Nuestros investigadores

Susana Ravassa Albéniz

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: González, A, (Autor de correspondencia); López, B; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH
ISSN 0167-4889  Vol. 1866  Nº 9  2019  págs. 1421 - 1432
Myocardial interstitial fibrosis (MIF) is a common finding in heart failure (HF) patients, both with preserved and reduced ejection fraction, as well as in HF animal models. MIF is associated with impaired cardiac function and worse clinical outcome. The impact of MIF is influenced not only by the quantity but also by changes in the quality of collagen fibers and in the extracellular matrix components, such as a shift in collagen types proportion, increased fibronectin polymerization and increased degree of collagen cross-linking (CCL). In particular, CCL, a process that renders collagen fibers stiffer and more resistant to degradation, is increased both in patients and animal models of HF. Importantly, in HF patients increased cardiac CCL is directly associated with increased left ventricular stiffness and a higher risk of hospitalization for HF. The aim of this review is to address the complexity of MIF in HF, focusing on CCL.
Autores: Garcia-Fernandez, N; Lavilla, Francisco Javier; Martín, Paloma Leticia; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0895-7061  Vol. 32  Nº 1  2019  págs. 15 - 17
Autores: Cauwenberghs, N.; Ravassa, S; Thijs, L. ; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION. CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE
ISSN 2047-9980  Vol. 8  Nº 2  2019  págs. e010430
Background Serial imaging studies in the general population remain important to evaluate the usefulness of pathophysiologically relevant biomarkers in predicting progression of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction. Here, we assessed in a general population whether these circulating biomarkers at baseline predict longitudinal changes in LV structure and function. Methods and Results In 592 participants (mean age, 50.8 years; 51.4% women; 40.5% hypertensive), we derived echocardiographic indexes reflecting LV structure and function at baseline and after 4.7 years. At baseline, we measured alkaline phosphatase, markers of collagen turnover (procollagen type I, C-terminal telopeptide, matrix metalloproteinase-1) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T. We regressed longitudinal changes in LV indexes on baseline biomarker levels and reported standardized effect sizes as a fraction of the standard deviation of LV change. After full adjustment, a decline in LV longitudinal strain (-14.2%) and increase in E/e' ratio over time (+18.9%; P¿0.019) was associated with higher alkaline phosphatase activity at baseline. Furthermore, longitudinal strain decreased with higher levels of collagen I production and degradation at baseline (procollagen type I, -14.2%; C-terminal telopeptide, -16.4%; P¿0.029). An increase in E/e' ratio over time was borderline associated with lower matrix metalloproteinase-1 (+9.8%) and lower matrix metalloproteinase-1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 ratio (+11.9%; P¿0.041). Higher high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels at baseline correlated significantly with an increase in relative wall thickness (+23.1%) and LV mass index (+18.3%) during follow-up ( P¿0.035). Conclusions We identified a set of biomarkers predicting adverse changes in LV structure and function over time. Circulating biomarkers reflecting LV stiffness, injury, and collagen composition might improve the identification of subjects at risk for subclinical cardiac maladaptation.
Autores: Santer, L.; López, B; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0194-911X  Vol. 73  Nº 4  2019  págs. 820 - 828
The plasma levels of long noncoding RNA LIPCAR are elevated in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction and associated with left ventricular remodeling and poor outcomes. We studied whether the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate value <60mL/(min·1.73m2) modified the associations of plasma LIPCAR with left ventricular remodeling and outcomes in HF patients. Two hundred and thirty-four patients (mean age 74 [9.14] years, 50% male) were enrolled and followed for 4.73 (0.24-7.25) years. Plasma LIPCAR was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. LIPCAR was increased ( P=0.005) in patients compared with 17 age- and sex-matched controls, directly correlated with age ( P=0.001) and with the maximal early transmitral flow velocity to the mean peak early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus displacement ratio ( P=0.001) and inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate ( P<0.001). LIPCAR was associated with hospitalization for HF, cardiovascular death, and a composite of hospitalization for HF or cardiovascular death ( P¿0.010), these associations being dependent of estimated glomerular filtration rate. The interactions between estimated glomerular filtration rate and LIPCAR with respect to these outcomes were statistically significant or of borderline significance ( P¿0.060). LIPCAR was increased in CKD patients compared with non-CKD patients ( P=0.021). LIPCAR was independently associated with hospitalization for HF ( P¿0.039) only in non-CKD patients, but its addition to traditional risk factors did not improve risk prediction in these patients. In conclusion, plasma LIPCAR prognosticates outcomes in elderly HF patients without CKD. Thus, there is an effect modification of CKD on the association of circulating LIPCAR with outcomes in HF patients.
Autores: Smyrnias, I., (Autor de correspondencia); Gray, S. P. ; Okonko, D. O. ; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0735-1097  Vol. 73  Nº 14  2019  págs. 1795 - 1806
BACKGROUND The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is activated when misfolded proteins accumulate within mitochondria and leads to increased expression of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases to maintain protein quality and mitochondrial function. Cardiac mitochondria are essential for contractile function and regulation of cell viability, while mitochondrial dysfunction characterizes heart failure. The role of the UPRmt in the heart is unclear. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to: 1) identify conditions that activate the UPRmt in the heart; and 2) study the relationship among the UPRmt, mitochondrial function, and cardiac contractile function. METHODS Cultured cardiac myocytes were subjected to different stresses in vitro. Mice were subjected to chronic pressure overload. Tissues and blood biomarkers were studied in patients with aortic stenosis. RESULTS Diverse neurohumoral or mitochondrial stresses transiently induced the UPRmt in cultured cardiomyocytes. The UPRmt was also induced in the hearts of mice subjected to chronic hemodynamic overload. Boosting the UPRmt with nicotinamide riboside (which augments NAD(+) pools) in cardiomyocytes in vitro or hearts in vivo significantly mitigated the reductions in mitochondrial oxygen consumption induced by these stresses. In mice subjected to pressure overload, nicotinamide riboside reduced cardiomyocyte death and contractile dysfunction. Myocardial tissue from patients with aortic stenosis also showed evidence of UPRmt activation, which correlated with reduced tissue cardiomyocyte death and fibrosis and lower plasma levels of biomarkers of cardiac damage (high-sensitivity troponin T) and dysfunction (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). CONCLUSIONS These results identify the induction of the UPRmt in the mammalian (including human) heart exposed to pathological stresses. Enhancement of the UPRmt ameliorates mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction, suggesting that it may serve an important protective role in the stressed heart. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Autores: Roncal, Carmen; Martinez-Aguilar, E.; Orbe, J; et al.
Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 9  2019  págs. 15580
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a major cause of acute and chronic illness, with extremely poor prognosis that remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO), a gut derived metabolite, has been associated with atherosclerotic burden. We determined plasma levels of TMAO by mass spectrometry and evaluated their association with PAD severity and prognosis. 262 symptomatic PAD patients (mean age 70 years, 87% men) categorized in intermittent claudication (IC, n = 147) and critical limb ischemia (CLI, n = 115) were followed-up for a mean average of 4 years (min 1-max 102 months). TMAO levels were increased in CLI compared to IC (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for severity (CLI) rendered a cutoff of 2.26 mu mol/L for TMAO (62% sensitivity, 76% specificity). Patients with TMAO > 2.26 mu mol/L exhibited higher risk of cardiovascular death (sub-hazard ratios >= 2, P < 0.05) that remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors. TMAO levels were associated to disease severity and CV-mortality in our cohort, suggesting an improvement of PAD prognosis with the measurement of TMAO. Overall, our results indicate that the intestinal bacterial function, together with the activity of key hepatic enzymes for TMA oxidation (FMO3) and renal function, should be considered when designing therapeutic strategies to control gut-derived metabolites in vascular patients.
