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Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Rojo-Bustamante, E.; Íñigo Marco, Ignacio; Abellanas Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
ISSN 2218-273X  Vol. 10  Nº 8  2020  págs. 1198
Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition (MAGL) has emerged as an interesting therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disease treatment due to its ability to modulate the endocannabinoid system and to prevent the production of proinflammatory mediators. To obtain a beneficial response, it is necessary to understand how this inhibition affects the neuron-glia crosstalk and neuron viability. In this study, the effect of MAGL inhibition by KML29 was evaluated in two types of rat cortical primary cultures; mixed cultures, including neuron and glial cells, and neuron-enriched cultures. The risk of neuronal death was estimated by longitudinal survival analysis. The spontaneous neuronal risk of death in culture was higher in the absence of glial cells, a process that was enhanced by KML29 addition. In contrast, neuronal survival was not compromised by MAGL inhibition in the presence of glial cells. Blockade of cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors expressed mainly by microglial cells did not affect the spontaneous neuronal death risk but decreased neuronal survival when KML29 was added. Modulation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors did not affect neuronal survival. Our results show that neuron-glia interactions are essential for neuronal survival. CB2 receptors play a key role in these protective interactions when neurons are exposed to toxic conditions.
Autores: Abellanas Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Zamarbide, M.; Basurco Gogorcena, Leyre; et al.
ISSN 1742-2094  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2019 
Background Inflammation is a critical process for the progression of neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia play a central role in neuroinflammation and may affect neuron vulnerability. Next generation sequencing has shown the molecular heterogeneity of microglial cells; however, the variability in their response to pathological inputs remains unknown. Methods To determine the effect of an inflammatory stimulus on microglial cells, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered peripherally to mice and the inflammatory status of the cortex, hippocampus, midbrain, and striatum was assessed. Microglial activation and interaction with the immune system were analyzed in single cell suspensions obtained from the different brain regions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, next generation RNA sequencing, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemical techniques. Antigen-presenting properties of microglia were evaluated by the ability of isolated cells to induce a clonal expansion of CD4(+) T cells purified from OT-II transgenic mice. Results Under steady-state conditions, the midbrain presented a high immune-alert state characterized by the presence of two unique microglial subpopulations, one expressing the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) and acting as antigen-presenting cells and another expressing the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and by the presence of a higher proportion of infiltrating CD4(+) T cells. This state was not detected in the cortex, hippocampus, or striatum. Systemic LPS administration induced a general increase in classic pro-inflammatory cytokines, in co-inhibitory programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), and in cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) receptors, as well as a decrease in infiltrating effector T cells in all brain regions. Interestingly, a specific immune-suppressive response was observed in the midbrain which was characterized by the downregulation of MHC-II microglial expression, the upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL10 and TGF beta, and the increase in infiltrating regulatory T cells. Conclusions These data show that the midbrain presents a high immune-alert state under steady-state conditions that elicits a specific immune-suppressive response when exposed to an inflammatory stimulus. This specific inflammatory tone and response may have an impact in neuronal viability.
Autores: Elgueta, D. ; Contreras, F. ; Prado, C.; et al.
ISSN 1664-3224  Vol. 10  2019  págs. 981
Neuroinflammation constitutes a fundamental process involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). Microglial cells play a central role in the outcome of neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current evidence indicates that CD4(+) T-cells infiltrate the brain in PD, where they play a critical role determining the functional phenotype of microglia, thus regulating the progression of the disease. We previously demonstrated that mice bearing dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3)-deficient CD4(+) T-cells are completely refractory to neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration induced by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In this study we aimed to determine whether DRD3-signalling is altered in peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cells obtained from PD patients in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Furthermore, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting DRD3 confined to CD4(+) T-cells by inducing the pharmacologic antagonism or the transcriptional inhibition of DRD3-signalling in a mouse model of PD induced by the chronic administration of MPTP and probenecid (MPTPp). In vitro analyses performed in human cells showed that the frequency of peripheral blood Th1 and Th17 cells, two phenotypes favoured by DRD3-signalling, were significantly increased in PD patients. Moreover, native CD4(+) T-cells obtained from PD patients displayed a significant higher Th1 -biased differentiation in comparison with those naive CD4(+) T-cells obtained from HC. Nevertheless, DRD3 expression was selectively reduced in CD4(+) T-cells obtained from PD patients. The results obtained from in vivo experiments performed in mice show that the transference of CD4(+) T-cells treated ex vivo with the DRD3-selective antagonist PG01037 into MPTPp-mice resulted in a significant reduction of motor impairment, although without significant effect in neurodegeneration. Conversely, the transference CD4(+) T-cells transduced ex vivo with retroviral pArtículos codifying for an shRNA for DRD3 into MPTPp-mice had no effects neither in motor impairment nor in neurodegeneration. Notably, the systemic antagonism of DRD3 significantly reduced both motor impairment and neurodegeneration in MPTPp mice. Our findings show a selective alteration of DRD3-signalling in CD4(+) T-cells from PD patients and indicate that the selective DRD3-antagonism in this subset of lymphocytes exerts a therapeutic effect in parkinsonian animals dampening motor impairment.
