad de hidratos de carbono. Estos resultados destacan la importancia de la educación nutricional dirigida a los consumidores de CFC.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0954-3007  Vol. 69  Nº 3  2015  págs. 297 - 302
Background/ Objectives: To evaluate the association between the carbohydrate quality (CQI) and weight change or incident overweight/obesity (BMI¿25 kg/m2) in the ¿Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN)¿ cohort. Subjects/ Methods: 8 741 participants initially free of overweight/obesity were followed¿up for a median of 7.9 years. We evaluated at baseline the CQI following 4 criteria: dietary fibre intake, glycemic index (GI), whole grains/total grains ratio and solid carbohydrates/total carbohydrates ratio. Subjects were classified into quintiles according to CQI. Weight was recorded at baseline and updated every 2 years during follow¿up. Results: Increasing CQI of diet was not significantly associated with lower weight gain, although participants in the highest quintile had the lowest average crude weight gain (+211 g/year). We observed 1 862 incident cases of overweight/obesity during followup. CQI was significantly associated (p for trend 0.006) with lower risk of overweight/obesity: adjusted OR for the 4rd and 5th quintiles: 0.81 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.99), and 0.74 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.92), respectively. Conclusions: In this Mediterranean cohort, CQI showed a significant inverse association with the incidence of overweight/obesity, which highlights that carbohydrate intake guidelines related to obesity prevention should be focused in improving the CQI of the diet.
Autores: Zazpe I; Sánchez Tainta, Ana; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 111  Nº 11  2014  págs. 2000 - 2009
Epidemiological research confirms that the prevalence of suboptimal micronutrient intakes across Europe is an emerging concern in terms of public health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between a new index of carbohydrate (CHO) quality and micronutrient intake adequacy in the `Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN)¿ cohort. The baseline assessment extended from 1999 to March 2012. We assessed 16 841 participants who completed a validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ at baseline. We created a new index to evaluate CHO quality for the following four criteria: dietary fibre intake; glycaemic index; whole grains:total grains ratio; solid CHO:total CHO ratio. The subjects were classified into quintiles according to this index. We evaluated the intakes of Zn, I, Se, Fe, Ca, K, P, Mg, Cr and vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, A, D, E and folic acid. The probability of intake adequacy was evaluated using the estimated average requirement cut-point approach and the probabilistic approach. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the nutritional adequacy according to the CHO quality index (CQI). Participants in the highest quintile of CQI were found to have the lowest prevalence of inadequacy. A higher quality of CHO intake was found to be associated with a lower risk of nutritional inadequacy in comparison with the lowest quintile of CQI (adjusted OR 0·06, 95 % CI 0·02, 0·16; P for trend < 0·001). A higher CQI was found to be strongly associated with better micronutrient intake adequacy in the young Mediterranean cohort, stressing the importance of focusing nutritional education not only on CHO quantity, but also on quality.
Autores: Azcona-Salvatierra, A.; Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: REVISTA DE LA ASOCIACION ESPAÑOLA DE ESPECIALISTAS DE MEDICINA DEL TRABAJO
ISSN 1132-6255  Vol. 23  Nº 2  2014  págs. 318 - 325
El objetivo del trabajo es valorar el impacto y los resultados de una campaña encaminada a promover hábitos de alimentación saludable entre los trabajadores de un centro universitario. Material y Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de tipo transversal que evalúa en 343 trabajadores de la Universidad de Navarra los hábitos alimentarios basales y tras la intervención, así como el impacto mediático y el grado de satisfacción de la campaña. Resultados: La mayoría de los hábitos alimentarios mejoran tras un año de implantación de la campaña, aunque ninguno de forma significativa. Por otro lado, el 38% IC95% (29%-47%) de los trabajadores cree que la campaña ha servido para mejorar su alimentación en cafeterías o comedores universitarios. Aunque los resultados no son significativos, se puede decir que se ha encontrado una tendencia hacia el cambio en los hábitos alimentarios. La valoración por parte de los trabajadores ha sido muy positiva, hecho que anima a continuar con la campaña (AU)
Autores: Goñi, Leticia; Cuervo, M; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 37  Nº 3  2014  págs. 349 - 362
Autores: Cuervo, M; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 6  Nº 10  2014  págs. 4434 - 4451
Abstract: The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Cuervo, M; Zazpe I; et al.
