Nuestros investigadores

Amelia Martí del Moral

Departamento
Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Obesidad infantil, Estudios de intervención en niños y adolescentes obesos, Dieta mediterránea, variantes genéticas y adiposidad, Nutrigenómica y obesidad infantil, Sexenios CNEAI: 3 (1994-2001; 2002-2007; 2008-2013)
Índice H
44, (WoS, 15/02/2019)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Marti A, (Autor de correspondencia); Fortique, F.;
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 36  Nº 4  2019  págs. 939 - 949
In a growing elderly population, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age related cognitive decline (ARCD) are increasing in prevalence worldwide. In the search for food compounds able to ameliorate this condition, it has been postulated that n-3 Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), also known as omega-3, consumption could have a positive effect in the prevention or therapy of these cognitive declines. However, there are contradictory findings in the literature concerning the effects of n-3 LCPUFA on cognitive decline making it difficult to draw a conclusion on this topic. This current systematic review studies the relationship between n-3 LCPUFAs and cognitive status in aged adult and elder populations to determine whether there is or not a positive effect of n-3 LCPUFAs supplementation on cognitive decline. Additionally, we remark how duration periods, different cognitive baseline status in subjects, dosage of n-3 LCPUFAs administration and the presence of other factors might be related to different outcomes. A search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related with the relationship between cognitive impairment and n-3 LCPUFA (docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentanoic acid or combined) supplementation was conducted through PubMed database from January 2010 to December 2017 following the PRISMA statement. Interventional studies which included aged adults or elder subjects with or without MCI and with no previous intake of fish oil supplements (FOS) were included. Ten out of the fourteen RCTs reviewed showed positive outcome on at least one domain of cognitive function (working memory, executive function, verbal memory, short-term memory, perceptual speed, etc.). This systematic review concludes that omega-3 supplementation might have a positive effect on cognitive function. Thus, n-3 LCPUFAs could be used as a preventive or therapeutic tool for cognitive decline in aged or elder adults.
Autores: Ochotorena, Amaia; et al.
Revista: BMC PEDIATRICS
ISSN 1471-2431  Vol. 19  Nº 1  2019  págs. 90
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is associated with changes in body composition that affect insulin sensitivity and leptin levels. Few studies have assessed the effect of lifestyle interventions on changes in objectively measured PA levels in obese children. To evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and accelerometer measured PA in abdominal obese children. METHODS: A randomized control trial was performed in 106 children and adolescents with abdominal obesity. Participants were randomly assigned to usual or intensive care group for 8-week. PA was measured by accelerometry over four days including, at least, two weekdays in all participants. Both groups were encouraged to accumulate an extra time of 200¿min per week in their PA. RESULTS: At baseline, 75% of subjects do not fulfill the WHO recommendation of being more than 60¿min/day on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). The intensive care group achieved a significant reduction in anthropometric indexes compared to the usual care but no significant change was found in biochemical or PA parameters. Both groups achieved a significant reduction in light PA. Interestingly, intensive care participants significantly increased MVPA in 5.5¿min/day. Moreover, an inverse association between changes in MVPA and leptin levels was found. CONCLUSION: The two lifestyle intervention reduced anthropometric indexes and lowered light PA in abdominal obese children. No significant differences were observed between intensive care and usual care in regard to PA. Intensive care participants significantly increase physical activity (MVPA) and, changes in MVPA were inversely associated with changes in leptin levels after the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , Identifier: NCT03147261 . Registered 10 May 2017. Retrospectively registered.
Autores: Canudas, S., (Autor de correspondencia); Hernandez-Alonso, P.; Galie, S.; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 109  Nº 6  2019  págs. 1738 - 1745
Background: Telomere attrition may play an important role in the pathogenesis and severity of type 2 diabetes (T2D), increasing the probability of beta cell senescence and leading to reduced cell mass and decreased insulin secretion. Nutrition and lifestyle are known factors modulating the aging process and insulin resistance/secretion, determining the risk of T2D. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pistachio intake on telomere length and other cellular aging-related parameters of glucose and insulin metabolism. Methods: Forty-nine prediabetic subjects were included in a randomized crossover clinical trial. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50 E% [energy percentage] carbohydrates and 33 E% fat, including 57 g pistachios/d) and an isocaloric control diet (CD, 55 E% carbohydrates and 30 E% fat) for 4 mo each, separated by a 2-wk washout period. DNA oxidation was evaluated by DNA damage (via 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine). Leucocyte telomere length and gene expression related to either oxidation, telomere maintenance or glucose, and insulin metabolism were analyzed by multiplexed quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction after the dietary intervention. Results: Compared with the CD, the PD reduced oxidative damage to DNA (mean: -3.5%; 95% CI: -8.07%, 1.05%; P = 0.009). Gene expression of 2 telomere-related genes (TERT and WRAP53) was significantly upregulated (164% and 53%) after the PD compared with the CD (P = 0.043 and P = 0.001, respectively). Interestingly, changes in TERT expression were negatively correlated to changes in fasting plasma glucose concentrations and in the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Conclusions: Chronic pistachio consumption reduces oxidative damage to DNA and increases the gene expression of some telomere-associated genes. Lessening oxidative damage to DNA and telomerase expression through diet may represent an intriguing way to promote healthspan in humans, reversing certain deleterious metabolic consequences of prediabetes.
Autores: Giuranna, J.; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 5  2019  págs. 960
Mutations leading to a reduced function of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) exert a major gene effect on extreme obesity. Recently it was shown that the bone derived hormone lipocalin 2 (LCN2) binds to the MC4R and activates a MC4R dependent anorexigenic pathway. We identified mutations in both genes and screened the effects of MC4R and LCN2 mutations on eating behavior and weight change after a lifestyle intervention. One hundred and twelve children (11.24 +/- 2.6 years, BMI-SDS 2.91 +/- 1.07) with abdominal obesity participated in a lifestyle intervention. MC4R and LCN2 coding regions were screened by Sanger sequencing. Eating behavior was assessed at baseline with the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). We detected three previously described non-synonymous MC4R variants (Glu42Lys, Thr150Ile, and Arg305Gln) and one non-synonymous polymorphism (Ile251Leu). Regarding LCN2, one known non-synonymous variant (Thr124Met) was detected. Eating behavior was described in carriers of the MC4R and LCN2 mutation and in non-carriers. MC4R and LCN2 mutations were detected in 2.42% and 0.84%, respectively, of Spanish children with abdominal obesity. A number of subjects with functional mutation variants in MC4R and LCN2 were able to achieve a reduction in BMI-SDS after a lifestyle intervention.
Autores: Ochotorena, Amaia; et al.
Revista: BMC PEDIATRICS
ISSN 1471-2431  Vol. 19  2019  págs. 90
BackgroundPhysical activity (PA) is associated with changes in body composition that affect insulin sensitivity and leptin levels. Few studies have assessed the effect of lifestyle interventions on changes in objectively measured PA levels in obese children. To evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and accelerometer measured PA in abdominal obese children.MethodsA randomized control trial was performed in 106 children and adolescents with abdominal obesity. Participants were randomly assigned to usual or intensive care group for 8-week. PA was measured by accelerometry over four days including, at least, two weekdays in all participants. Both groups were encouraged to accumulate an extra time of 200min per week in their PA.ResultsAt baseline, 75% of subjects do not fulfill the WHO recommendation of being more than 60min/day on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). The intensive care group achieved a significant reduction in anthropometric indexes compared to the usual care but no significant change was found in biochemical or PA parameters. Both groups achieved a significant reduction in light PA. Interestingly, intensive care participants significantly increased MVPA in 5.5min/day. Moreover, an inverse association between changes in MVPA and leptin levels was found.ConclusionThe two lifestyle intervention reduced anthropometric indexes and lowered light PA in abdominal obese children. No significant differences were observed between intensive care and usual care in regard to PA. Intensive care participants significantly increase physical activity (MVPA) and, changes in MVPA were inversely associated with changes in leptin levels after the intervention.
Autores: Zalba, Guillermo; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 12  Nº Supl. 1  2019  págs. 56
Autores: Azcona, María Cristina; Catalan, Ana; et al.