Autores: Ravassa, S; Ballesteros, Gabriel Alejandro; López, B; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0735-1097  Vol. 73  Nº 12  2019  págs. 1398 - 1410
Background A combination of circulating biomarkers associated with excessive myocardial collagen type-I cross-linking or CCL+ (i.e., decreased carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I to matrix metalloproteinase-1 ratio) and with excessive myocardial collagen type-I deposition or CD+ (i.e., increased carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type-I) has been described in heart failure (HF) patients and associates with poor outcomes. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the CCL+CD+ combination of biomarkers associates with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Biomarkers were analyzed in serum samples from 242 HF patients (study 1) and 150 patients referred for AF ablation (study 2). Patients were classified into 3 groups (CCL¿CD¿, CCL+CD¿ or CCL¿CD+, and CCL+CD+) in accordance to biomarker threshold values. Left atrial electroanatomic high-density mapping was performed in 71 patients from study 2. Results In study 1, 53.7% patients had AF at baseline and 19.6% developed AF (median follow-up 5.5 years). Adjusted odds and hazard ratios associated with baseline and new-onset AF, respectively, were both ¿3.3 (p ¿ 0.050) in CCL+CD+ patients compared with CCL¿CD¿ patients, with nonsignificant changes in the other group. In study 2, 29.3% patients had AF recurrence during 1-year post-ablation.
Autores: Romero, Gregorio Aramid; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: NEFROLOGIA
ISSN 0211-6995  2019 
Patients with the dual burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic congestive heart failure (HF) experience unacceptably high rates of symptom load, hospitalization, and mortality. Currently, concerted efforts to identify, prevent and treat HF in CKD patients are lacking at the institutional level, with emphasis still being placed on individual specialty views on this topic. The authors of this review paper endorse the need for a dedicated cardiorenal interdisciplinary team that includes nephrologists and renal nurses and jointly manages appropriate clinical interventions across the inpatient and outpatient settings. There is a critical need for guidelines and best clinical practice models from major cardiology and nephrology professional societies, as well as for research funding in both specialties to focus on the needs of future therapies for HF in CKD patients. The implementation of cross-specialty educational programs across all levels in cardiology and nephrology will help train future specialists and nurses who have the ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent HF in CKD patients in a precise, clinically effective, and cost-favorable manner.
Autores: Ballesteros, Gabriel Alejandro; Ravassa, S; Bragard, Jean René Alfred; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 1045-3873  Vol. 30  Nº 8  2019  págs. 1231 - 1240
Introduction Ultrahigh-density-voltage mapping (uHD(V)M) is a new tool that can add new insights into the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of uHD(V)M in predicting postablation AF recurrence (AFR). Methods and Results We included 98 consecutive patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation for AF (40.8% persistent) using an uHD(V)M system and followed for 1 year. The left atrium (LA) mean voltage (V-m) and the V-slope (slope of the voltage histogram calculated by linear interpolation, with the relative frequency on the vertical axis and the bipolar potential on the horizontal axis) were calculated from 12 567 +/- 5486 points per map. Patients with AFR (N = 29) had lower V-m and higher V-slope as compared with patients without AFR (N = 69). Receiver operating characteristic curves identified V-m as the strongest predictor of AFR, with a higher incidence of AFR in patients with V-m 0.758 mV (57.6%) or lower than patients with V-m higher than 0.758 mV (15.4%; P < .0001). Among patients with V-m higher than 0.758 mV, patients with V-slope 0.637 or higher exhibited higher (P = .043) AFR incidence (31.3%) than patients with V-slope lower than 0.637 (10.2%). This classification showed incremental predictive value over relevant covariables. V-m values were lower and V-slope values were higher in patients that progressed from paroxysmal to persistent AF. Patients with V-slope 0.637 or higher had a 14.2% incidence of postablation atypical atrial flutter, whereas patients with V-slope lower than 0.637 did not present this outcome. Conclusions The risk of AFR, atrial flutter, and progression from paroxysmal to persistent AF can be detected by quantitative analysis of LA uHD(V)M identifying diverse patterns of atrial substrate alterations.
Autores: Martinez-Martinez, E.; Brugnolaro, C. ; Ibarrola, J.; et al.
Revista: HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0194-911X  Vol. 73  Nº 3  2019  págs. 602 - 611
Myocardial fibrosis is a main contributor to the development of heart failure (HF). CT-1 (cardiotrophin-1) and Gal-3 (galectin-3) are increased in HF and associated with myocardial fibrosis. The aim of this study is to analyze whether CT-1 regulates Gal-3. Proteomic analysis revealed that Gal-3 was upregulated by CT-1 in human cardiac fibroblasts in parallel with other profibrotic and proinflammatory markers. CT-1 upregulation of Gal-3 was mediated by ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1/2 and Stat-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) pathways. Male Wistar rats and B6CBAF1 mice treated with CT-1 (20 mu g/kg per day) presented higher cardiac Gal-3 levels and myocardial fibrosis. In CT-1-treated rats, direct correlations were found between cardiac CT-1 and Gal-3 levels, as well as between Gal-3 and perivascular fibrosis. Gal-3 genetic disruption in human cardiac fibroblasts and pharmacological Gal-3 inhibition in mice prevented the profibrotic and proinflammatory effects of CT-1. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats with diastolic dysfunction showed increased cardiac CT-1 and Gal-3 expression together with cardiac fibrosis and inflammation. CT-1 and Gal-3 directly correlated with myocardial fibrosis. In HF patients, myocardial and plasma CT-1 and Gal-3 were increased and directly correlated. In addition, HF patients with high CT-1 and Gal-3 plasma levels presented an increased risk of cardiovascular death. Our data suggest that CT-1 upregulates Gal-3 which, in turn, mediates the proinflammatory and profibrotic myocardial effects of CT-1. The elevation of both molecules in HF patients identifies a subgroup of patients with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality. The CT-1/Gal-3 axis emerges as a candidate therapeutic target and a potential prognostic biomarker in HF.
Autores: Roncal, Carmen; Martinez-Aguilar, E.; Orbe, J.; et al.
Revista: ATHEROSCLEROSIS
ISSN 0021-9150  Vol. 287  2019  págs. E233 - E233
Autores: González, A; Ravassa, S; López, B; et al.