Autores: Cortés Jiménez, Adriana; Solas Zubiaurre, Maite; Pejenaute Martínez de Lizarrondo, Álvaro; et al.
ISSN 0891-5849  Vol. 139  Nº S1  2019  págs. S17 - S17
Autores: Aymerich Soler, Marisol (Autor de correspondencia); Aso, E.; Abellanas Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
ISSN 0006-2952  Vol. 157  2018  págs. 67 - 84
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) exerts a modulatory effect of important functions such as neurotransmission, glial activation, oxidative stress, or protein homeostasis. Dysregulation of these cellular processes is a common neuropathological hallmark in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The broad spectrum of actions of cannabinoids allows targeting different aspects of these multifactorial diseases. In this review, we examine the therapeutic potential of the ECS for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS focusing on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. First, we describe the localization of the molecular components of the ECS and how they are altered under neurodegenerative conditions, either contributing to or protecting cells from degeneration. Second, we address recent advances in the modulation of the ECS using experimental models through different strategies including the direct targeting of cannabinoid receptors with agonists or antagonists, increasing the endocannabinoid tone by the inhibition of endocannabinoid hydrolysis, and activation of cannabinoid receptor independent effects. Preclinical evidence indicates that cannabinoid pharmacology is complex but supports the therapeutic potential of targeting the ECS. Third, we review the clinical evidence and discuss the future perspectives on how to bridge human and animal studies to develop cannabinoid-based therapies for each neurodegenerative disorder. Finally, we summarize the most relevant opportunities of cannabinoid pharmacology related to each disease and the multiple unexplored pathways in cannabinoid pharmacology that could be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Autores: Luquin de Carlos, María Esther; Huerta, I.; Aymerich Soler, Marisol; et al.
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 12  2018  págs. 34
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are functionally associated brainstem structures implicated in behavioral state control and sensorimotor integration. The PPN is also involved in gait and posture, while the LDT plays a role in reward. Both nuclei comprise characteristic cholinergic neurons intermingled with glutamatergic and GABAergic cells whose absolute numbers in the rat have been only partly established. Here we sought to determine the complete phenotypical profile of each nucleus to investigate potential differences between them. Counts were obtained using stereological methods after the simultaneous visualization of cholinergic and either glutamatergic or GABAergic cells. The two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67, were separately analyzed. Dual in situ hybridization revealed coexpression of GAD65 and GAD67 mRNAs in ~90% of GAD-positive cells in both nuclei; thus, the estimated mean numbers of (1) cholinergic, (2) glutamatergic, and (3) GABAergic cells in PPN and LDT, respectively, were (1) 3,360 and 3,650; (2) 5,910 and 5,190; and (3) 4,439 and 7,599. These data reveal significant differences between PPN and LDT in their relative phenotypical composition, which may underlie some of the functional differences observed between them. The estimation of glutamatergic cells was significantly higher in the caudal PPN, supporting the reported functional rostrocaudal segregation in this nucleus. Fi
Autores: Rojo-Bustamante, E. ; Abellanas Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Clavero Ibarra, Pedro Luis; et al.