Revista: HORMONE RESEARCH IN PAEDIATRICS
ISSN 1663-2818  Vol. 91  Nº Supl. 1  2019  págs. 223 - 223
Autores: Zazpe I; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 12  Nº Supl. 1  2019  págs. 112
Autores: Guerendiain, M.; Montes, R.; Lopez-Belmonte, G.; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 37  Nº 1  2018  págs. 149 - 156
Background & aims: In recent years, obesity has reached alarming levels among children and adolescents. The study of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition, as a reflection of diet, and its associations with other parameters, that are closely linked to obesity and the cardiometabolic profile, may be useful for setting nutritional goals for obesity treatment and prevention. This study explored the relationship between plasma FA levels and body fat and cardiometabolic risk markers, in overweight adolescents. Methods: A multidisciplinary weight loss program was followed by 127 overweight and obese adolescents aged 12-17 years old. Plasma FA composition, anthropometric indicators of adiposity and biochemical parameters were analyzed at baseline, two months (the end of the intensive intervention phase) and six months (the end of the extensive phase). Results: While saturated fatty acid (SFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels decreased significantly during the intervention, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and n-3 PUFA showed the opposite trend. The decrease in SFA C14:0 was associated with a reduction in total and LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and insulin. The increase in MUFAs, especially C18:1n-9, was related to a reduction in weight, fat mass, fat mass index and glucose. Regarding PUFAs, changes in the n-3 series were not associated with any of the parameters studied, whereas the reduction in n-6 PUFA5 was directly related to weight, fat mass, total and HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein Al, glucose and insulin, and inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure. The adolescents with greater weight loss presented significant changes in MUFAs, n-6 PUFA5 and C14:0. Conclusions: Modifications in plasma FA composition were associated with adiposity reduction and cardiometabolic profile improvement in an anti-obesity program aimed at adolescents. The changes observed in FA composition were related to the success of the treatment, since the individuals most affected by these variations were those who presented the greatest weight loss. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Autores: Zazpe I; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 10  2018  págs. 1500
High rates of childhood obesity require integral treatment with lifestyle modifications that achieve weight loss. We evaluated a lifestyle intervention on nutrient adequacy and diet quality in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity. A randomized controlled trial was performed on 107 participants, assigned either to a usual care group or to an intensive care group that followed a moderate hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and received nutritional education. Intake adequacy was evaluated using Dietary Reference Intakes and diet quality through the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A), the Healthy Lifestyle Diet-Index (HLD-I) and the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED). Both groups achieved a significant reduction in BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), glucose and total cholesterol levels. Intake of Calcium, Iodine and vitamin D were higher in the intensive care group, with enhanced compliance with recommendations. Higher dietary scores were associated with lower micronutrient inadequacy. DQI-A and HLD-I were significantly higher in the intensive care group vs. usual care group after the treatment. In conclusion, we observed that an intensive lifestyle intervention was able to reduce BMI-SDS in children with abdominal obesity. Furthermore, participants significantly improved dietary indices getting closer to the nutritional recommendations. Therefore, these diet quality indices could be a valid indicator to evaluate micronutrient adequacy.
Autores: Milagro FI; Mansego, Maria L; et al.
Revista: PEDIATRIC OBESITY
ISSN 2047-6310  Vol. 13  Nº 3  2018  págs. 149 - 158
BackgroundThe global prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased in the last years. Epigenetic dysregulation affecting gene expression could be a determinant in early-life obesity onset and accompanying complications. ObjectiveThe aim of the present investigation was to analyse the putative association between DNA methylation and childhood obesity. MethodsDNA was isolated from white blood cells of 24 children obtained from the GENOI study and was hybridized in a 450K methylation array. Two CpG sites associated with obesity were validated in 91 children by MassArray (R) EpiTyper technology. ResultsGenome-wide analysis identified 734 CpGs (783 genes) differentially methylated between cases (n=12) and controls (n=12). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that these genes were involved in oxidative stress and circadian rhythm signalling pathways. Moreover, the DNA methylation levels of VIPR2, GRIN2D, ADCYAP1R1, PER3 and PTPRS regions correlated with the obesity trait. EpiTyper validation also identified significant correlations between methylation levels of CpG sites on PTPRS and PER3 with BMI z-score. ConclusionsThis study identified several CpG sites and specifically several CpGs in the PTPRS and PER3 genes differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children, suggesting a role for DNA methylation concerning development of childhood obesity.
Autores: De Miguel-Etayo, P.; Moreno, L. A.; Santabárbara, J.; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 38  Nº 2  2018  págs. 782 - 790
Background & aim: A diet quality index (DQI) is a tool that provides an overall score of an individual's dietary intake when assessing compliance with food-based dietary guidelines. A number of DQIs have emerged, albeit their associations with health-related outcomes are debated. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adherence to dietary intervention, and the overall quality of the diet, can predict body composition changes. Methods: To this purpose, overweight/obese adolescents (n = 117, aged: 13¿16 years; 51 males, 66 females) were recruited into a multi-component (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment programme. We measured the adolescents¿ compliance and body composition at baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up. Also, at baseline, after 6 months, and at the end of follow-up we calculated the DQI. Results: Global compliance with the dietary intervention was 37.4% during the intensive phase, and 14.3% during the extensive phase. Physical activity compliance was 94.1% at 2-months and 34.7% at 13months and psychological support compliance were growing over the intervention period (10.3% intensive phase and 45.3% during extensive phase). Adolescents complying with the meal frequency criteria at the end of the extensive phase had greater reductions in FMI z-scores than those did not complying (Cohen's d = 0.53). A statistically significant association was observed with the diet quality index. DQI-A variation explained 98.1% of BMI z-score changes and 95.1% of FMI changes. Conclusions: We conclude that assessment of changes in diet quality could be a useful tool in predicting body composition changes in obese adolescents involved in a diet and physical activity intervention programme backed-up by psychological and family support.
Autores: Regent, L.; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 11  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 227
Autores: Azcona, María Cristina; Ochotorena, Amaia; et al.
Revista: ENDOCRINOLOGÍA PEDIÁTRICA
ISSN 2013-7788  Vol. 9  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 182
Autores:  et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 11  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 222 - 223
Autores: Azcona, María Cristina; Ochotorena, Amaia; et al.
Revista: HORMONE RESEARCH IN PAEDIATRICS
ISSN 1663-2818  Vol. 90  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 313 - 313
Autores: Marti A, (Autor de correspondencia); Echeverria, R.; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 34  Nº 5  2017  págs. 1226 - 1245
Background: Few studies have evaluated the relationship between diet quality and telomere integrity in humans. Telomeres are regions of non-coding DNA localized at the end of each chromosome whose length, in addition to indicating life expectancy, indicates an overall health status. The objective of this systematic review is to compile the existing evidence on the relationship between telomere length and diet quality to further explore the impact that some nutrients, foods and dietary patterns may have on telomere homeostasis and therefore, in precision nutrition strategies. Material and methods: A bibliographic review was performed in the PubMed database to identify published articles (in English or Spanish) until December 2016 that met the following criteria: included human subjects; cross-sectional studies; case-control studies; prospective cohort studies or intervention studies; evaluating the relationship of nutrients, foods or dietary patterns on telomere integrity. The search strategy included the following keywords: nutrients or food OR food groups OR diet OR dietary pattern OR eating pattern OR dietary habits OR diet type AND telomere attrition OR telomere length. In total, 19 cross-sectional studies, five case-control studies, five prospective cohort studies, and two intervention studies were included, including those articles that were found for being listed in other publications. Results: Positive associations were found between telomere length and adherence to the Mediterranean diet and consumption of vegetables and fruits. The results observed for other nutrients, foods or dietary patterns were incoherent although it seems that processed meats, cereals, alcohol and sweetened beverages could be associated with shorter telomeres. Conclusions: Dietary intervention, and in particular the promotion of a Mediterranean-style diet, may play a role in the protection of telomere integrity.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Milagro FI; Allayee, H.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 10  Nº 1 - 2  2017  págs. 43 - 62
Chronic diseases, including obesity, are major causes of morbidity and mortality in most countries. The adverse impacts of obesity and associated comorbidities on health remain a major concern due to the lack of effective interventions for prevention and management. Precision nutrition is an emerging therapeutic approach that takes into account an individual's genetic and epigenetic information, as well as age, gender, or particular physiopathological status. Advances in genomic sciences are contributing to a better understanding of the role of genetic variants and epigenetic signatures as well as gene expression patterns in the development of diverse chronic conditions, and how they may modify therapeutic responses. This knowledge has led to the search for genetic and epigenetic biomarkers to predict the risk of developing chronic diseases and personalizing their prevention and treatment. Additionally, original nutritional interventions based on nutrients and bioactive dietary compounds that can modify epigenetic marks and gene expression have been implemented. Although caution must be exercised, these scientific insights are paving the way for the design of innovative strategies for the control of chronic diseases accompanying obesity. This document provides a number of examples of the huge potential of understanding nutrigenetic, nutrigenomic, and nutriepigenetic roles in precision nutrition.
Autores: Morell-Azanza, L.; et al.
Revista: PEDIATRIC DIABETES
ISSN 1399-543X  Vol. 18  Nº 5  2017  págs. 392 - 398
Background and aims: The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles is an early atherogeninic event. Obese pediatric populations have higher levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) than normal weight children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a weight loss program on the biochemical profile and oxLDL levels in Spanish obese children and adolescents. Methods: Forty obese children (mean age 11 years, 51% boys) followed a 10-week weight loss program. They were dichotomized at the median of body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) change, as high (HR) and low responders (LR) after the intervention. The intervention included a moderate energy-restricted diet, nutritional education, and family involvement. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed at the beginning and during the follow up. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMS) was calculated considering metabolic risk factors. Results: Higher baseline oxLDL levels were associated with a higher CMS in obese children (P<.001). After the intervention, oxLDL significantly decreased in the HR group. Moreover, a positive correlation between changes in oxLDL and BMI-SDS (r=0.385, P=.015) was found after the weight loss program. Interestingly, multiple-adjusted regression models showed an association between changes in total cholesterol [B: 0.127, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06 to 0.20] and LDL-cholesterol (B: 0.173, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.26) with changes in oxLDL. Conclusions: Higher baseline oxLDL levels were associated with a higher CMS in obese children. After the weight loss program, a decrease in oxLDL levels was found in HR subjects and the oxLDL levels were associated with BMI-SDS and cholesterol levels.
Autores: Marti A; Rendo-Urteaga, T.; et al.