Revista: HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0194-911X  Vol. 72  Nº 3  2018  págs. 549 - 558
Autores: Trippel, T. D.; Van Linthout, S.; Westermann, D.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE
ISSN 1388-9842  Vol. 20  Nº 3  2018  págs. 460 - 470
Aim Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with myocardial remodelling including severe pro-fibrotic changes contributing to an increase in left ventricular stiffness and diastolic dysfunction. Serum C-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PIP) strongly correlates with the turnover of extracellular cardiac matrix proteins and fibrosis. Torasemide, but not furosemide, was described to reduce collagen type I synthesis in clinically unstable patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We evaluated whether its effect translated to HFpEF patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and abnormal basal PIP levels. Methods and results We performed a relatively small, single-centre, randomised, double-blind, two-arm parallel-group, active controlled clinical trial in 35 HFpEF patients with T2DM to determine the effects of a 9-month treatment with torasemide vs. furosemide on changes of serum PIP levels. Patients with increased PIP levels (>= 110 ng/mL), or evidence of structural changes with a left atrial volume index (LAVI) > 29 mL/m(2) and abnormal PIP levels (>= 70 ng/mL), were eligible to participate. Fifteen patients were female (42%), mean age was 69 years, body mass index was 34.7 kg/m(2), 83% were in New York Heart Association class II/III. Echocardiographic characteristics showed a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of > 60%, a left ventricular mass index > 120 g/m(2), an E/e' ratio of 14, and a LAVI of 40 mL/m(2) ...
Autores: Pappritz, K.; Savvatis, K.; Miteva, K.; et al.
Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 32  Nº 11  2018  págs. 6066 - 6078
Regulatory T (T-reg) cells offer new therapeutic options for controlling undesired systemic and local immune responses. The aim of the current study was to determine the impact of therapeutic T-reg administration on systemic and cardiac inflammation and remodeling in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -induced myocarditis. Therefore, syngeneic T-reg cells were applied intravenously in CVB3-infected mice 3 d after infection. Compared with CVB3 + PBS mice, CVB3 + T-reg mice exhibited lower left ventricle (LV) chemokine expression, accompanied by reduced cardiac presence of proinflammatory Ly6C(high)CCR2(high)Cx3Cr1(low) monocytes and higher retention of proinflammatory Ly6C(mid)CCR2(high)Cx3Cr1(low) monocytes in the spleen. In addition, splenic myelopoiesis was reduced in CVB3 + T-reg compared with CVB3 + PBS mice. Coculture of T-reg cells with splenocytes isolated from mice 3 d post-CVB3 infection further demonstrated the ability of T-reg cells to modulate monocyte differentiation in favor of the anti-inflammatory Ly6C(low)CCR2(low)Cx3Cr1(high) subset. T-reg-mediated immunomodulation was paralleled by lower collagen 1 protein expression and decreased levels of soluble and insoluble collagen in LV of CVB3 + T-reg compared with CVB3 + PBS mice. In agreement with these findings, LV systolic and diastolic function was improved in CVB3 + T-reg mice compared with CVB3 + PBS mice. In summary, adoptive T-reg transfer in the inflammatory phase of viral-induced myocarditis protects the heart against inflammatory damage and fibrosis via modulation of monocyte subsets.Pappritz, K., Savvatis, K., Miteva, K., Kerim, B., Dong, F., Fechner, H., Muller, I., Brandt, C., Lopez, B., Gonzalez, A., Ravassa, S., Klingel, K., Diez, J., Reinke, P., Volk, H.-D., Van Linthout, S., Tschope, C. Immunomodulation by adoptive regulatory T-cell transfer improves Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis.
Autores: Treibel, T. A.; López, B; González, A; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL
ISSN 0195-668X  Vol. 39  Nº 8  2018  págs. 699 - 709
Aims To investigate myocardial fibrosis (MF) in a large series of severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients using invasive biopsy and non-invasive imaging. Methods and results One hundred thirty-three patients with severe, symptomatic AS accepted for surgical aortic valve replacement underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification. Intra-operative left ventricular (LV) biopsies were performed by needle or scalpel, yielding tissue with (n = 53) and without endocardium (n=80), and compared with 10 controls. Myocardial fibrosis occurred in three patterns: (i) thickened endocardium with a fibrotic layer; (ii) microscopic scars, with a subendomyo-cardial predominance; and (iii) diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Collagen volume fraction (CVF) was elevated (P<0.001) compared with controls, and higher (P<0.001) in endocardium-containing samples with a decreasing CVF gradient from the subendocardium (P = 0.001). Late gadolinium enhancement correlated with CVF (P<0.001) but not ECV. Both LGE and ECV correlated independently (P<0.001) with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity-troponin T. High ECV was also associated with worse LV remodelling, left ventricular ejection fraction and functional capacity. Combining high ECV and LGE better identified patients with more adverse LV remodelling, blood biomarkers and histological parameters, and worse functional capacity than each parameter alone. Conclusion Myocardial fibrosis in severe AS is complex, but three main patterns exist: endocardial fibrosis, microscars (mainly in the subendomyocardium), and diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Neither histological CVF nor the CMR parameters ECV and LGE capture fibrosis in its totality. A combined, multi-parametric approach with ECV and LGE allows best stratification of AS patients according to the response of the myocardial collagen matrix.
Autores: Ravassa, S, (Autor de correspondencia); Trippel, T.; Bach, D. ; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE
ISSN 1388-9842  Vol. 20  Nº 9  2018  págs. 1290 - 1299
Background Myocardial fibrosis is characterized by excessive cross-linking and deposition of collagen type I and is involved in left ventricular stiffening and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). We investigated whether the effect of spironolactone on LVDD in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) depends on its effects on collagen cross-linking and/or deposition. Methods and results We investigated 381 HFpEF patients from the multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled Aldo-DHF trial with measures of the E:e' ratio. The ratio of serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I to serum matrix metalloproteinase-1 (CITP:MMP-1, an inverse index of myocardial collagen cross-linking) and serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PICP, a direct index of myocardial collagen deposition) were determined at baseline and after 1-year treatment with spironolactone 25 mg once daily or placebo. Patients were classified by CITP: MMP-1 and PICP tertiles at baseline. While CITP: MMP-1 tertiles at baseline interacted (P < 0.05) with spironolactone effect on E:e', PICP tertiles did not. In fact, while spironolactone treatment did not modify E:e' in patients with lower CITP: MMP-1 levels, this ratio was significantly reduced in the remaining spironolactone-treated patients. In addition, PICP was unchanged in patients with lower CITP: MMP-1 levels but was reduced in the remaining spironolactone-treated patients. Conclusions A biochemical phenotype of high collagen cross-linking identifies HFpEF patients resistant to the beneficial effects of spironolactone on LVDD. It is suggested that excessive collagen cross-linking, which stabilizes collagen type I fibres, diminishes the ability of spironolactone to reduce collagen deposition in these patients.
Autores: Moreno, MU; Ravassa, S; Gallego, C.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 125 - 126
Autores: Moreno, MU; Gavira, Juan José; et al.
Revista: MEDICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
ISSN 0025-7125  Vol. 101  Nº 1  2017  págs. 43-52
The chronic hemodynamic load imposed by hypertension on the left ventricle leads to lesions in the myocardium that result in structural remodeling, which provides support for alterations in cardiac function, perfusion, and electrical activity that adversely influence the clinical evolution of hypertensive heart disease. Management must include detecting, reducing, and reversing left ventricular hypertrophy, as well as the detection and repair of microscopic lesions responsible for myocardial remodeling. Reducing the burden associated with hypertensive heart disease can be targeted using personalized treatment. The noninvasive, biomarker-mediated identification of subsets of patients with hypertensive heart disease is essential to provide personalized treatment.