ISSN 0969-9961  Vol. 118  2018  págs. 64 - 75
Management of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) is one of the main challenges in the treatment of Parkinson's disease patients. Mechanisms involved in the appearance of these involuntary movements are not well known but modifications in the activity of different neurotransmitter pathways seem to play an important role. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the expression levels of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) elements that would support a role in LID. The basal ganglia nuclei, putamen, external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN) and substantia nigra (SN) were dissected out from cryostat sections obtained from two groups of parkinsonian monkeys treated with levodopa to induce dyskinesias. One group of dyskinetic animals was sacrificed under the effect of levodopa, during the active phase of LID, and the other group 24 h after the last levodopa dose (OFF levodopa). Biochemical analysis by real-time PCR for ECS elements was performed. CBI receptor expression was upregulated in the putamen, GPe and STN during the active phase of dyskinesia and downregulated in the same nuclei and in the SN when dyskinetic animals were OFF levodopa. Changes in the 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) synthesizing/degrading enzymes affecting the pallidal-subthalamic projections in dyskinetic animals OFF levodopa would suggest that 2-AG may play a role in LID. Anandamide (AEA) synthesizing/degrading enzymes were altered specifically in the GPe of untreated parkinsonian monkeys, suggesting that increased AEA levels may be a compensatory mechanism. These results indicate that the expression of the ECS elements is influenced by alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. On one hand, changes in CBI, receptor expression and in the 2-AG synthesizing/degrading enzymes suggest that they could be a therapeutic target for the active phase of LID. On the other hand, AEA metabolism could provide a non-dopaminergic target for symptomatic relief. However, further research is needed to unravel the mechanism of action of the ECS and how they could be modulated for a therapeutic purpose.
Autores: Ugarte, A.; Corbacho, D.; Aymerich Soler, Marisol; et al.
ISSN 1933-7213  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2018  págs. 742 - 750
Drug efficacy in the central nervous system (CNS) requires an additional step after crossing the blood-brain barrier. Therapeutic agents must reach their targets in the brain to modulate them; thus, the free drug concentration hypothesis is a key parameter for in vivo pharmacology. Here, we report the impact of neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) compared with healthy controls) on the binding of 10 known drugs to postmortem brain tissues from animal models and humans. Unbound drug fractions, for some drugs, are significantly different between healthy and injured brain tissues (AD or PD). In addition, drugs binding to brain tissues from AD and PD animal models do not always recapitulate their binding to the corresponding human injured brain tissues. These results reveal potentially relevant implications for CNS drug discovery.
Autores: Silveira, M. M.; Arnold, J. C.; Laviolette, S. R.; et al.
ISSN 0149-7634  Vol. 76  Nº Part B  2017  págs. 380 - 395
Public opinion surrounding the recreational use and therapeutic potential of cannabis is shifting. This review describes new work examining the behavioural and neural effects of cannabis and the endocannabinoid system, highlighting key regions within corticolimbic brain circuits. First, we consider the role of human genetic factors and cannabis strain chemotypic differences in contributing to interindividual variation in the response to cannabinoids, such as THC, and review studies demonstrating that THC-induced impairments in decision-making processes are mediated by actions at prefrontal CB1 receptors. We further describe evidence that signalling through prefrontal or ventral hippocampal CB1 receptors modulates mesolimbic dopamine activity, aberrations of which may contribute to emotional processing deficits in schizophrenia. Lastly, we review studies suggesting that endocannabinoid tone in the amygdala is a critical regulator of anxiety, and report new data showing that FAAH activity is integral to this response. Together, these findings underscore the importance of cannabinoid signalling in the regulation of cognitive and affective behaviours, and encourage further research given their social, political, and therapeutic implications
Autores: Elgueta, D.; Aymerich Soler, Marisol; Contreras, F.; et al.
ISSN 0028-3908  Vol. 113  2017  págs. 110 - 123
Neuroinflammation involves the activation of glial cells, which is associated to the progression of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Recently, we and other researchers demonstrated that dopamine receptor D3 (D3R)-deficient mice are completely refractory to neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration associated to the acute intoxication with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In this study we examined the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanism of a D3R-selective antagonist, PG01037, in mice intoxicated with a chronic regime of administration of MPTP and probenecid (MPTPp). Biodistribution analysis indicated that intraperitoneally administered PG01037 crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches the highest concentration in the brain 40 min after the injection. Furthermore, the drug was preferentially distributed to the brain in comparison to the plasma. Treatment of MPTPp-intoxicated mice with PG01037 (30 mg/kg, administrated twice a week for five weeks) attenuated the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, as evaluated by stereological analysis, and the loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals, as determined by densitometric analyses of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter immunoreactivities. Accordingly, the treatment resulted in significant improvement of motor performance of injured animals. Interestingly, the therapeutic dose of PG01037 exacerbated astrdgliosis and resulted in increased ramification density of microglial cells in the striatum of MPTPp-intoxicated mice. Further analyses suggested that D3R expressed in astrocytes favours a beneficial astrogliosis with antiinflammatory consequences on microglia. Our findings indicate that D3R-antagonism exerts a therapeutic effect in parkinsonian animals by reducing the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, alleviating motor impairments and modifying the pro-inflammatory phenotype of glial cells. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Celorrio Navarro, Marta; Rojo-Bustamante E; Fernandez-Suarez D; et al.