Revista: PEDIATRIC DIABETES
ISSN 1399-543X  Vol. 19  Nº 2  2017  págs. 217 - 222
BACKGROUND: Inflammation related molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-¿ (TNF-¿), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) are highly expressed in obese individuals and could partly explain some comorbidities associated to obesity. In obese children, lifestyle interventions are able to lower inflammation and reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. The aim of the present work was to study changes in inflammation-related molecules serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcript levels after a 10-week lifestyle intervention in obese children and asses their potential association with glucose metabolism. METHODS: Twenty-three obese children (mean age 11.5 years; 48% males) underwent a 10-week lifestyle not controlled intervention trial. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were analyzed. Transcript analysis for CT-1, IL-6, and TNF-¿ in PBMC were performed by RT-PCR. Serum cytokine levels were also measured at baseline and after 10-weeks. RESULTS: Participants achieved a significant reduction in body adiposity (0.34 decrease in body mass index-standard deviation), total cholesterol, and glucose levels after 10-weeks. A Significant decrease in serum TNF-¿ and C reactive protein (CRP) were observed. CT-1 transcript levels were significantly reduced (P = .005) after lifestyle intervention, and these changes were significantly correlated with changes in serum CT-1 levels (r = 0.451; P = .031). In multiple regression analysis baseline CT-1 transcript levels were positively associated with final insulin (R2 = 0.506; P = .035) and HOMA-IR values (R2 = 0.473; P = .034). CONCLUSIONS: We reported that serum CRP, TNF-¿, as well as PBMC CT-1 transcript levels were reduced after lifestyle intervention in obese children. More studies are needed to clarify the role of inflammation-related molecules in glucose metabolism.
Autores: Arpón, A.; Riezu-Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 73  Nº 3  2017  págs. 445 - 455
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells. A subset of 36 individuals was selected within the Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea (PREDIMED)-Navarra study, a randomised, controlled, parallel trial with three groups of intervention in high cardiovascular risk volunteers, two with a MedDiet and one low-fat control group. Changes in methylation between baseline and 5 years were studied. DNA methylation arrays were analysed by several robust statistical tests and functional classifications. Eight genes related to inflammation and immunocompetence (EEF2, COL18A1, IL4I1, LEPR, PLAGL1, IFRD1, MAPKAPK2, PPARGC1B) were finally selected as changes in their methylation levels correlated with adherence to MedDiet and because they presented sensitivity related to a high variability in methylation changes. Additionally, EEF2 methylation levels positively correlated with concentrations of TNF-alph
Autores: Mansego, Maria L; García, Marcos; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: PEDIATRIC OBESITY
ISSN 2047-6310  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2017  págs. 19 - 27
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in obesity onset and its consequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DNA methylation status in microRNA (miRNA) coding regions is associated with childhood obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNA isolated from white blood cells of 24 children (identification sample: 12 obese and 12 non-obese) from the Grupo Navarro de Obesidad Infantil study was hybridized in a 450¿K methylation microarray. Several CpGs whose DNA methylation levels were statistically different between obese and non-obese were validated by MassArray® in 95 children (validation sample) from the same study. RESULTS: Microarray analysis identified 16 differentially methylated CpGs between both groups (6 hypermethylated and 10 hypomethylated). DNA methylation levels in miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions significantly correlated with body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and explained up to 40% of the variation of BMI-SDS. The network analysis identified 19 well-defined obesity-relevant biological pathways from the KEGG database. MassArray® validation identified three regions located in or near miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children. CONCLUSIONS: The current work identified three CpG sites located in coding regions of three miRNAs (miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A) that were differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children, suggesting a role
Autores: Azcona, María Cristina; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 35  Nº 2  2017  págs. 279 - 285
Background: serotonin signaling participates in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism. However, little information is available on circulating serotonin levels in obese subjects after a weight loss program. We aimed to assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention on serotonin levels in obese children and possible associations with anthropometric and blood glucose measurements. Methods: forty-four obese children were enrolled in a ten-week lifestyle intervention consisting of a moderate caloric restriction diet, nutritional education and familial involvement. They were distributed according to the weight loss response. Subjects who lost > 0.5 BMI-SDS were considered as high responders (HR; n = 22) and those who lost 0.5 BMI-SDS, as low responders (LR; n = 22). Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and plasma serotonin levels were measured as pre and post-intervention values. Results: obese children (HR and LR groups) were able to reduce anthropometric indices and to improve glucose profile after the intervention. Interestingly, plasma serotonin levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in all subjects (-35.14 nmol/I HR group and -30.63 nmol/I LR group). Moreover, multiple-adjusted regression models showed a significant association between pre-intervention (R-2 = 0.224, B = 0.047; p = 0.004) and post-intervention (R-2 = 0.140; B = 0.055; p = 0.042) plasma serotonin and glucose levels. In addition, in HR subjects changes in plasma serotonin were associated with changes in glucose levels (R-2 = 0.292; b = 0.04; p = 0.045). Interestingly, pre and post-intervention plasma serotonin levels were inversely associated (p < 0.05) with anthropometric measures. Conclusions: serotonin levels were reduced after a lifestyle intervention independently of the program response. Moreover, plasma serotonin levels were associated with glucose and anthropometric measures in obese children.
Autores: Moleres, A.; Gómez-Martinez, S.; et al.
Revista: PEDIATRIC OBESITY
ISSN 2047-6310  Vol. 12  Nº 3  2017  págs. 257 - 263
BACKGROUND: Shorter telomeres have been associated with elevated risk for age-related diseases. However, little is known about the biomarker role of telomere length (TL) for predicting inflammation and glucose alterations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to evaluate the association between TL, inflammatory markers and glucose levels after a 2-month weight-loss programme in obese adolescents. METHODS: Telomere length was measured using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 66 obese adolescents aged 12-17 years (51% men) from the EVASYON programme. The adolescents were genotyped for the polymorphism -174G/C (rs1800795) in the IL-6gene, and anthropometric and biochemical markers as well as inflammatory cytokines were analysed. RESULTS: Multiple-adjusted models showed that longer telomeres at baseline were associated with a higher reduction in glucose (B¿=¿-4.08, 95% confidence interval: -6.66 to -1.50) and IL-6 (B¿=¿-1.03, 95% confidence interval: -2.01 to -0.05) serum levels after 2¿months of the weight-loss treatment. The -174G/C polymorphism modulated the association between basal TL and changes in IL-6 (P interaction¿=¿0.029). Thus, subjects with the GG¿+¿GC genotype and with longer telomeres showed a higher decrease in IL-6 levels than CC homozygotes. CONCLUSION: Longer telomeres are associated with an improvement in glucose tolerance and inflammation after a weight-loss programme in obese adolescents. Moreover, the -174G/C polymorphism may influence the relationship between TL and IL-6 changes.
Autores: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Razquin, Cristina; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 35  Nº 6  2016  págs. 1399 - 1405
Background & aims A healthy lifestyle has been associated with longer telomeres, but whether Mediterranean Diet (MeDiet) affect telomere length (TL) has not been fully elucidated yet. Our aim was to assess the relationship between MeDiet and TL in high cardiovascular risk subjects in the context of a randomized nutritional intervention trial. Methods We assessed 520 participants (55¿80 years, 55% women) from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial. Leukocyte TL was measured by qPCR at baseline and after 5 years of a dietary intervention program where subjects were randomly assigned to a low-fat control diet or to two MeDiets, one supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (MeDiet-EVOO) and the other with mixed nuts (MeDiet-nuts). A validated 14-item questionnaire was used to appraise baseline adherence of participants to the MeDiet. Results Better adherence to MeDiet (as appraised by the 14-item score) was associated with longer basal telomeres in women in the baseline cross-sectional analysis, whereas the opposite was observed in men (P interaction = 0.036). Female subjects who scored 10 points had longer basal telomeres (0.27, 95% CI: 0.03¿0.52) than women scoring ¿6 points at the beginning of the study (¿0.46, 95% CI: ¿0.85 to ¿0.7) (P = 0.003). However, allocation to the MeDiet-nuts group (¿0.24, 95% CI: ¿0.38 to ¿0.01) was associated with a higher risk of telomere shortening after 5 years of intervention, whereas no differences were found for the MeDiet-EVOO group (0.14, 95% CI: 0.02¿0.27), in comparison with the Control group (0.07, 95% CI: ¿0.08 to 0.23) (P = 0.003 and P = 0.537, respectively). Conclusion A greater baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with longer telomeres only in women. No beneficial effect of the intervention with the MeDiet for the prevention of telomere shortening in comparison with a low-fat diet was observed.
Autores: Martín-Rodríguez, E.; Guillén-Grima, F; Aubá, Enrique; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN PSYCHIATRY
ISSN 0924-9338  Vol. 32  2016  págs. 55 - 60
BACKGROUND: The association between body mass index (BMI) and depression is complex and controversial. The present study examined the relationship between BMI and new-onset depression during 7 years of follow-up in 20,212 adult women attending Primary Health Care Centres in Navarra, Spain. METHODS: The Atención Primaria de Navarra (APNA) study is a dynamic prospective cohort study. A total of 20,212 women aged 18-99 years (mean age: 50.7±18.5 years) without depression at baseline were selected from 2004 to 2011. We estimated the incidence of depression. We used the Kaplan-Meier analysis to predict the survival curve. The risk of depression onset according to different measures of BMI at baseline was assessed using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: During the 7 years of follow-up, depression appeared in 8.9% (95% CI 8.5-9.3). The highest rates of depression incidence at follow-up occurred in underweight and obese women (9.8% [95% CI 7.3-12.9] and 10.3% [95% CI 9.5-11.1] respectively). The distribution of depression incidence by weight category was U-shaped. The risk of depression increased over time with an observed Kaplan-Meier estimation of 6.67. After adjusting for age, underweight and obese women at baseline have increased risk of depression onset during the follow-up period compared with normal weight women (HR=1.48, 95% CI=1.09-2.00 and HR=1.14, 95% CI=1.01-1.29 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this 7-year prospective study in the APNA women population, depression emerged in 8.9%. Being underweight or obese (not overweight) at baseline is significantly associated with future onset of depression.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Babio, N.; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 26  Nº 6  2016  págs. 468 - 475
Background and aims Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly. Methods and results 4545 individuals at high cardiovascular risk were prospectively followed. Total, whole-fat and low-fat yogurt consumption were assessed using food frequency questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between yogurt consumption and waist circumference change (measured at baseline and yearly during the follow-up). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the reversion rate of abdominal obesity for each quintile of yogurt consumption compared with the lowest quintile. After multivariable adjustment, the average yearly waist circumference change in the quintiles of whole-fat yogurt consumption was: Q1: 0.00, Q2: 0.00 (¿0.23 to 0.23), Q3: ¿0.15 (¿0.42 to 0.13), Q4: 0.10 (¿0.21 to 0.42), and Q5: ¿0.23 (¿0.46 to ¿0.00) cm; p for trend = 0.05. The ORs for the reversion of abdominal obesity for whole-fat yogurt consumption were Q1: 1.00, Q2: 1.40 (1.04¿1.90), Q3: 1.33 (0.94¿1.89), Q4: 1.21 (0.83¿1.77), and Q5: 1.43 (1.06¿1.93); p for trend = 0.26. Conclusion Total yogurt consumption was not significantly associated with reversion of abdominal obesity status and a lower waist circumference. However, consumption of whole-fat yogurt was associated with changes in waist circumference and higher probability for reversion of abdominal obesity. Therefore, it seems that whole-fat yogurt has more beneficial effects in management of abdominal obesity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.