Autores: Ravassa, S; López, B; Querejeta, R.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 1473-5598  Vol. 35  Nº 4  2017  págs. 853 - 861
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial fibrosis is associated with alterations in the cross-linking and deposition of collagen type I (CCL and CD, respectively). We aimed to evaluate whether the combination of circulating biomarkers of CCL [the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I to matrix metalloproteinase-1 ratio (CITP¿:¿MMP-1)] and CD [the carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PICP)] identifies myocardial fibrosis phenotypes with distinct clinical outcome in hypertensive patients with heart failure. METHODS: Endomyocardial biopsies and blood samples from 38 patients (small cohort), and blood samples from 203 patients (large cohort) were analyzed. Myocardial CCL and CD were assessed by histological methods. Serum PICP, CITP, and MMP-1 were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Small cohort: CITP¿:¿MMP-1 cutoff 1.968 or less and PICP cutoff at least 110.8¿ng/ml were used for predicting high CCL and severe CD, respectively. Large cohort: as defined by the above thresholds, patients were categorized into four subgroups based on the presence (+) or absence (-) of high CCL and severe CD. Compared with CCL-CD-, the adjusted hazard ratios for a composite end point of heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death over 5 years in CCL-CD+, CCL+CD-, and CCL+CD+ were 1.11 (P¿=¿0.79), 1.99 (P¿=¿0.07), and 2.18 (P¿=¿0.04), respectively (P for trend¿=¿0.005). In addition, the categorization based on CCL and CD yielded integrated discrimination (P¿=¿0.03) and net reclassification..
Autores: Lofsjogard, J., (Autor de correspondencia); Kahan, T.; Díez, J; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0002-9149  Vol. 119  Nº 12  2017  págs. 2042 - 2048
Disturbances of collagen metabolism may alter the myocardial collagen network and contribute to cardiac remodeling and prognosis in heart failure (HF). Collagen type I synthesis and degradation can be assessed indirectly by the circulating biomarkers carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide (CITP), respectively. We examined the associations between PICP and CITP and long-term mortality in patients with HF. The Optimizing Congestive Heart Failure Outpatient Clinic (OPTIMAL) project studied patients aged >= 60 years with New York Heart Association class II to IV and HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) hospitalized with acute HF during 1996 to 1999. On entry, mean age was 75 years, blood pressure 134/80 mm Hg, EF 34%, brain natriuretic peptide 312 pg/ml; 55% had atrial fibrillation. Dates of mortality were collected from administrative databases and medical records up until 2008. Follow-up was 9 to 13 years in all 132 patients, and mean survival was 5.5 +/- 4.0 years. Baseline PICP tended to be higher, CITP was higher, and the PICP:CITP ratio was lower in the 102 deceased, compared with the 30 patients alive. Multivariable Cox regression analyses including 2 established risk factor models performed for all-cause (n = 101) and cardiovascular mortality (n = 61) show PICP and CITP to be independent predictors for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In,conclusion, disturbances of collagen type I metabolism have independent prognostic implications for long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with HF with reduced EF. The results suggest excessive degradation to be the predominant disturbance associated with untoward prognosis and adds information on possible target mechanisms for future therapy. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autores: Zhang, Z. Y.; Ravassa, S; Pejchinovski, M.; et al.
Revista: KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL REPORTS
ISSN 2468-0249  Vol. 2  Nº 5  2017  págs. 811 - 820
Introduction: Sequencing peptides included in the urinary proteome identifies the parent proteins and may reveal mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease. Methods: In 805 randomly recruited Flemish individuals (50.8% women; mean age, 51.1 years), we determined the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from serum creatinine using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. We categorized eGFR according to the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guideline. We analyzed 74 sequenced urinary peptides with a detectable signal in more than 95% of participants. Follow-up measurements of eGFR were available in 597 participants. Results: In multivariable analyses, baseline eGFR decreased (P <= 0.022) with urinary fragments of mucin-1 (standardized association size expressed in ml/min/1.73 m(2), -4.48), collagen III (-2.84), and fibrinogen (-1.70) and was bi-directionally associated (P <= 0.0006) with 2 urinary collagen I fragments (+2.28 and -3.20). The eGFR changes over 5 years (follow-up minus baseline) resulted in consistent estimates (P <= 0.025) for mucin-1 (-1.85), collagen (-1.37 to 1.43) and fibrinogen (-1.45) fragments. Relative risk of having or progressing to eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was associated with mucin-1. Partial least-squares analysis confirmed mucin-1 as the strongest urinary marker associated with decreased eGFR, with a score of 2.47 compared with 1.80 for a collagen I fragment as the next contender. Mucin-1 predicted eGFR decline to <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) over and above microalbuminuria (P = 0.011) and retained borderline significance (P = 0.05) when baseline eGFR was accounted for. Discussion: In the general population, mucin-1 subunit alpha, an extracellular protein that is shed from renal tubular epithelium, is a novel biomarker associated with renal dysfunction.
Autores: Maloberti A; Meani, P.; Vallerio, P.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 1473-5598  Vol. 35  Nº 1  2017  págs. 154 - 161
OBJECTIVE: Annexin A5 (AnxA5) has been previously linked to the presence of carotid and cardiac target organ damage (TOD) in the context of heart failure and rheumatologic patients. However, information is scant in the context of hypertension. Aim of our study was to evaluate AnxA5 in treated hypertension patients compared with normotensive controls and to determine whether it is associated with vascular and heart TOD evaluated as arterial stiffness, carotid plaque and left ventricular hypertrophy. METHODS: We enrolled 123 consecutive treated hypertension and 124 normotensive controls. TOD was evaluated as pulse wave velocity (PWV, complior), left ventricular hypertrophy (echocardiography) and intima-media thickness and carotid plaque presence (ecographic methods). AnxA5 levels was dosed and compared in patients with and without hypertension and with and without TOD. RESULTS: With similar age hypertension patients showed higher SBP, DBP and AnxA5 levels (13.9¿±¿11.1 vs 10.1¿±¿8.4¿ng/ml, P¿<¿0.001) compared with controls. Regarding TOD hypertension showed higher PWV (8.5¿±¿1.8 vs 7.6¿±¿1.5¿m/s, P¿<¿0.001) and LVMI (121.7¿±¿29.3 vs 113.5¿±¿21.1¿g/m, P¿<¿0.05), whereas carotid intima-media thickness was superimposable. AnxA5 correlates with PWV (r¿=¿0.13, P¿<¿0.05) and DBP (r¿=¿0.15, P¿<¿0.01), whereas it has never been found as a significant independent predictor of TOD in linear regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Our data have shown that AnxA5 levels are increased in treated hypertension patients. In this condition, it is probably released in the plasma as a defensive mechanism through its anti-inflammatory and anticoagulants effects. We found a significant association with arterial stiffness, but AnxA5 was not found to be a significant predictor of TOD.
Autores: Beaumont Javier; López, B; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 7  2017  págs. 40696
This study analyzed the potential associations of 7 myocardial fibrosis-related microRNAs with the quality of the collagen network (e.g., the degree of collagen fibril cross-linking or CCL) and the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) responsible for CCL in 28 patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) of whom 46% had a diagnosis of chronic heart failure (HF). MicroRNA expression was analyzed in myocardial and blood samples. From the studied microRNAs only miR-19b presented a direct correlation (p < 0.05) between serum and myocardium. Compared to controls both myocardial and serum miR-19b were reduced (p < 0.01) in AS patients. In addition, miR-19b was reduced in the myocardium (p < 0.01) and serum (p < 0.05) of patients with HF compared to patients without HF. Myocardial and serum miR-19b were inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with LOX, CCL and LV stiffness in AS patients. In in vitro studies miR-19b inhibition increased (p < 0.05) connective tissue growth factor protein and LOX protein expression in human fibroblasts. In conclusion, decreased miR-19b may be involved in myocardial LOX up-regulation and excessive CCL, and consequently increased LV stiffness in AS patients, namely in those with HF. Serum miR-19b can be a biomarker of these alterations of the myocardial collagen network in AS patients, particularly in patients with HF.