ISSN 0028-3908  Vol. 125  2017  págs. 319 - 332
The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses. Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The distribution of GPR55 mRNA was first analyzed by in situ hybridization, localizing GPR55 transcripts to neurons in brain nuclei related to movement control, striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and cortex. Striatal expression of GPR55 was downregulated in parkinsonian conditions. When Abn-CBD and CBD (5 mg/kg) were chronically administered to mice treated over 5 weeks with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6tetrahydropyridine and probenecid (MPTPp), Abn-CBD but not CBD prevented MPTPp induced motor impairment. Although Abn-CBD protected dopaminergic cell bodies, it failed to prevent degeneration of the terminals or preserve dopamine levels in the striatum. Both compounds induced morphological changes in microglia that were compatible with an anti-inflammatory phenotype that did not correlate with a neuroprotective activity. The symptomatic relief of Abn-CBD was further studied in the haloperidol-induced
Autores: Celorrio Navarro, Marta; Fernández Suárez, Diana; Rojo-Bustamante, E.; et al.
ISSN 0889-1591  Vol. 57  2016  págs. 94 - 105
Elements of the endocannabinoid system are strongly expressed in the basal ganglia where they suffer profound rearrangements after dopamine depletion. Modulation of the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol by inhibiting monoacylglycerol lipase alters glial phenotypes and provides neuroprotection in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we assessed whether inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase could also provide beneficial effects on the time course of this disease. The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, was administered chronically to mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and probenecid (MPTPp) over 5 weeks. URB597 (1 mg/kg) prevented MPTPp induced motor impairment but it did not preserve the dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal pathway or regulate glial cell activation. The symptomatic relief of URB597 was confirmed in haloperidol-induced catalepsy assays, where its anti-cataleptic effects were both blocked by antagonists of the two cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and abolished in animals deficient in these receptors. Other fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors, JNJ1661010 and TCF2, also had anti-cataleptic properties. Together, these results demonstrate an effect of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease in two distinct experimental models that is mediated by cannabinoid receptors.
Autores: Aymerich Soler, Marisol; Rojo-Bustamante, E.; Molina, C.; et al.
ISSN 0893-7648  Vol. 53  Nº 4  2016  págs. 2312 -2319
Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Recently, we have shown the neuroprotective effect of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition with JZL184 in the chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model. However, further investigation is needed to determine the neuroprotective mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system on the nigrostriatal pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the neuroprotective effect of JZL184 in mice could be extended to an in vitro cellular model to further understand the mechanism of action of the drug. The SH-SY5Y cell line was selected based on its dopaminergic-like phenotype and its susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP(+)) toxicity. Furthermore, SH-SY5Y cells express both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The present study describes the neuroprotective effect of MAGL inhibition with JZL184 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP(+). The effect of JZL184 in cell survival was blocked by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist, and it was mimicked with JWH133, a CB2 receptor agonist. Rimonabant, a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not affect JZL184-induced cell survival. These results demonstrate that the neuroprotective effect of MAGL inhibition with JZL184 described in animal models of Parkinson's disease could be extended to in vitro models such as SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP(+). This represents a useful tool to study mechanisms of neuroprotection mediated by MAGL inhibition, and we provide evidence for the possible involvement of CB2 receptors in the improvement of cell survival.
Autores: Cordomí, A.; Navarro, G.; Aymerich Soler, Marisol; et al.
ISSN 0968-0004  Vol. 40  Nº 10  2015  págs. 548 - 551
G-Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were classically described as monomers. We now appreciate that they also function as homo- and hetero-oligomers, for which structural information is lacking. Here, we use available 3D structures and biochemical considerations to present and evaluate experimentally testable structural models for GPCR oligomers and associated G proteins.
Autores: Zamarbide González, Marta; Etayo-Labiano I; Ricobaraza Abarquero, Ana; et al.