Revista: ANALES DE PEDIATRIA
ISSN 1695-4033  Vol. 80  Nº 2  2014  págs. 89 - 97
Introducción La obesidad infantil es una enfermedad multifactorial en la que una alimentación inadecuada y el sedentarismo tienen un papel decisivo. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido evaluar la situación ponderal, los hábitos alimentarios y de actividad física en escolares de Castilla-La Mancha. Sujetos y métodos Estudio transversal en 3.061 niños de entre 6 y 12 años participantes en el plan «Alimenta su salud», mediante la aplicación de una encuesta sobre variables antropométricas, frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, hábitos alimentarios y actividad física, analizando diferencias por sexo, grupos de edad y provincias. Resultados La prevalencia de sobrecarga ponderal fue del 24,0% y la de obesidad del 14,3%, encontrando diferencias en la distribución por provincias. Las chicas realizan más frecuentemente la toma de media mañana, consumen más suplementos y practican menos deporte que los chicos. El seguimiento de dietas especiales y la realización de actividades deportivas es menor en el grupo de 6 a 9 años respecto al de 10-12. En relación con las recomendaciones, el consumo de verduras y frutas es bajo, y elevado para embutidos, bollería, aperitivos salados, golosinas y comida rápida, encontrando diferencias por grupos de edad. Conclusiones En la población infantil estudiada, la sobrecarga ponderal afecta casi a uno de cada 4 niños, no alcanzándose las recomendaciones de frutas y verduras, y existiendo un consumo elevado de alimentos que se asocian con riesgo de obesidad. El sedentarismo es más frecuente el fin de semana y entre las chicas.
Autores: Cuervo, M; Goñi, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 29  Nº 2  2014  págs. 337 - 343
Background: The maintenance of healthy lifestyles is of great importance to prevent pregnancy-related diseases at early stages. For this reason, the knowledge of the overall wellbeing of women at childbearing-age is necessary to provide appropriate advice to maintain or improve the nutritional status. The aim of this research was to assess the lifestyles of childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy and to examine the difference between primiparae and multiparae women on these lifestyles. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involving 4,471 Spanish women at childbearing-age that were planning a pregnancy. Information was collected through a questionnaire by community health professionals. Results: The profile of childbearing-age recruited women planning a pregnancy were in her early thirties (31.4 ± 4.8 years) and 72.5% were seeking for her first baby. They had a good self-perception of their nutritional and health status and followed a balanced diet. Interestingly, primiparae women had lower risk of health complications but they were greater consumers of tobacco and alcohol (p<0.001), and consumed less fortified milk, iodine and iron supplements than multiparae women. Additionally, the examined population showed a more sedentary pattern in primiparae women as compared to the remaining group concerning hours/day lying, sitting and standing. Conclusion: Differences between both preconceptional conditions (primiparae and multiparae women) bring a great opportunity to promote healthy habits among childbearing-aged women, according to the personal profile, in order to prevent burdens in future pregnancies underlying modifiable or preventable factors.
Autores: Zazpe I; Sánchez Tainta, Ana; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 28  Nº 5  2013  págs. 1673 - 1680
Introduction: Universities and workplaces are important targets for the promotion of the nutritional interventions in adult population. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the dietary habits and attitudes towards change in workers and university students from different academic fields. Methods: The study data came from a cross-sectional study of a Spanish University population of 1,429 participants. We analyzed the dietary habits and the attitudes toward dietary change. Results: The mean age of workers and students was 37 and 23 years, respectively. Both groups reported eating four meals per day. Among students, the consumption of vegetables, wine, fish and nuts was less frequent whereas carbonated beverages, commercial bakery, fast food and red meat was higher. On the other hand, overall dietary pattern of science students was healthier than other students. Although no significant differences were found between students and workers in attitudes towards change, 32% of employees and 39% of students said they were seriously considering changing them. Conclusions: The dietary pattern was healthier among workers than among students, particularly those participants that studied social sciences degrees. They constituted the most vulnerable segment of the university population from a nutritional point of view. About a third of workers and students considered changing their habits.
Autores: Goñi, Leticia; Martínez, JA; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION COMUNITARIA-SPANISH JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY NUTRITION
ISSN 1135-3074  Vol. 19  Nº 2  2013  págs. 105 - 113
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Marti A; et al.