Autores: Beaumont Javier; San José, Gorka; Moreno, MU; et al.
Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 7  2017  págs. 41865
Excessive myocardial collagen deposition and cross-linking (CCL), a process regulated by lysyl oxidase (LOX), determines left ventricular (LV) stiffness and dysfunction. The angiotensin II antagonist losartan, metabolized to the EXP3179 and EXP3174 metabolites, reduces myocardial fibrosis and LV stiffness in hypertensive patients. Our aim was to investigate the differential influence of losartan metabolites on myocardial LOX and CCL in an experimental model of hypertension with myocardial fibrosis, and whether EXP3179 and EXP3174 modify LOX expression and activity in fibroblasts. In rats treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), administration of EXP3179 fully prevented LOX, CCL and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) increase, as well as fibrosis, without normalization of blood pressure (BP). In contrast, administration of EXP3174 normalized BP and attenuated fibrosis but did not modify LOX, CCL and CTGF. In TGF-beta(1)-stimulated fibroblasts, EXP3179 inhibited CTGF and LOX expression and activity with lower IC50 values than EXP3174. Our results indicate that, despite a lower antihypertensive effect, EXP3179 shows higher anti-fibrotic efficacy than EXP3174, likely through its ability to prevent the excess of LOX and CCL. It is suggested that the anti-fibrotic effect of EXP3179 may be partially mediated by the blockade of CTGF-induced LOX in fibroblasts.
Autores: Echegaray, K.; Andreu, Ion; Lazkano, A.; et al.
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGIA
ISSN 0300-8932  Vol. 70  Nº 10  2017  págs. 832 - 840
Introducción y objetivos Se ha estudiado la localización anatómica, las propiedades biomecánicas y el fenotipo molecular del colágeno miocárdico tisular en 40 pacientes con estenosis aórtica grave, fracción de eyección conservada y síntomas de insuficiencia cardiaca. Métodos Se obtuvieron 2 biopsias transmurales de la pared libre del ventrículo izquierdo. La fracción del volumen de colágeno (FVC) se cuantificó mediante rojo picrosirio y la rigidez, mediante el módulo elástico de Young (YEM) evaluado con microscopia de fuerza atómica en regiones misiales y no misiales. Las FVC de tipos I y III se cuantificaron mediante microscopia confocal en áreas con determinación del YEM. Resultados Comparados con sujetos de control, la FVC misial y no misial y el cociente FVC no misial:misial (p < 0,05) estaban incrementados en los pacientes. El cociente entre la velocidad pico de la onda E mitral y la velocidad E del anillo lateral mitral de los pacientes se correlacionaba con la FVC no misial (r = 0,330; p = 0,046) y con el cociente FVC no misial:misial (r = 0,419; p = 0,012). El cociente FVCI:FVCIII y el YEM aumentaban (p ¿ 0,001) en regiones no misiales respecto de las misiales, con correlación entre ellos (r = 0,895; p < 0,001). Conclusiones En la estenosis aórtica grave con fracción de eyección conservada y síntomas de insuficiencia cardiaca, la disfunción diastólica se asocia con un depósito no misial de colágeno aumentado, predominantemente de tipo I y con mayor rigidez. Las características del colágeno tisular pueden contribuir a la disfunción diastólica en estos pacientes.
Autores: Zhang ZY; Ravassa, S; Nkuipou-Kenfack E; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION. CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE
ISSN 2047-9980  Vol. 6  Nº 8  2017 
Autores: Ravassa, S; Gallego, C. ; Querejeta, R.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE
ISSN 1388-9842  Vol. 19  Nº Supl. 1  2017  págs. 587 - 588
Autores: González, A; Pueyo, Jesús Ciro; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE
ISSN 1388-9842  Vol. 19  Nº Supl. 1  2017  págs. 123
Autores: González, A; López, B; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE
ISSN 1388-9842  Vol. 19  Nº Supl. 1  2017  págs. 9 - 10
Autores: Díez, J; González, A; Ravassa, S;
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0735-1097  Vol. 67  Nº 13  2016  págs. 1569 - 1571
Autores: Huerta, Ana; López, B; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0263-6352  Vol. 34  Nº 1  2016  págs. 130 - 138
OBJECTIVES: Cystatin C has been shown to be associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). In addition, myocardial fibrosis has been involved in diastolic dysfunction in HFPEF. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased cystatin C levels may be associated with altered collagen metabolism, contributing to diastolic dysfunction in patients with HFPEF. METHODS: One hundred and forty-one elderly hypertensive patients with HFPEF were included. Cardiac morphology and function was assessed by echocardiography. Circulating levels of cystatin C, biomarkers of collagen type I synthesis (carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I) and degradation [matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and its inhibitor TIMP-1] and osteopontin were analyzed by ELISA. Twenty elderly sex-matched patients with no identifiable cardiac disease were used as controls. In-vitro studies were performed in human cardiac fibroblasts. RESULTS: Compared with controls, cystatin C was increased (P¿<¿0.001) in patients with HFPEF, even in those with a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; P¿<¿0.05). Cystatin C was directly correlated with the estimated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (P¿<¿0.01), TIMP-1 and osteopontin (P¿<¿0.001) and inversely correlated with MMP-1:TIMP-1 (P¿<¿0.01), but not with carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I or MMP-1 in all patients with HFPEF. These associations were independent of eGFR. In vitro, osteopontin (P¿<¿0.01) and TIMP-1 (P¿<¿0.0
Autores: Beaumont Javier; López, B; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL SCIENCE
ISSN 0143-5221  Vol. 130  Nº 23  2016  págs. 2139 - 2149
MicroRNAs have been associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis, a process involved in myocardial remodelling in aortic valve (Av) stenosis (AS). Our aim was to analyse whether the dysregulation of myocardial microRNAs was related to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in AS patients. Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained from 28 patients with severe AS (based on pressure gradients and Av area) referred for Av replacement and from necropsies of 10 cardiovascular disease-free control subjects. AS patients showed an increased (P<0.001) cardiomyocyte apoptotic index (CMAI) compared with controls. Two clusters of patients were identified according to the CMAI: group 1 (CMAI ¿ 0.08%; n=16) and group 2 (CMAI > 0.08%; n=12). Group 2 patients presented lower cardiomyocyte density (P<0.001) and ejection fraction (P<0.05), and higher troponin T levels (P<0.05), prevalence of heart failure (HF; P<0.05) and NT-proBNP levels (P<0.05) than those from group 1. miRNA expression profile analysed in 5 patients randomly selected from each group showed 64 microRNAs down-regulated and 6 up-regulated (P<0.05) in group 2 compared with group 1. Those microRNAs with the highest fold-change were validated in the full two groups corroborating that miR-10b, miR-125b-2* and miR-338-3p were down-regulated (P<0.05) in group 2 compared with group 1 and control subjects. These three microRNAs were inversely correlated (P<0.05) with the CMAI. Inhibition of miR-10b induced an increase (P<0.05) of apoptosis and increased expression (P<0.05) of apoptosis protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, myocardial down-regulation of miR-10b may be involved in increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis in AS patients, probably through Apaf-1 up-regulation, contributing to cardiomyocyte damage and to the development of HF.