Autores: De-Miguel-Etayo, P.; Muro, C.; Santabárbara, J.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 40  Nº 1  2016  págs. 84 - 87
The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment
Autores: Sureda, A. ; Bibiloni, M. D. M.; Martorell, M.; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 60  Nº 12  2016  págs. 2654 - 2664
Scope: This study assessed plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and xanthine oxidase (XOX) activity in metabolic syndrome patients after 5 years intervention with Mediterranean diet (Me-Diet) supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or with nuts or with low-fat diet (the PREDIMED [PREvencion con Dieta MEDiterranea] study). Methods and results: Seventy-five participants were randomly selected. Daily energy and nutrient intake were assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire, and adherence to the MeDiet was assessed using a 14-item questionnaire. Catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase, XOX activities and protein levels, and protein carbonyl derivatives, nitrotyrosine, nitrite and nitrate levels were determined in overnight fasting venous blood samples. The plasma activity and protein levels of SOD and catalase were significantly higher and XOX activity was lower in MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and MeDiet supplemented with nuts than in the control group. Participants in both MeDiet groups showed higher plasma nitrate levels than in the control group. Adherence to the MeDiet showed a positive correlation with SOD and catalase plasma antioxidant activities. Conclusion: A MeDiet enriched with either virgin olive oil or nuts enhances the plasma antioxidant capabilities and decreases XOX activity in patients with the metabolic syndrome but we did not observe changes in myeloperoxidase or markers of oxidative damage.
Autores: Gómez, Sara; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 9  Nº Supl. 1  2016  págs. 103
Autores: Marques-Rocha, J. L.; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 29  Nº 9  2015  págs. 3595 - 3611
Chronic inflammation is involved in the onset and development of many diseases, including obesity, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, autoimmune and degenerative diseases, asthma, periodontitis, and cirrhosis. The inflammation process is mediated by chemokines, cytokines, and different inflammatory cells. Although the molecules and mechanisms that regulate this primary defense mechanism are not fully understood, recent findings offer a putative role of noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), in the progression and management of the inflammatory response. These noncoding RNAs are crucial for the stability and maintenance of gene expression patterns that characterize some cell types, tissues, and biologic responses. Several miRNAs, such as miR-126, miR-132, miR-146, miR-155, and miR-221, have emerged as important transcriptional regulators of some inflammation-related mediators. Additionally, little is known about the involvement of long noncoding RNAs, long intergenic noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs in inflammation-mediated processes and the homeostatic imbalance associated with metabolic disorders. These noncoding RNAs are emerging as biomarkers with diagnosis value, in prognosis protocols, or in the personalized treatment of inflammation-related alterations. In this context, this review summarizes findings in the field, highlighting those noncoding RNAs that regulate inflammation, with emphasis on recognized mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, VCAM-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The down-regulation or antagonism of the noncoding RNAs and the administration of exogenous miRNAs could be, in the near future, a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.
Autores: González-Muniesa, P; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 113  Nº 2  2015  págs. 331 - 342
The present study analyses the gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from obese boys. The aims of the present study were to identify baseline differences between low responders (LR) and high responders (HR) after 10 weeks of a moderate energy-restricted dietary intervention, and to compare the gene expression profile between the baseline and the endpoint of the nutritional intervention. Spanish obese boys (age 10-14 years) were advised to follow a 10-week moderate energy-restricted diet. Participants were classified into two groups based on the association between the response to the nutritional intervention and the changes in BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS): HR group (n 6), who had a more decreased BMI-SDS; LR group (n 6), who either maintained or had an even increased BMI-SDS. The expression of 28 869 genes was analysed in PBMC from both groups at baseline and after the nutritional intervention, using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST 24-Array plate microarray. At baseline, the HR group showed a lower expression of inflammation and immune response-related pathways, which suggests that the LR group could have a more developed pro-inflammatory phenotype. Concomitantly, LEPR and SIRPB1 genes were highly expressed in the LR group, indicating a tendency towards an impaired immune response and leptin resistance. Moreover, the moderate energy-restricted diet was able to down-regulate the inflammatory 'mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway' in the HR group, as well as some inflammatory genes (AREG and TNFAIP3). The present study confirms that changes in the gene expression profile of PBMC in obese boys may help to understand the weight-loss response. However, further research is required to confirm these findings.
Autores: Guerendiain, M.; Mayneris-Perxachs, J. ; Montes, R. ; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 36  Nº 1  2015  págs. 209 - 217
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In vivo and in vitro evidence suggests that antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids may be key factors in the treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels and adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers in overweight and obese adolescents participating in a multidisciplinary weight loss programme. METHODS: A therapeutic programme was conducted with 103 adolescents aged 12-17 years old and diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Plasma concentrations of ¿-tocopherol, retinol, ß-carotene and lycopene, anthropometric indicators of general and central adiposity, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were analysed at baseline and at 2 and 6 months of treatment. RESULTS: Lipid-corrected retinol (P < 0.05), ß-carotene (P = 0.001) and ¿-tocopherol (P < 0.001) plasma levels increased significantly, whereas lipid-corrected lycopene levels remained unaltered during the treatment. Anthropometric indicators of adiposity (P < 0.001), blood pressure (P < 0.01) and biochemical parameters (P < 0.05) decreased significantly, whereas fat free mass increased significantly (P < 0.001). These clinical and biochemical improvements were related to changes in plasma lipid-corrected antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels. The adolescents who experienced the greatest weight loss also showed the largest decrease in anthropometric indicators of adiposity and biochemical parameters and the highest increase in fat free mass. Weight loss in these adolescents was related to an increase in plasma levels of lipid-corrected ¿-tocopherol (P = 0.001), ß-carotene (P = 0.034) and lycopene (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid levels are associated with reduced adiposity, greater weight loss and an improved cardio-metabolic profile in overweight and obese adolescents.
Autores: De-Miguel-Etayo, P.; Moreno, L. A.; Santabárbara, J.; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 34  Nº 3  2015  págs. 523 - 528
The main objectives of weight loss interventions in children and adolescents are to decrease fat mass while maintaining fat-free mass. Several methods are available to assess childhood and adolescence obesity, such as weight and height, bioelectrical impedance, skin-fold thickness measurements and other laboratory methods. The aim was to assess simple anthropometric indices as predictors of body-fat changes, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements as reference method. METHODS: Multi-intervention approach (diet, physical activity and psychological support in a family-group-based treatment) was implemented with a one-year follow-up in 13-to-16-year-old overweight or obese Spanish adolescents. A total of 83 adolescents were recruited from Granada and Zaragoza, males (n = 43) (31.6 kg/m(2)) and females (n = 40) (32.0 kg/m(2)). We measured body composition with anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All measurements were made at baseline, and after 2 and 13 months. Random coefficient regression model was used to calculate the proportion of body composition changes during follow-up that would be explained by simple body composition indices based on anthropometric measures. RESULTS: After controlling for age and Tanner stage, body mass index explained 76.5% of body composition changes in males and 90.1% in females, while fat mass index (assessed by skin-folds) explained 78.9% of body composition changes in males and 84.0% of body composition changes in females. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that BMI was a good indicator of body fat composition changes in children and adolescents, although FMI assessed by anthropometry was also a good indicator.
Autores: De-Miguel-Etayo, P.; Moreno, Luis A.; Santabárbara, J.; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 32  Nº 6  2015  págs. 2525 - 2534
Introduction: the main objectives of weight-loss interventions are to decrease fat mass while maintaining fatfree mass. Objective: our aim was to address effectiveness body composition changes in overweight adolescents assessed by different body composition methods following an obesity intervention programme. Material and Methods: the life-style intervention was multi-disciplinary, with 13 months follow-up. Participants were 13-to-16 year-old overweight, or obese, Spanish adolescents. The adolescents (n = 156; 54.8% females) had body composition measured with anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography. All measurements were made at baseline, and after 2- and 13-months. Repeated measures analysis of covariance to compare mean anthropometric changes over time and the Bonferroni correction were applied. Imputation of anthropometric measures was performed. Results: a high significant decrease in fat mass index was achieved in males after 2-and 13-months of intervention as measured by anthropometry (1.16 and 1.56 kg / m2, respectively), X-ray absorptiometry (1.51 and 1.91 kg / m2) and plethysmography (2.13 and 2.44 kg/m2). Moreover, a short and long-term maintenance of fat-and fat-free mass index was observed by X-ray absorptiometry in females (0.94 and 0.68 kg/m2). Conclusion: our multidisciplinary approach to lifestyle intervention has a favourable impact on body fat mass and fat-free mass index as well as waist-to-height ratio, over 13 months intervention in overweight and obese adolescents.