ISSN 1050-9631  2014 
GPR40, the free fatty acid receptor 1, is expressed strongly in the primate pancreas and brain. While the role of pancreatic GPR40 in glucose homeostasis has been extensively studied, the absence of this G-protein-coupled receptor from the brain of rodents has hampered studies into its role in the central nervous system. However, we found intense GPR40 mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in mouse hippocampal and motor cortex neurons. Furthermore, in a neuroblastoma cell GPR40 was activated by docosahexaenoic acid and selective agonists, yet not by palmitic acid. Significantly, the activation of GPR40 provoked the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein, CREB. The receptor was also functional in primary cultures of murine neurons, in which its activation by a selective agonist produced the phosphorylation of CREB and of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, ERK1/2. These results suggest that mice represent a suitable model for elucidating the role of GPR40 in brain function.
Autores: Fernández Suárez, Diana; Celorrio Navarro, Marta; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0197-4580  Vol. 35  Nº 11  2014  págs. 2603 - 2616
Changes in cannabinoid receptor expression and concentration of endocannabinoids have been described in Parkinson's disease; however, it remains unclear whether they contribute to, or result from, the disease process. To evaluate whether targeting the endocannabinoid system could provide potential benefits in the treatment of the disease, the effect of a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor that prevents degradation of 2-arachidonyl-glycerol was tested in mice treated chronically with probenecid and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTPp). Chronic administration of the compound, JZL184 (8 mg/kg), prevented MPTPp-induced motor impairment and preserved the nigrostriatal pathway. Furthermore, none of the hypokinetic effects associated with cannabinoid receptor agonism were observed. In the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta, MPTPp animals treated with JZL184 exhibited astroglial and microglial phenotypic changes that were accompanied by increases in TGFß messenger RNA expression and in glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA and protein levels. JZL184 induced an increase in ß-catenin translocation to the nucleus, implicating the Wnt/catenin pathway. Together, these results demonstrate a potent neuroprotective effect of JZL184 on the nigrostriatal pathway of parkinsonian animals, likely involving restorative astroglia and microglia activation and the release of neuroprotective and antiinflammatory molecules.
Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Casales Zoco, Erkuden; Aranda, Alejandro Mario; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 440  Nº 1  2013  págs. 19-26
Human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) is a very promising protein for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. The present work describes a quick and simple method to obtain a high amount of purified hGDNF using a mammalian cell-derived system. The method is based on the high expression level provided by a Semliki Forest virus vector and its ability to induce a strong shut-off of host-cell protein synthesis in mammalian cells. As a result, hGDNF is the only protein present in the supernatant and can be efficiently purified by a single chromatographic step. Using this system it was possible to eliminate other secreted proteins from the culture medium, like insulin-like growth factor-5, which are hard to remove using other hGDNF production methods. Purified hGDNF presents a complex glycosylation pattern typical of mammalian expression systems and is biologically active. This protocol could be extended to other secreted proteins and could be easily scaled up for industrial purposes. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Fernández Suárez, Diana; Celorrio, M.; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0022-3069  Vol. 71  Nº 11  2012  págs. 973-982
The external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) in humans and the equivalent structure in rodents, the globus pallidus (GP), influence signal processing in the basal ganglia under normal and pathological conditions. Parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity defines 2 main neuronal subpopulations in the GP/GPe: PV-immunopositive cells that project mainly to the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the GP and PV-negative cells that mainly project to the striatum. We evaluated the number of neurons in the GP/GPe in animal models of Parkinson disease. In rats, dopaminergic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) provoked a significant decrease in the number of GP neurons (12% +/- 4%, p < 0.05), which specifically affected the PV+ subpopulation. A similar trend was observed in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys. Markers of GABAergic activity (GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA) were not different from those of controls in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for nondopaminergic neuronal cell loss in the basal ganglia of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and suggest that a similar loss may occur in the MPTP monkey. These data suggest that in patients with Parkinson disease, the loss of GABAergic neurons projecting to the subthalamic nucleus may contribute to the hyperactivity of this nucleus despite the absence of gross alterations in GAD mRNA expression.