Autores: López, B; Ravassa, S; González, A; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0735-1097  Vol. 67  Nº 3  2016  págs. 251 - 260
BACKGROUND: Excessive myocardial collagen cross-linking (CCL) determines myocardial collagen's resistance to degradation by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and interstitial accumulation of collagen fibers with impairment of cardiac function. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether CCL and a newly identified biomarker of this alteration are associated with hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) or cardiovascular death in patients with HF and arterial hypertension in whom other comorbidities were excluded. METHODS: Endomyocardial biopsies and blood samples from 38 patients (invasive study), and blood samples from 203 patients (noninvasive study) were analyzed. Mean follow-ups were 7.74 ± 0.58 years and 4.72 ± 0.11 years, respectively. Myocardial CCL was calculated as the ratio between insoluble and soluble collagen. The ratio between the C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (CITP:MMP-1) was determined in blood samples. RESULTS: Invasive study: CCL was increased (p < 0.001) in patients compared with controls. Patients were categorized according to normal or high CCL values. Patients with high CCL exhibited higher risk for subsequent HHF (log-rank test p = 0.022), but not for cardiovascular death. CITP:MMP-1 was inversely associated with CCL (r = -0.460; p = 0.005) in all patients. Receiver operating characteristic curves rendered a CITP:MMP-1 cutoff ¿1.968 (80% sensitivity and 76% specificity) for predicting high CCL. Noninvasive study: Patients were categorized according to CITP:MMP-1 ratio values as normal ratio (>1.968) or low ratio (¿1.968). Patients with a low ratio exhibited higher risk for HHF (log-rank test p = 0.014), which remained significant after adjustment for relevant covariables (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.37 to 3.59, p = 0.001). In addition, CITP:MMP-1-based categorization yielded significant integrated discrimination and net reclassification improvements (p = 0.003 and p = 0.009, respectively) for HHF over relevant risk factors. CITP:MMP-1 was not associated with the risk of cardiovascular death. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive myocardial CCL is associated with HHF in hypertensive patients with HF. In this population, the serum CITP:MMP-1 ratio identifies patients with increased CCL and high risk of HHF.
Autores: Zhang, Z. Y. ; Ravassa, S; Yang, W. Y.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 11  Nº 12  2016  págs. e0167582
Current knowledge on the pathogenesis of diastolic heart failure predominantly rests on case-control studies involving symptomatic patients with preserved ejection fraction and relying on invasive diagnostic procedures including endomyocardial biopsy. Our objective was to gain insight in serum and urinary biomarkers reflecting collagen turnover and associated with asymptomatic diastolic LV dysfunction. We randomly recruited 782 Flemish (51.3% women; 50.5 years). We assessed diastolic LV function from the early and late diastolic peak velocities of the transmitral blood flow and of the mitral annulus. By sequencing urinary peptides, we identified 70 urinary collagen fragments. In serum, we measured carboxyterminal propeptide of procollagen type 1 (PICP) as marker of collagen I synthesis and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type 1 (TIMP-1), an inhibitor of collagen-degrading enzymes. In multivariable-adjusted analyses with Bonferroni correction, we expressed effect sizes per 1-SD in urinary collagen I (uCI) or collagen III (uCIII) fragments. In relation to uCI fragments, e' decreased by 0.183 cm/s (95% confidence interval, 0.017 to 0.350; p = 0.025), whereas E/e' increased by 0.210 (0.067 to 0.353; p = 0.0012). E/e' decreased with uCIII by 0.168 (0.021 to 0.316; p = 0.018). Based on age-specific echocardiographic criteria, 182 participants (23.3%) had subclinical diastolic LV dysfunction. Partial least squares discriminant analysis contrasting normal vs. diastolic LV dysfunction confirmed the aforementioned associations with the uCI and uCIII fragments. PICP and TIMP-1 increased in relation to uCI (p<0.0001), whereas these serum markers decreased with uCIII (p <= 0.0006). Diastolic LV dysfunction was associated with higher levels of TIMP-1 (653 vs. 696 ng/mL; p = 0.013). In a general population, the non-invasively assessed diastolic LV function correlated inversely with uCI and serum markers of collagen I deposition, but positively with uCIII. These observations generalise previous studies in patients to randomly recruited people, in whom diastolic LV function ranged from normal to subclinical impairment, but did not encompass overt diastolic heart failure.
Autores: López, B; González, A; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0735-1097  Vol. 65  Nº 22  2015  págs. 2449 - 2456
Myocardial fibrosis impairs cardiac function, in addition to facilitating arrhythmias and ischemia, and thus influences the evolution and outcome of cardiac diseases. Its assessment is therefore clinically relevant. Although tissue biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocardial fibrosis, a number of circulating biomarkers have been proposed for the noninvasive assessment of this lesion. A review of the published clinical data available on these biomarkers shows that most of them lack proof that they actually reflect the myocardial accumulation of fibrous tissue. In this "call to action" article, we propose that this absence of proof may lead to misinterpretations when considering the incremental value provided by the biomarkers with respect to traditional diagnostic tools in the clinical handling of patients. We thus argue that strategies are needed to more strictly validate whether a given circulating biomarker actually reflects histologically proven myocardial fibrosis before it is applied clinically.
Autores: Ravassa, S, (Autor de correspondencia); Beaumont Javier; Huerta, Ana; et al.
Revista: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
ISSN 0891-5849  Vol. 81  2015  págs. 1 - 12
Oxidative stress (OS) contributes to cardiovascular damage in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits OS and exerts cardiovascular protective actions. Our aim was to investigate whether cardiac remodeling (CR) and cardiovascular events (CVE) are associated with circulating GLP-1 and biomarkers of OS in T2DM patients. We also studied GLP-1 antioxidant effects in a model of cardiomyocyte lipotoxicity. We examined 72 T2DM patients with no coronary or valve heart disease and 14 nondiabetic subjects. A median of 6 years follow-up information was obtained in 60 patients. Circulating GLP-1, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity, and biomarkers of OS were quantified. In T2DM patients, circulating GLP-1 decreased and OS biomarkers increased, compared with nondiabetics. Plasma GLP-1 was inversely correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine in T2DM patients. Patients showing high circulating 3-nitrotyrosine and low GLP-1 levels exhibited CR and higher risk for CVE, compared to the remaining patients. In palmitate-stimulated HL-1 cardiomyocytes, GLP-1 reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress, increased mitochondrial ATP synthase expression, partially restored mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c oxidase activity, blunted leakage of creatine to the extracellular medium, and inhibited oxidative damage in total and mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that T2DM patients with reduced circulating GLP-1 and exacerbated OS may exhibit CR and be at higher risk for CVE. In addition, GLP-1 exerts antioxidant effects in HL-1 palmitate-overloaded cardiomyocytes. It is proposed that therapies aimed to increase GLP-1 may counteract OS, protect from CR, and prevent CVE in patients with T2DM.