Autores: Zalba, Guillermo; Ruiz-Canela, M.; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 102  Nº 4  2015  págs. 897 - 904
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors can affect telomere length (TL), a biomarker of aging, through oxidation and inflammation-related mechanisms. A Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) could help to understand the effect of the inflammatory potential of the diet on telomere shortening. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association of the DII with TL and to examine whether diet-associated inflammation could modify the telomere attrition rate after a 5-y follow-up of a Mediterranean dietary intervention. DESIGN: This was a prospective study of 520 participants at high cardiovascular disease risk (mean ± SD age: 67.0 ± 6.0 y, 45% males) from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea-NAVARRA) trial. Leukocyte TL was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline and after 5 y of follow-up. The DII was calculated from self-reported data by using a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Longer telomeres at baseline were found in participants who had a more anti-inflammatory diet (lowest DII score) (P-trend = 0.012). Longitudinal analyses further showed that a greater anti-inflammatory potential of the diet (i.e., a decrease in the DII) could significantly slow down the rate of telomere shortening. Moreover, the multivariable-adjusted OR for short telomeres (z score ¿20th percentile) was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.17) in a comparison between the highest (proinflammatory) and the lowest (anti-inflammatory) DII tertiles. Similarly, a greater DII (greatest proinflammatory values) after a 5-y follow-up was associated with almost a 2-fold higher risk of accelerated telomere attrition compared with the highest decrease in DII (greatest anti-inflammatory values) during this period (P-trend = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the inflammatory potential of the diet and telomere shortening in subjects with a high cardiovascular disease risk. Our findings are consistent with, but do not show, a beneficial effect of adherence to an anti-inflammatory diet on aging and health by slowing down telomere shortening. These results suggest that diet might play a key role as a determinant of TL through proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Autores: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 34  Nº 4  2015  págs. 694 - 699
Background & Aims: Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be potential underlying mechanisms for telomere attrition. A lack of specific antioxidants is believed to increase free radical damage and a greater risk for telomere shortening. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between diet and leukocyte telomere length in a cross-sectional study of children and adolescents. We hypothesized that dietary total antioxidant capacity would be positively associated with telomere length. Methods: Telomere length was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 287 participants (55% males, 6¿18 years), who were randomly selected from the GENOI study. Results: A positive correlation between dietary total antioxidant capacity and telomere length (r=0.157, p=0.007) was found after adjustment for age and energy intake. However, higher white bread consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (ß=-0.204, p=0.002) in fully-adjusted models. Interestingly, those individuals who had simultaneously higher dietary total antioxidant capacity and lower white bread consumption significantly presented the longest telomeres. Moreover, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for very short telomeres was 0.30 for dietary total antioxidant capacity (p=0.023) and 1.37 for white bread (p=0.025). Conclusion: It was concluded that longer telomeres were associated with higher dietary total antioxidant capacity and lower white bread consumption in S2panish children and adolescents. These findings might open a new line of investigation about the potential role of an antioxidant diet in maintaining telomere length.
Autores: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Razquin, Cristina; et al.
Revista: CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR GENETICS
ISSN 1942-325X  Vol. 8  Nº 1  2015  págs. 91 - 99
García-Calzón S, Martinez-González MA, Razquin C, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Martinez JA, Zalba G, Marti A. Background: The gene variant Pro/Ala (rs1801282) in the PPAR¿2 has been associated with lower cardiovascular risk and greater benefit from lifestyle interventions. This polymorphism also seems to be associated with longer lifespan, but no information on telomere length (TL) is available. Our aim was to study the association between the Ala allele and changes in TL in high cardiovascular risk subjects, and the potential interaction with a Mediterranean Diet (MeDiet) pattern. Methods and Results: A total of 521 subjects (55-80 years) participating in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) randomized trial were genotyped. Changes in TL, measured by quantitative real-time PCR, were assessed over 5 years of a nutritional intervention which promoted adherence to the MeDiet. Interestingly, Ala carriers showed lower telomere shortening after 5 years, compared with the Pro/Pro genotype (P=0.031). This association was modulated by MeDiet since those Ala carriers who reported better conformity to the MeDiet exhibited increased TL (P<0.001). Moreover, a reduction in carbohydrate intake (¿9.5 g/d) resulted in increased TL among Ala carriers. Notably, an apparent gene-diet interaction was found through the observed changes in the MUFA+PUFA/Carbohydrates ratio: as this ratio increased, TL lengthening was detected to a greater extent in the Ala carriers compared with the Pro/Pro subjects (P for interaction <0.001). Conclusions: The Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with TL homeostasis after 5 years follow-up in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. In addition, a higher adherence to the MeDiet
Autores: Martín, Nerea; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 17  Nº 10  2014  págs. 2185 - 2193
Objective: To assess the association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (SSCB) and obesity in children and adolescents from Navarra (Spain). Design: We used a matched case-control study design. The exposure, SSCB consumption (1 serving: 200 ml), was measured with a previously validated FFQ. Anthropometrical measures were taken using standardized protocols. The outcome, obesity, was defined as BMI above the age- and sex-specific 97th percentile according to the Spanish reference charts. In the analysis we used conditional logistic regression. Potential confounders were controlled using a multivariable model. Setting: Subjects were recruited in the paediatric departments of the Universidad de Navarra Clinic and the Navarra Hospital Complex, and in three primary health centres of Navarra. Controls were recruited when attending for a routine medical examination or vaccination. Subjects: One hundred and seventy-four obese children and 174 individually sex- and age-matched controls, 52·87 % boys, with a mean age of 11·6 years. Exclusion criteria were dietary interventions, exposure to hormone treatment, development of secondary obesity due to endocrinopathy and serious intercurrent illness. Results: Independently of other factors, high consumption of SSCB (>4 servings/week) was significantly associated with obesity (OR = 3·46; 95 % CI 1·24, 9·62; P = 0·01). Besides, each additional daily serving of SSCB was associated with a 69 % relative increase in the risk of obesity (OR = 1·69; 95 % CI 1·04, 2·73; P = 0·03). Conclusions: We found a strong and significant association between SSCB consumption and obesity risk. Our results suggest a monotonic dose-response linear shape for this association in children and adolescents (P for trend = 0·02).
Autores: Buil-Cosiales, P.; Zazpe I; Toledo, Estefanía Ainhoa; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 100  Nº 6  2014  págs. 1498 - 1507
Few observational studies have examined the effect of dietary fiber intake and fruit and vegetable consumption on total mortality and have reported inconsistent results. All of the studies have been conducted in the general population and typically used only a single assessment of diet. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of fiber intake and whole-grain, fruit, and vegetable consumption with all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by using repeated measurements of dietary information and taking into account the effect of a dietary intervention. DESIGN: We followed up 7216 men (55-75 y old) and women (60-75 y old) at high CVD risk in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial for a mean of 5.9 y. Data were analyzed as an observational cohort. Participants were initially free of CVD. A 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire administered by dietitians was repeated annually to assess dietary exposures (fiber, fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain intakes). Deaths were identified through the continuing medical care of participants and the National Death Index. An independent, blinded Event Adjudication Committee adjudicated causes of death. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs of death during follow-up according to baseline dietary exposures and their yearly updated changes. RESULTS: In up to 8.7 y of follow-up, 425 participants died. Baseline fiber intake and fruit consumption were significantly associated with lower risk of death [HRs for the fifth compared with the first quintile: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.86; P = 0.015) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82; P = 0.004), respectively]. When the updated dietary information was considered, participants with fruit consumption >210 g/d had 41% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.78). Associations were strongest for CVD mortality than other causes of death. CONCLUSION: Fiber and fruit intakes are associated with a reduction in total mortality. PREDIMED was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.
Autores: A. Marcos; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 9  Nº 2  2014  págs. e89828
Context: Telomeres are biomarkers of biological aging. Shorter telomeres have been associated with increased adiposity in adults. However, this relationship remains unclear in children and adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the association between telomere length (TL) and adiposity markers in overweight/obese adolescents after an intensive program. We hypothesize that greater TL at baseline would predict a better response to a weight loss treatment. Design, Setting, Patients and Intervention: The EVASYON is a multidisciplinary treatment program for adolescents with overweight and obesity that is aimed at applying the intervention to all possibly involved areas of the individual, such as dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive and psychological profiles. Seventy-four participants (36 males, 38 females, 12-16 yr) were enrolled in the intervention program: 2 months of an energy-restricted diet and a follow-up period (6 months). Main Outcome: TL was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline and after 2 months; meanwhile, anthropometric variables were also assessed after 6 months of follow-up. Results: TL lengthened in participants during the intensive period (+1.9±1.0, p<0.001) being greater in overweight/obese adolescents with the shortest telomeres at baseline (r = -0.962, p<0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that higher baseline TL significantly predicted a higher decrease in body weight (B = -1.53, p = 0.005; B = -2.25, p = 0.047) and in standard deviation score for body mass index (BMI-SDS) (B = -0.22, p = 0.010; B = -0.47, p = 0.005) after the intensive and extensive period treatment respectively, in boys. Conclusion: Our study shows that a weight loss intervention is accompanied by a significant increase in TL in overweight/obese adolescents. Moreover, we suggest that initial longer TL could be a potential predictor for a better weight loss response.