Autores: Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0885-3185  Vol. 26  Nº 10  2011  págs. 1943 - 1947
Background: Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor is a survival factor for dopaminergic neurons and a promising candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, the delivery issue of the protein to the brain still remains unsolved. Our aim was to investigate the effect of long-term delivery of encapsulated glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor within microspheres. Methods: A single dose of microspheres containing 2.5 mu g of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor was implanted intrastriatally in animals 2 weeks after a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Results: The amphetamine test showed a complete behavioral recovery after 16 weeks of treatment, which was maintained until the end of the study (week 30). This effect was accompanied by an increase in dopaminergic striatal terminals and neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. Conclusions: The main achievement was the long-term neurorestoration in parkinsonian animals induced by encapsulated glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, suggesting that microspheres may be considered as a means to deliver glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor for Parkinson's disease treatment.
Autores: Aymerich Soler, Marisol; lopez azcarate, Jon; Boncaventura, J; et al.
ISSN 1537-744X  Vol. 11  2011  págs. 1995 - 2010
Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08¿¿m/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.
Autores: Luquin de Carlos, María Esther; Pérez Lorenzo, Eva; Aymerich Soler, Marisol; et al.
Revista: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
ISSN 0022-1554  Vol. 58  Nº 4  2010  págs. 359 - 368
Acrolein is a potent fixative that provides both excellent preservation of ultrastructural morphology and retention of antigenicity, thus it is frequently used for immunocytochemical detection of antigens at the electron microscopic level. However, acrolein is not commonly used for fluorescence microscopy because of concerns about possible autofluorescence and destruction of the luminosity of fluorescent dyes. Here we describe a simple protocol that allows fine visualization of two fluorescent markers in 40-mu m sections from acrolein-perfused rat brain. Autofluorescence was removed by pretreatment with 1% sodium borohydride for 30 min, and subsequent incubation in a 50% ethanol solution containing 0.3% hydrogen peroxide enhanced fluorescence labeling. Thus, fluorescence labeling can be used for high-quality detection of markers in tissue perfused with acrolein. Furthermore, adjacent acrolein-fixed sections from a single experiment can be processed to produce high-quality results for electron microscopy or fluorescence labeling.
Autores: Navarro, G.; Moreno, E.; Aymerich Soler, Marisol; et al.
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 107  Nº 43  2010  págs. 18676 - 18681
It is well known that cocaine blocks the dopamine transporter. This mechanism should lead to a general increase in dopaminergic neurotransmission, and yet dopamine D-1 receptors (D(1)Rs) play a more significant role in the behavioral effects of cocaine than the other dopamine receptor subtypes. Cocaine also binds to sigma-1 receptors, the physiological role of which is largely unknown. In the present study, D1R and sigma R-1 were found to heteromerize in transfected cells, where cocaine robustly potentiated D1R-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation, induced MAPK activation per se and counteracted MAPK activation induced by D1R stimulation in a dopamine transporter-independent and sigma R-1-dependent manner. Some of these effects were also demonstrated in murine striatal slices and were absent in sigma R-1 KO mice, providing evidence for the existence of sigma R-1-D1R heteromers in the brain. Therefore, these results provide a molecular explanation for which D1R plays a more significant role in the behavioral effects of cocaine, through sigma R-1-D1R heteromerization, and provide a unique perspective toward understanding the molecular basis of cocaine addiction.
Autores: Ferré, Sergi; Woods, AS; Navarro Díez, Gemma; et al.
Revista: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
ISSN 1471-4892  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2010  págs. 67 - 72
Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 385  Nº 1-2  2010  págs. 6 - 11
The administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of several diseases of the nervous system as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury and nerve regeneration as well as ocular diseases and drug addictions. A procedure for the purification of human recombinant glycosylated GDNF using a mammalian expression system as the source of the protein is discussed in the present paper. The neurotrophic factor was purified using cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration. A human cell line was chosen as the source of therapeutic protein, since a recombinant protein with a structure and glycosylation pattern equivalent to the native form is desirable for its prospective therapeutic utilization. The activity of the highly pure protein obtained was confirmed with a cell-based bioassay. The purified protein is suitable for its in vivo evaluation in animals and for possible subsequent clinical application.
Autores: Franco Fernández, Rafael; Seeman, P; Barrera, C.; et al.
Revista: Synapse
ISSN 0887-4476  Vol. 64  Nº 7  2010  págs. 566 - 569
Autores: Aymerich Soler, Marisol; García, M.; Suburo, A. M.; et al.
Libro:  Biología Celular Biomédica
2015  págs. 173-195