Autores: Ravassa, S; Kuznetsova, T.; Varo, N; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0167-5273  Vol. 185  2015  págs. 177 - 185
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The validation of effective screening tools for the identification of patients with subclinical myocardial remodelling is a major clinical need. Thus, we explored the associations of circulating biomarkers of cardiomyocyte injury and stress with subclinical cardiac remodelling and dysfunction, and with biomarkers reflecting collagen turnover. METHODS: We randomly recruited 727 subjects from a general population (51.2% women; mean age 51.3 years). Measurements included echocardiographic left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) structure and function, quantification of high sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT), NT-proBNP, and biomarkers of collagen types I and III turnover. RESULTS: In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, the prevalence of LA enlargement (LAE), LV hypertrophy (LVH) and LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) increased with higher hs-cTnT (P ¿ 0.031). NT-proBNP was independently associated with LVDD (P=0.009). Both biomarkers combined yielded significant integrated discrimination and net reclassification improvements (P ¿ 0.014 and P ¿ 0.009, respectively) for LAE, LVH and LVDD, over the conventional risk factors, and were independently and positively associated with biomarkers of collagen type I turnover. In a sensitivity analysis, after excluding participants with previous cardiac diseases, our findings remained consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggested that subclinical LV and LA remodelling were associated with hs-cTnT, and that, in combination with NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT showed incremental diagnostic utility over the conventional risk factors. Both biomarkers were associated with biomarkers of collagen type I turnover. Thus, biomarkers of cardiomyocyte microinjury and hemodynamic stress may stimulate fibrosis-related mechanisms and facilitate the diagnosis of subclinical LA and LV remodelling and dysfunction in the general population.
Autores: Ravassa, S; Beloqui, Óscar; Varo, N; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0263-6352  Vol. 31  Nº 3  2013  págs. 587 - 594
Objectives: Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) induces hypertrophic growth and contractile dysfunction in cardiomyocytes. This cross-sectional study was aimed to analyze CT-1 associations with echocardiographically assessed left ventricular systolic properties taking into account the influence of left ventricular growth [i.e. left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and inappropriate left ventricular mass (iLVM)] in asymptomatic hypertensive patients. Methods: Serum CT-1 was measured by ELISA in 278 asymptomatic hypertensive patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction more than 50% and in 25 age and sex-matched normotensive patients. Results: Serum CT-1 was increased in hypertensive patients as compared to normotensive patients. CT-1 was directly correlated with parameters of left ventricular mass (LVM) and inversely correlated with parameters assessing myocardial systolic function and left ventricular chamber contractility in hypertensive patients, these associations being independent of a number of potential confounding factors. Interestingly, the associations of CT-1 with myocardial systolic function were independent of LVM even in patients with LVH or iLVM. In addition, there was a significant increment of serum CT-1 in hypertensive patients with LVH or iLVM, especially in those in whom LVH or iLVM were accompanied by impaired myocardial systolic function, as compared to the remaining hypertensive patients and normotensive patients. Plasma amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide was not correlated with any of the assessed left ventricular systolic parameters in either group of patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest that serum CT-1 is associated with myocardial systolic dysfunction in asymptomatic hypertensive patients, independently of LVM, even in those patients with pathologic left ventricular growth.
Autores: Ravassa, S, (Autor de correspondencia); Barba, Joaquín; Coma, María Isabel; et al.
Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR DIABETOLOGY
ISSN 1475-2840  Vol. 12  2013  págs. 143
Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) present subclinical left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction (LVD). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inactivates peptides that possess cardioprotective actions. Our aim was to analyze whether the activity of circulating DPP4 is associated with echocardiographically defined LVD in asymptomatic patients with T2DM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we examined 83 T2DM patients with no coronary or valve heart disease and 59 age and gender-matched non-diabetic subjects. Plasma DPP4 activity (DPP4a) was measured by enzymatic assay and serum amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. LV function was assessed by two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging, targeted M-mode recordings and Doppler ultrasound measurements. Differences in means were assessed by t-tests and one-way ANOVA. Associations were assessed by adjusted multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses. Results: DPP4a was increased in T2DM patients as compared with non-diabetic subjects (5855 +/- 1632 vs 5208 +/- 957 pmol/min/mL, p < 0.05). Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters assessing LV morphology were similar across DPP4a tertiles in T2DM patients. However, prevalence of LVD progressively increased across incremental DPP4a tertiles (13%, 39% and 71%, all p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed the independent associations of DPP4a with LVD in T2DM patients (p < 0.05). Similarly, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 pmol/min/min plasma DPP4a was independently associated with an increased frequency of LVD with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.10 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.15, p = 0.001). Conclusions: An excessive activity of circulating DPP4 is independently associated with subclinical LVD in T2DM patients. Albeit descriptive, these findings suggest that DPP4 may be involved in the mechanisms of LVD in T2DM.
Autores: López, B; González, A; Lindner, D.; et al.
Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-6363  Vol. 99  Nº 1  2013  págs. 111 - 120
We investigated whether the pro-fibrotic matricellular protein osteopontin (OPN) is associated with the enzymes involved in the extracellular synthesis of fibril-forming collagen type I (i.e. procollagen C-proteinase, PCP) and its cross-linking to form insoluble fibrils (i.e. lysyl oxidase, LOX) in heart failure (HF) of hypertensive origin. OPN, PCP, and LOX were assessed by histochemical and molecular methods in the myocardium of 21 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) and HF. Whereas the myocardial expression of OPN was very scarce in control hearts (n 10), it was highly expressed in HF patients (P 0.0001). OPN was directly correlated with LOX (r 0.460, P 0.041), insoluble collagen (r 0.534, P 0.015), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (r 0.558; P 0.009), and left-ventricular (LV) chamber stiffness (r 0.458, P 0.037), and inversely correlated with LV ejection fraction (r 0.513, P 0.017) in all patients. OPN did not correlate with PCP and other parameters assessing collagen synthesis by fibroblasts or degradation by matrix metalloproteinases. In vitro studies showed that OPN significantly (P 0.05) increases the expression and activity of LOX in human cardiac and dermal fibroblasts. An excess of OPN is associated with increased LOX and insoluble collagen, as well as with LV stiffness and systolic dysfunction in patients with HHD and HF. In addition, OPN up-regulates LOX in human fibroblasts. It is suggested that the OPNLOX axis might facilitate the formation of insoluble collagen (i.e. stiff and resistant to degradation) and the subsequent alteration in LV mechanical properties and function in patients with HHD and HF.
Autores: Ravassa, S; Díez, J;
Revista: REVISTA DE ENDOCRINOLOGIA Y NUTRICION
ISSN 0188-9796  Vol. 59  Nº 9  2012  págs. 561 - 569
La activación de diferentes procesos de muerte celular en los cardiomiocitos tras un infarto de miocardio (IM) contribuye al tamaño final del infarto, a la mortalidad subsecuente y al remodelado postinfarto en los supervivientes. Los diversos mecanismos deletéreos activados durante las fases de isquemia y reperfusión en el IM incluyen la privación de oxígeno, la disponibilidad reducida de nutrientes y factores de supervivencia, la acumulación de residuos, la generación de especies reactivas del oxígeno, la sobrecarga de calcio, la infiltración por neutrófilos en el área isquémica, la depleción energética, y la apertura del poro de transición de permeabilidad mitocondrial, todos ellos mecanismos de activación de apoptosis y necrosis en los cardiomiocitos. En los últimos años, las terapias basadas en el péptido similar al glucagón tipo 1 [GLP-1 (7-36) amida] han adquirido mayor relevancia como tratamiento metabólico de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Entre las acciones atribuidas a GLP-1 destaca la preservación de la viabilidad en diferentes tipos celulares, entre ellos los cardiomiocitos. Este artículo revisa los principales estudios experimentales que han contribuido a una mayor comprensión de la citoprotección inducida por GLP-1 en el miocardio y de sus efectos en la función cardiaca, ahondando en el estudio de su papel como diana terapéutica, no solo en el contexto de la diabetes mellitus sino también en otras patologías que cursan con remodelado cardiaco.