Autores: Marti A; Martínez, JA;
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 37  Nº 1  2014  págs. 5 - 8
Autores: A. Gea; Razquin, Cristina; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 38  2014  págs. 177 - 182
Background:Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Shorter telomere length (TL) is associated with some age-related human disorders, but its relationship with obesity or adiposity parameters remains unclear.Objective:The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TL and changes in adiposity indices after a 5-year nutritional intervention.Design and subjects:TL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in 521 subjects (55-80 years, 55% women). Participants were randomly selected from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA centre after they completed a 5-year intervention programme. Anthropometric parameters were directly measured by trained personnel at baseline and on a yearly basis thereafter. TL at baseline and changes in TL after a 5-year intervention were assessed.Results:Higher baseline TL significantly predicted a greater decrease in body weight (B=-1.09¿kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.01 to -0.16), body mass index (BMI) (B=-0.47¿kg¿m(-2), 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.11), waist circumference (B=-1.15¿cm, 95% CI: -2.28 to -0.01) and waist to height ratio (B=-0.008, 95% CI: -0.010 to -0.001) in multiple-adjusted models. In addition, changes in TL during the 5-year intervention were inversely associated with changes in the four anthropometric variables. The reduction in adiposity indices during the intervention, associated with increasing TL, was even higher among subjects with the longest telomeres at baseline. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of remaining obese after 5 years was lower in those participants who initially had the longest telomeres and increased their TL after intervention (odds ratio=0.27, 95% CI: 0.03-2.03).Conclusions:Our research suggests that TL is inversely associated with changes in obesity parameters. The assessment of TL can provide further insights for biological pathways leading to adiposity. We show for the first time an improvement of obesity indices when an increase in TL is observed after a 5-year Mediterranean diet intervention.
Autores: Milagro FI; Marcos, A.; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 30  Nº 1  2014  págs. 75 - 83
Background: Some SNPs related to lipid and energy metabolism may be implicated not only in the development of obesity and associated comorbidities, but also in the weight loss response after a nutritional intervention. Objective: In this context, the present study analyzed four SNPs located within four genes known to be associated with obesity and other obesity-related complications, and their putative role in a weight-loss intervention in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods: The study population consisted of 199 overweight/obese adolescents (13-16 yr old) undergoing 10 weeks of a weight loss multidisciplinary intervention: the EVASYON programme (www.estudioevasyon.org). Adolescents were genotyped for 4 SNPs, and anthropometric measurements and biochemical markers were analyzed at the beginning and after the intervention. Results: Interestingly, APOA5(rs662799) was associated with the baseline anthropometric and biochemical outcomes, whereas FTO (rs9939609) seemed to be related with the change of these values after the 10-week intervention. The other two SNPs, located in the CETP (rs1800777) and the APOA1 (rs670) genes, showed important relationships with adiposity markers. Specifically, a combined model including both SNPs turned up to explain up to 24% of BMI-SDS change after 10 weeks of the multidisciplinary intervention, which may contribute to under - stand the weight loss response. Conclusion: Common variants in genes related to lipid and energy metabolism may influence not only biochemical outcomes but also weight loss response after a multidisciplinary intervention carried out in obese/overweight adolescents.
Autores: Puchau, María Blanca; Chueca, M.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
ISSN 0340-6199  Vol. 173  Nº 5  2014  págs. 609 - 616
Dietary and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) are considered appropriate tools for investigating the potential health effects of dietary antioxidants consumed in mixed diets. The aim was to analyze the impact of a dietary intervention on macronutrient intakes and to evaluate the improvement on oxidative status after weight loss (WL) by measuring dietary and serum TAC, and urinary F2-isoprostane levels as markers of oxidative stress. Forty-four overweight/obese children (mean age 11.5 years) were enrolled to undergo a 10-week WL program. They were dichotomized at the median of body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) change, as high (HR) and low responders (LR) after intervention. Subjects were prescribed with a fixed full-day meal diet, calculated according to their basal metabolic rate and physical activity levels. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to retrospectively calculate TAC and daily nutrient intake. The HR subjects were able to reduce anthropometric indices and to improve lipid and glucose profile. They also significantly diminished fat intake (p¿=¿0.013). Moreover, baseline serum TAC values did significantly predict the reduction in urinary F2 isoprostane (B¿=¿-0.236 (-0.393 to -0.078); p¿=¿0.014) in the HR group after the WL program. Notably, changes in dietary TAC after the treatment were associated with a decrease in body weight after the 10-week intervention (B¿=¿-2.815 (-5.313 to -0.318), p¿=¿0.029) in the HR group. The -¿SerumTAC/¿DietaryTAC and the -¿F2Isoprostane/¿DietaryTAC ratios revealed that the relationships between oxidative markers and antioxidants dietary intake were more favorable in the HR than in the LR group. Conclusion: Our study showed that a 10-week WL program was able to reduce adiposity indices in obese children. Moreover, after the intervention changes in dietary TAC and WL were significantly associated. Our result suggests that specific food with a high TAC content (such as fruits, vegetables, and legumes) could be recommended to improve WL.
Autores: Toledo, Juan Bautista; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 8  Nº 1  2013  págs. 61 - 67
Genetic factors may interact with lifestyle factors to modify obesity risk. FTO and PPARG2 are relevant obesogenes. Our aim was to explore the effect of Pro12Ala (rs1801282) of PPARG2 and rs9939609 of FTO on obesity risk and to examine their interaction with lifestyle factors in an elderly population. Subjects (n = 978; aged 69 ± 6) were recruited from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. DNA was obtained from saliva, and lifestyle and dietary data were collected by validated self-reported questionnaires. Genotyping was assessed by RT-PCR plus allele discrimination. Subjects carrying the Ala allele of PPARG2 gene had a significantly increased obesity risk compared to non-carrier (Pro12Pro) subjects (OR, 1.66; 95 % CI, 1.01-2.74; p = 0.045). Greater obesity risk was also found in inactive or high carbohydrate intake subjects with the Ala12 allele of PPARG2 gene. Interestingly, subjects carrying the Ala allele of the PPARG2 gene and with a high CHO (&gt;246 g/day) intake had an increased obesity risk compared to Pro12Pro subjects (OR, 2.67; 95 % CI, 1.3-5.46; p = 0.007; p for [CHO × PPARG2] interaction = 0.046). Moreover, in subjects with a high CHO intake, the co-presence of the Ala allele of PPARG2 gene and one minor A allele (rs9939609) of FTO gene did increase obesity risk (OR, 3.26; 95 % CI, 1.19-8.89; p = 0.021) when compared to non-carrier (Pro12Pro/TT) subjects. In conclusion, it appears that lifestyle factors may act as effect modifiers for obesity risk linked to Ala12 allele of the PPARG2 gene and the minor A allele of FTO gene in an elderly population.
Autores: Martín, Nerea; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Marti A; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 28  Nº 5  2013  págs. 1515 - 1522
Introducción: La alta de prevalencia de obesidad infantil en España y sus posibles consecuencias hacen de esta enfermedad un problema prioritario de salud pública. Objetivo: Valorar, mediante un estudio epidemiológico analítico de casos y controles, la asociación entre la composición en macronutrientes de la dieta y la obesidad en una muestra de niños y adolescentes navarros de 5,5 a 18,8 años. Método: Se reclutaron 178 casos, niños y adolescentes obesos (índice de masa corporal > percentil 97) en Navarra. Los controles fueron emparejados individualmente según edad y sexo. Las medidas antropométricas fueron tomadas por personal entrenado utilizando métodos estandarizados. Se realizaron entrevistas individuales para recoger información sobre la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos mediante un cuestionario previamente validado a partir del que se calculó la ingesta de macronutrientes (hidratos de carbono, proteínas y grasas) y de los subtipos de grasas. Estos resultados se dividieron en quintiles de macronutrientes ajustados por ingesta energética total. Se realizó una regresión logística condicional para estimar odds ratios ajustadas de obesidad para cada uno de los cuatro quintiles superiores de consumo, usando el quintil inferior como referencia. Resultados: La composición de macronutrientes de la dieta era similar en casos y controles, excepto para las grasas poliinsaturadas, que se asociaron inversamente a la obesidad (p tendencia lineal < 0,01) con una odds ratio ajustada de 0,34 (IC 95%: 0,15 a 0,77) para el quinto quintil. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren una asociación inversa entre una mayor ingesta de grasas poliinsaturadas y el riesgo de obesidad.
Autores: Toledo, Estefanía Ainhoa; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: OBESITY
ISSN 1469-3259  Vol. 21  Nº 7  2013  págs. 1486-1495
The meta-analysis revealed a higher BMI with an overall estimation of +0.065 kg/m(2) (95%CI = 0.026-0.103, P = 0.001) for homo-/heterozygous carriers of the Ala allele of the PPARG2 gene in comparison to non-carriers. The analysis also showed that there was heterogeneity (P for heterogeneity <0.001), but funnel plots did not suggest apparent publication bias. Furthermore, the association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG2 gene and increased BMI was stronger in Caucasian. Thus, carriers of the Ala allele had significantly higher BMI than non-carriers in a subsample of 6,528 Caucasian male subjects (standardized mean difference = 0.090, 95%CI=0.032-0.148, P = 0.002, P for heterogeneity = 0.121). CONCLUSION: This updated meta-analysis showed that carriers of the Ala12 allele of the PPARG2 gene had a higher average BMI.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Marti A; et al.