Revista: OBESITY RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE
ISSN 1871-403X  Vol. 7  Nº 5  2013  págs. e391 - e400
Objective The association between sleep duration, extracurricular sport, screen-based activities and dietary variables with prevalence of overweight in middle childhood, regarding gender differences, was assessed. Methods Cross-sectional study involving 2814 children (age 6¿12 years). Measured weight and height and reported lifestyle variables were obtained by health professionals previously trained. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between variables and the likelihood of being overweight. Results Prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was 31.9% in boys and 30.4% in girls. In boys, engaging ¿3h/week in sports activities (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5¿0.9), eating daily breakfast (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4¿0.9) and consuming ¿2fruits/day (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6¿0.9) were independent protective factors against overweight, whereas children consuming fast food weekly and sweets daily were estimated to be 30% and 40%, respectively, more likely to be overweight. Only buns consumption resulted associated with overweight in girls (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1¿1.7). Conclusions Prevalence of overweight in a sample of Southern European children is high and underlines gender differences in lifestyle determinants. Engaging in extracurricular sport, promoting daily breakfast, adequate fruit consumption and reducing high energy-dense foods, should be encouraged in boys, whereas further investigation on girls behaviours would be valuable.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Cuervo, M; et al.
Revista: Nutricion Hospitalaria
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 2  2012  págs. 599 - 605
Introduction & aims: The identification of determinants of childhood overweight is crucial to early diagnosis and prevention. The aim of this study was to assess perinatal and parental related risk factors concerning children for having excessive body weight. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 3,101 children participating in the programme "Alimenta su salud" conducted in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). Anthropometric and sociodemographic data were obtained from a general questionnaire. Analysed factors as potential predictors of childhood overweight were sex, age, birth weight, infant feeding, number of siblings, as well as parental marital status, educational level and obesity. Prevalence of overweight stratified by potential determinants was assessed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between variables and the likelihood of being overweight. Results: The overweight prevalence (including obesity) was 30.3% in boys and 28.3% in girls, according to the IOTF criteria. Higher rates in younger subjects and some gender differences were observed. Parental obesity was the most important predictive variable for childhood overweight in both sexes and birth weight over 3,500 g in girls (OR 1.8,95% CI 1.3-2.3). Having one or more siblings (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and higher paternal education (OR 0.8,95% CI 0.6-0.9) in boys, and older age in girls (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-.09), resulted protective factors against childhood overweight. No independent effects of marital status, maternal education and infant feeding patterns on childhood excess weight were identified. Conclusions: Perinatal and parental factors could contribute to predict the risk of being overweight/obese in children aged 6 to 12 years, which should be considered when formulating obesity prevention and intervention strategies, stressing the importance of targeting obese parents with young children.
Autores: Berasategi, Izaskun; Cuervo, M; Ruiz de las Heras, A; et al.
Revista: Public Health Nutrition
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 14  Nº 3  2011  págs. 451 - 458
The growing interest in maintaining good health status through optimal nutrition has boosted the launch of a number of functional foods on the market. The objective of the present study was to theoretically evaluate the nutritional relevance of incorporating selected enriched foods in the diet. DESIGN: A 28 d dietary plan, designed to be balanced under the recommended macronutrients criteria, was used as a basal diet. Some conventional foods were exchanged with foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, vitamins A, D, E or n-3 fatty acids. SETTING: Nutritional composition of basal and modified diets was derived and compared to the Spanish recommended intakes (RI). RESULTS: The basal diet covered the recommendations for fibre and calcium with mean intake of 28 g and 1241 mg, respectively. The current intake of salt, if iodized, or bread elaborated with this salt, allowed reaching the daily intake of iodine every day, with a mean supply of 216 ¿g/d and 278 ¿g/d, respectively. The deficient supply of vitamin E in the basal diet (mean = 8 mg/d) was covered by including enriched margarine and dairy products (mean = 15 mg/d). The low n-3 fatty acids intake in the basal diet (1·1 g/d) increased up to 1·9 g/d after the use of enriched margarine, butter and biscuits and soya drink instead of milk. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve the accomplishment of the RI iodine, vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids, interesting strategies dealing with the incorporation of enriched foods in the diet were successfully initiated.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Cuervo, M; et al.
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
ISSN 2173-1292  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2011  págs. 144
Autores: Goñi, Leticia; Ansorena D; et al.
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
ISSN 2173-1292  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2011  págs. 157
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I;
Revista: Aula de la Farmacia (Versión impresa)
ISSN 1697-543X  Vol. 6  Nº 73  2010  págs. 7 - 19
Autores: Cuervo, M; Goñi, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: ACTIVIDAD DIETÉTICA
ISSN 1138-0322  Vol. 14  Nº 3  2010  págs. 151 - 152
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Aranceta, Javier;
Libro:  Alimentación y Trabajo
2012  págs. 45 - 52
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Cuervo, M;
Libro:  Fundamentos de Nutrición y Dietética
2011  págs. 417 - 422
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I;
Libro:  Alimentación, ejercicio físico y salud
2010  págs. 139 - 173

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