Autores: González, A; López, B; Ravassa, S; et al.
Revista: ENDOCRINE
ISSN 1355-008X  Vol. 42  Nº 1  2012  págs. 9 - 17
Hypertensive heart disease, here defined by the presence of pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of a cause other than arterial hypertension, is characterized by complex changes in myocardial structure including enhanced cardiomyocyte growth and non-cardiomyocyte alterations that induce the remodeling of the myocardium, and ultimately, deteriorate left ventricular function and facilitate the development of heart failure. It is now accepted that a number of pathological processes mediated by mechanical, neurohormonal, and cytokine routes acting on the cardiomyocyte and the non-cardiomyocyte compartments are responsible for myocardial remodeling in the context of arterial hypertension. For instance, cardiotrophin-1 is a cytokine member of the interleukin-6 superfamily, produced by cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes in situations of biomechanical stress that once secreted interacts with its receptor, the heterodimer formed by gp130 and gp90 (also known as leukemia inhibitory factor receptor beta), activating different signaling pathways leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as well as myocardial fibrosis. Beyond its potential mechanistic contribution to the development of hypertensive heart disease, cardiotrophin-1 offers the opportunity for a new translational approach to this condition. In fact, recent evidence suggests that cardiotrophin-1 may serve as both a biomarker of left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in hypertensive patients, and a potential target for therapies aimed to prevent and treat hypertensive heart disease beyond blood pressure control.
Autores: Ravassa, S, (Autor de correspondencia); Díez, J;
Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-6363  Vol. 94  Nº 2  2012  págs. 316 - 323
During myocardial infarction (MI), a variety of mechanisms contribute to the activation of cell death processes in cardiomyocytes, determining the final MI size, subsequent mortality, and post-MI remodelling. The deleterious mechanisms accompanying the ischaemic and reperfusion phases in MI include deprivation of oxygen, nutrients, and survival factors, accumulation of waste products, generation of oxygen free radicals, calcium overload, neutrophil infiltration of the ischaemic area, depletion of energy stores, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, all of which contribute to the activation of apoptosis and necrosis in cardiomyocytes. During the last few years, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7-36)-based therapeutic strategies have been incorporated into the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cytoprotection is among the pleiotropic actions described for GLP-1 in different cell types, including cardiomyocytes. This paper reviews the most relevant experimental and clinical studies that have contributed to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and intracellular pathways involved in the cardioprotection induced by GLP-1, analysing in depth its potential role as a therapeutic target in the ischaemic and reperfused myocardium as well as in other pathologies that are associated with myocardial remodelling and heart failure.
Autores: Beaumont Javier; González, A; López, B; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0263-6352  Vol. 30  Nº 1  2012  págs. 34 - 37
Autores: Ravassa, S; González, A; Díez, J;
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGIA. SUPLEMENTO
ISSN 1131-3587  Vol. 11  Nº Supl. 4  2011  págs. 37 - 41
El sistema renina-angiotensina desempeña un papel determinante en la aparición de complicaciones cardiovasculares y renales en el contexto de la diabetes mellitus. Las acciones del sistema reninaangiotensina incluyen no sólo las dependientes de la producción de angiotensina II, sino también las resultantes de la activación del sistema renina-pro-renina/receptor de la pro-renina. En los últimos años, diversos estudios clínicos y experimentales señalan la implicación del sistema renina-pro-renina/receptor de la pro-renina en el daño de órganos diana en la diabetes mellitus. Este artículo revisa los principales estudios que han contribuido a una mayor comprensión de dicho sistema y de su papel como posible diana terapéutica en la diabetes mellitus.
Autores: González, A; Ravassa, S; Beaumont Javier; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 0735-1097  Vol. 58  Nº 18  2011  págs. 1833 - 1843
Classical therapy of heart failure is based on treatment of its pre-disposing/triggering factors and of the neurohumoral activation secondary to the deterioration of cardiac function. A new view is emerging that proposes the direct intervention on the pathological structural remodeling of the myocardium as part of heart failure therapy. In fact, in conditions of chronic injury, the cardiomyocytic and the noncardiomyocytic components of the myocardium undergo a series of structural lesions (i.e., cardiomyocyte growth and death, inflammation, alterations of collagen matrix, and microvascular rarefaction) that are governed by a complex interplay of mechanisms. Our increasing knowledge of the role of these mechanisms in remodeling enables us not only to better understand how our more successful therapies work but also to explore novel therapies for the future. In this paper, we will examine recent insights from experimental and pilot clinical studies that have provided new targets for interventions to prevent or reverse inflammation, alterations of collagen matrix, and cardiomyocyte death.
Autores: Díez, J; López, B; Beaumont Javier; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0263-6352  Vol. 29  Nº 4  2011  págs. 660 - 662
Autores: Ravassa, S, (Autor de correspondencia); Carr, R. D.; Díez, J;
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 0363-6135  Vol. 300  Nº 4  2011  págs. H1361 - H1372
Activation of apoptosis contributes to cardiomyocyte dysfunction and death in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone that is the basis of emerging therapy for type 2 diabetic patients, has cytoprotective actions in different cellular models. We investigated whether GLP-1 inhibits apoptosis in HL-1 cardiomyocytes stimulated with staurosporine, palmitate, and ceramide. Studies were performed in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Apoptosis was induced by incubating HL-1 cells with staurosporine (175 nM), palmitate (135 ¿M), or ceramide (15 ¿M) for 24 h. In staurosporine-stimulated HL-1 cardiomyocytes, phosphatidylserine exposure, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, Bad phosphorylation (Ser(136)), BNIP3 expression, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6K phosphorylation (Ser(2448) and Thr(389), respectively) were assessed. Apoptotic hallmarks were also measured in the absence or presence of low (5 mM) and high (10 mM) concentrations of glucose. In addition, phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation were analyzed in palmitate- and ceramide-stimulated cells. Staurosporine increased apoptosis in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. GLP-1 (100 nM) partially inhibited staurosporine-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and completely blocked the rest of the staurosporine-induced apoptotic changes. This cytoprotective effect was mainly mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and partially dependent on ERK1/2. Increasing concentrations of glucose did not influence GLP-1-induced protection against staurosporine. Furthermore, GLP-1 inhibited palmitate- and ceramide-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation. Incretin GLP-1 protects HL-1 cardiomyocytes against activation of apoptosis. This cytoprotective ability is mediated mainly by the PI3K pathway and partially by the ERK1/2 pathway and seems to be glucose independent. It is proposed that therapies based on GLP-1 may contribute to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
Autores: Díez, J; González, A; Ravassa, S;
Revista: HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0194-911X  Vol. 56  Nº 6  2010  págs. 1045 - 1046
Autores: Ravassa, S; Garcia-Bolao, I; et al.
Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-6363  Vol. 88  Nº 2  2010  págs. 304 - 313