Revista: OBESITY RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE
ISSN 1871-403X  Vol. 7  Nº 5  2013  págs. e391 - e400
Objective The association between sleep duration, extracurricular sport, screen-based activities and dietary variables with prevalence of overweight in middle childhood, regarding gender differences, was assessed. Methods Cross-sectional study involving 2814 children (age 6¿12 years). Measured weight and height and reported lifestyle variables were obtained by health professionals previously trained. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between variables and the likelihood of being overweight. Results Prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was 31.9% in boys and 30.4% in girls. In boys, engaging ¿3h/week in sports activities (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5¿0.9), eating daily breakfast (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4¿0.9) and consuming ¿2fruits/day (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6¿0.9) were independent protective factors against overweight, whereas children consuming fast food weekly and sweets daily were estimated to be 30% and 40%, respectively, more likely to be overweight. Only buns consumption resulted associated with overweight in girls (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1¿1.7). Conclusions Prevalence of overweight in a sample of Southern European children is high and underlines gender differences in lifestyle determinants. Engaging in extracurricular sport, promoting daily breakfast, adequate fruit consumption and reducing high energy-dense foods, should be encouraged in boys, whereas further investigation on girls behaviours would be valuable.
Autores: Martínez, JA; Marti A;
Revista: CURRENT OBESITY REPORTS
ISSN 2162-4968  Vol. 2  Nº 1  2013  págs. 23 - 31
Obesity is becoming an escalating global epidemic in many parts of the world and results in a huge rise of sanity costs due to its associate comorbidities. In this sense, body weight regulation depends on a combination of interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Among inheritance factors, body weight is normally a polygenic condition determined by the presence of genes of high prevalence but with a low relevant effect. In the last years, Candidate Genes Analyses and Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have become very useful strategies to detect new polymorphisms and copy number variants (CNVs) associated with obesity and its related comorbidities. From these studies, more than a hundred genetic variants involved in metabolic pathways including adipogenesis, energy intake, lipolysis or energy expenditure have been found. These findings along with epigenetics and nutrigenetics are the basis to the development of new tools that would allow predicting individual obesity susceptibility and weight loss response.
Autores: Chueca M; et al.
Revista: METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
ISSN 0026-0495  Vol. 62  Nº 10  2013  págs. 1429 - 1436
OBJECTIVE: Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) shares some similarities with other cytokines, and participates in the control of energy metabolism. Higher circulating levels are observed in obese humans, but little information is gathered in weight loss (WL) programs. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of serum CT-1 levels with metabolic variables and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) after a WL program in overweight/obese children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-four overweight/obese children (mean age 11.5y; 50% males) undergoing a 10-week WL program were enrolled. Subjects were dichotomized at the median of Body Mass Index-Standard Deviation Score (BMI-SDS) change, as high and low responders after intervention. RESULTS: CT-1 levels were significantly reduced (-48 fmol/mL, p=0.043) in the high responder group after the WL program. They had significantly lower body weight (-3.7kg, p<0.001), body fat mass (-8%, p<0.001), BMI-SDS (-0.78, p<0.001) and waist circumference (-5.4cm, p<0.001), and a significant improvement in lipid and glucose profiles (p<0.05). Interestingly, decreased CT-1 levels significantly predicted changes in total cholesterol (41%) and LDL-cholesterol (28%). Moreover, in our participants the lower the CT-1 levels, the higher the reduction in MetS risk components, after the 10-week intervention, (p-ANCOVA=0.040, p-trend=0.024). CONCLUSION: We showed, for the first time, a reduction in serum CT-1 levels after a WL program and this decrease in CT-1 was strongly associated with a reduction in cholesterol levels and in MetS risk factors in overweight/obese children. Our findings may suggest that CT-1 could be an indirect marker for the diagnosis of MetS in this population.
Autores: Campión, Francisco Javier; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 27  Nº 6  2013  págs. 2504 - 2512
In recent years, epigenetic markers emerged as a new tool to understand the influence of lifestyle factors on obesity phenotypes. Adolescence is considered an important epigenetic window over a human¿s lifetime. The objective of this work was to explore baseline changes in DNA methylation that could be associated with a better weight loss response after a multidisciplinary intervention program in Spanish obese or overweight adolescents. Overweight or obese adolescents (n=107) undergoing 10 wk of a multidisciplinary intervention for weight loss were assigned as high or low responders to the treatment. A methylation microarray was performed to search for baseline epigenetic differences between the 2 groups (12 subjects/group), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to validate (n=107) relevant CpG sites and surrounding regions. After validation, 5 regions located in or near AQP9, DUSP22, HIPK3, TNNT1, and TNNI3 genes showed differential methylation levels between high and low responders to the multidisciplinary weight loss intervention. Moreover, a calculated methylation score was significantly associated with changes in weight, BMI-SDS, and body fat mass loss after the treatment. In summary, we have identified 5 DNA regions that are differentially methylated depending on weight loss response. These methylation changes may help to better understand the weight loss response in obese adolescents.
Autores: Chueca, M.; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 6  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 228 - 229
Autores: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martínez, JA; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 6  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 186
Autores: Campión, Francisco Javier; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 375
Autores: Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Marti A; et al.
Revista: Progress in molecular biology and translational science (Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci)
ISSN 1877-1173  Vol. 108  2012  págs. 323 - 346
Obesity is a complex disease resulting from a chronic and long-term positive energy balance in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Weight-reduction methods are mainly focused on dietary changes and increased physical activity. However, responses to nutritional intervention programs show a wide range of interindividual variation, which is importantly influenced by genetic determinants. In this sense, subjects carrying several obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) show differences in the response to calorie-restriction programs. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that dietary components not only fuel the body but also participate in the modulation of gene expression. Thus, the expression pattern and nutritional regulation of several obesity-related genes have been studied, as well as those that are differentially expressed by caloric restriction. The responses to caloric restriction linked to the presence of SNPs in obesity-related genes are reviewed in this chapter. Also, the influence of energy restriction on gene expression pattern in different tissues is addressed.
Autores: contreras R; Martínez, JA; et al.
Revista: CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL
ISSN 1525-6073  Vol. 29  Nº 10  2012  págs. 1397-1404
Genetic factors may interact with physical activity levels to modify obesity risk. Our aim was to explore the influence of rs1801260 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (3111T/C) of CLOCK gene on obesity risk, and to examine its potential interaction with lifestyle factors in an elderly population within the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") Project. Subjects (n¿=¿903, aged 69¿±¿6 yrs) were recruited from the SUN Project. DNA was obtained from saliva, whereas lifestyle and dietary data were collected by validated self-report questionnaires. Genotype was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) plus allele discrimination. A significant interaction was observed between the 3111T/C SNP of CLOCK gene and sex for overweight/obesity risk (p for sex¿×¿CLOCK interaction &lt;.001). Our results showed that women carrying the C allele of CLOCK gene had a marginally significant lower risk of overweight/obesity compared with noncarrier-TT-subjects (odds ratio [OR]: .61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .36-1.04; p¿=¿.069). Moreover, this association of the C allele with a decreased overweight/obesity risk might be enhanced in those women with a high physical activity level. Women practicing more than 16.8 metabolic equivalent tasks (hours per week) had a significantly lower overweight/obesity risk (OR: .36, 95% CI: .17-.79; p¿=¿.011). Furthermore, a significant interaction between the 3111T/C gene variant and physical activity (PA) for overweight/obesity risk was observed but only in women (p for PA¿×¿CLOCK interaction &lt;.050). In conclusion, it appears that physical activity levels may act by modifying the association of the 3111T/C SNP (rs1801260) of the CLOCK gene with overweight/obesity risk in elderly women in the SUN Project.
Autores:  et al.
Revista: Nutricion Hospitalaria
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 1  2012  págs. 165 - 176
The aim of this article is to describe the dietary intervention design and the methods used to evaluate nutritional knowledge and behavior in the EVASYON study (Development, implementation and evaluation of the efficacy of a therapeutic programme for over
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
ISSN 0022-3476  Vol. 161  Nº 3  2012  págs. 466-470
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of 9 obesity-related polymorphisms and a genetic predisposition score (GPS) on anthropometric and biochemical variables before and after a weight loss intervention program in overweight/obese Spanish adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Overweight/obese adolescents (n = 168; 12-16 years) participating in the EVASYON program were genotyped for 9 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, IL6, PPARG, and ADIPQ genes. RESULTS: At baseline, the GPS showed a significant association with body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and fat mass. After 3 months of intervention, this GPS also showed a relationship with the variation of both anthropometric measurements. After adjusting for baseline BMI-SDS, subjects with a lower GPS had a greater improvement on metabolic profile, as well as a better response to physical activity, compared with those subjects with a higher GPS. CONCLUSIONS: The GPS seems to have an important relationship with BMI-SDS and fat mass both at baseline and after a 3-month weight loss lifestyle intervention. Obese and overweight adolescents with a lower GPS have a greater benefit of weight loss after 3 months of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention.
Autores: Lorente, Silvia; Marti A; Fernández, Marta; et al.
Revista: The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
ISSN 0955-2863  Vol. 23  Nº 3  2012  págs. 218-227
Autores: Corella, D.; Ortega-Azorín, C.; Sorlí, J. V.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 7  Nº 12  2012  págs. e52344
Background: Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. Objective: To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA), and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. Methods: Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet) and physical activity (PA) were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score) as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. Results: FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher bodymass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity (P < 0.05 for all). A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score) were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.13). We found relevant statistical interactions (P, 0.05) with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical) interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P = 0.502) than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P = 0.021) than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/-SE: -0.57+/-0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P = 0.001). Conclusion: Statistical and biological interactions with PA and diet modulate the effects of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms on obesity. The novel association with alcohol consumption seems independent of their effects on BMI.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 107  Nº 4  2012  págs. 533 - 538
The rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been widely associated with childhood obesity in several European cohorts. This association appears to be dependent on dietary macronutrients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether dietary fatty acid intake distribution could interact with this FTO genetic variation and obesity in a Spanish case-control study of children and adolescents. A total of 354 Spanish children and adolescents aged 6-18 years (49% males) were genotyped for the rs9939609 variant of the FTO gene. Anthropometric parameters were taken and energy intake was measured. We observed an interaction between the consumption of SFA (percentage of total energy) and PUFA: SFA ratio and obesity risk linked to the rs9939609 SNP of the FTO gene. In the study population of the present study, the risk allele carriers consuming more than 12.6% SFA (of total energy) had an increased obesity risk compared with TT carriers. In a similar way, A allele carriers with an intake ratio lower than 0.43 PUFA: SFA presented a higher obesity risk than TT subjects. In summary, the present study reports for the first time the influence of dietary fatty acid distribution on the effect of the rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene on children and adolescents' obesity risk.
Autores: Terán, A.; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 5  2012  págs. 28
Autores: Toledo, Juan Bautista; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 5  Nº Supl.1  2012  págs. 82
Autores: Campión, Francisco Javier; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 5  Nº Suppl. 1  2012  págs. 173
Autores: Razquin, Cristina; Marti A; Martínez, JA;
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 55  Nº 1  2011  págs. 136 - 149
Obesity is a complex disease that results from the interaction between lifestyle (dietary patterns and sedentary habits) and genetic factors. The recognition of a genetic basis for human obesity has driven to identify putative causal genes to understand the pathways that control body mass and fat deposition in humans as well as to provide personalized treatments and prevention strategies to fight against obesity. More than 120 candidate genes have been associated with obesity-related traits. Genome-wide association study has so far identified over 20 novel loci convincingly associated with adiposity. This review is specifically focused on the study of the effects of melanocortin 4 receptor, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿ and fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene variants and their interactions with dietary intake, physical activity or drug administration on body weight control. The advances in this field are expected to open new ways in genome-customized diets for obesity prevention and therapy following personalized approaches.
Autores: Romeo, J; Martinez-Gomez, D ; Díaz, LE; et al.
Revista: Pediatric Diabetes
ISSN 1399-543X  Vol. 12  Nº 4  2011  págs. 372 - 380
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of the EVASYON program on body fatness, cardiometabolic risk factors, gut appetite-controlling hormones and serum levels of cytokines in adolescents with overweight or obesity (OW/OB). METHODS: This study comprised 13 boys (10 obese) and 12 girls (8 obese), aged 13-16 years, from a Madrid Hospital. The EVASYON program was based on a calorie-restricted diet (10-40%), increased physical activity (at least 60 min/day 5 days a week), psychological therapy and nutritional education for 13 months. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were measured before and after intervention. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, total peptide YY and insulin levels were determined before and after intervention. Serum levels of cytokines IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-¿ were also assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS: A decrease in body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, thigh, and calf), sum of six skinfolds and body circumferences (arm relaxed and flexed, waist, hip, and proximal thigh) values were observed after the intervention program (all p < 0.05). In addition, diastolic blood pressure also decreased (p < 0.05). A decrease in serum leptin levels (-48.4%, p < 0.001) was observed after intervention without changes in total peptide YY and insulin levels. Levels of IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-¿ also decreased (all p < 0.05) after the intervention program. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results evidence that the EVASYON program may improve body fat, leptin, and some pro-inflammatory cytokines in adolescents with OW/OB
Autores: Sánchez, María Almudena; Galbete, Cecilia; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
ISSN 1028-415X  Vol. 14  Nº 5  2011  págs. 195 - 201
There are no human studies assessing the effect of nutritional interventions on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations.Tthis study assesses the role of a nutritional intervention based on a Mediterranean diet on plasma BDNF levels.
Autores: Chueca, M; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Supl. 3  2011  págs. 265 - 266
Autores: Campión, Francisco Javier; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  2011  págs. 264 - 264
Autores: Toledo, Juan Bautista; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Supplement 3  2011  págs. 263 - 263
Autores: Puchau, María Blanca; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 61  Nº 7  2010  págs. 713 - 721
BACKGROUND: Dietary antioxidant intake has been suggested to protect against oxidative damage and related clinical complications. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential relationships between the dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and obesity-related features in children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anthropometric variables from 369 children and adolescents were measured (184 obese and 185 control). A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the TAC and the daily nutrient and energy intake. RESULTS: Dietary TAC showed positive associations with fiber, folic acid, magnesium, and vitamins A, C and E. The body mass index, standard deviation score of body mass index and total body fat were inversely associated with dietary TAC only in obese subjects. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that dietary TAC may be a potential indicator of the risk to develop obesity-related features and could be considered a useful method in assessing antioxidant intake.
Autores: Martínez, JA; García, Diego Fernando; et al.
Revista: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
ISSN 1096-7192  Vol. 101  Nº 2-3  2010  págs. 273 - 278
Autores: García de Lorenzo, A; Rodríguez-Montes, JA; Culebras, JM; et al.
Revista: Nutricion Hospitalaria
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 25  Nº 4  2010  págs. 540 - 542
The 7(th) Abbott-SENPE Forum is structured facing the new regulations of the European Space of High Education regarding the studies on Nutrition in the different degrees (Medicine, Pharmacology, Nutrition, Nursing) and post-doctoral education. A multi-professional and multidisciplinary discussion on the current situation of university education on nutrition, and its capabilities and limitations, is carried out. The value of the role of continuous medical education, the in-house training programme, masters, and of scientific societies is also assessed. It is concluded that there is a need to urge academic authorities, the National Commission of Medical Specialties, the persons in charge of continuous medical education, and scientific societies of the importance of the studies relating to nutrition, feeding, and dietetics at both pre-graduate and post-graduate educational levels, and to implement and develop these studies in their areas of influence.
Autores: Razquin, Cristina; Martínez, JA; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 34  Nº 2  2010  págs. 266 - 272
Autores: Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Basterra, Francisco Javier; Sánchez-Villegas, A; et al.
Revista: Public Health Nutrition
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 13  Nº 9  2010  págs. 1356 - 1363
Autores: Lorente, Silvia; Marti A; Martínez, JA; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 54  Nº Suppl. 1  2010  págs. S104 - S111
Recent studies have shown the ability of apelin to restore glucose tolerance in obese and insulin-resistant mice. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) from the omega-3 family that has many beneficial effects in obesity-linked disorders. The aim of this study was to examine in vitro the effects of EPA on apelin secretion and gene expression in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment with EPA (100 and 200 mu M) significantly increased basal (p<0.01) and insulin-stimulated (p<0.001) apelin secretion and gene expression in adipocytes. EPA also stimulated Akt phosphorylation, a down-stream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 completely blocked EPA-stimulatory action on apelin mRNA gene expression (p<0.001), but not modified the stimulatory effect of EPA on basal apelin secretion. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of EPA on basal apelin release was also observed in the presence of Actinomycin D and Cycloheximide, suggesting that EPA might also regulate apelin secretion by via post-transcriptional mechanisms. These findings suggest that the mechanisms mediating EPA-induced apelin synthesis and/or secretion are complex, involving steps that are PI3K dependent and steps that are PI3K independent.
Autores: Razquin, Cristina; Martínez, JA; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 49  Nº 5  2010  págs. 311 - 319
Purpose: Adiponectin gene variations have been associated with obesity. There are few interventional studies analyzing this association. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a nutritional intervention with Mediterranean-style diet and three (-4034A/C, +45T/G, and +276 G/T) adiponectin gene variants on 3-year body weight changes in high cardiovascular risk patients. Subjects and methods: A total of 737 participants, aged 55-80 at high cardiovascular risk were assigned to a low-fat diet or to a Mediterranean-style diet (MD) groups, one with high intake of virgin olive oil (VOO) and the other with high intake of nuts. Anthropometric parameters were taken at baseline and after 3-year follow-up, and the genotyping of the -4034A/C, +45T/G, and +276 G/T polymorphisms was done. Results: GG genotype of the +45T/G polymorphism was associated with 3-year higher body weight gain (B = 1.399; B = 0.043). TT genotype of the +276G/T polymorphism was linked to the highest 3-year body weight gain in men. Both Mediterranean diets appeared to reverse this effect (p for interaction = 0.053). Conclusion: Adiponectin gene variation appeared to be associated with 3-year body weight changes in a high cardiovascular risk population. This association may be modulated by a nutritional intervention with a Mediterranean-style diet.
Autores: Konstantinidou, V.; Covas, M. I.; Muñoz-Aguayo, D.; et al.
Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 24  Nº 7  2010  págs. 2546 - 2557
The aim of the study was to assess whether benefits associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) and virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption could be mediated through changes in the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes. A randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial in healthy volunteers (n=90) aged 20 to 50 yr was performed. Three-month intervention groups were as follows: 1) TMD with VOO ( TMD+VOO), 2) TMD with washed virgin olive oil (TMD+WOO), and 3) control with participants' habitual diet. WOO was similar to VOO, but with a lower polyphenol content (55 vs. 328 mg/kg, respectively). TMD consumption decreased plasma oxidative and inflammatory status and the gene expression related with both inflammation [INF-gamma (INF gamma), Rho GTPase-activating protein15 (ARHGAP15), and interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R)] and oxidative stress [adrenergic beta(2)-receptor (ADRB2) and polymerase (DNA-directed) kappa (POLK)] in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All effects, with the exception of the decrease in POLK expression, were particularly observed when VOO, rich in polyphenols, was present in the TMD dietary pattern. Our results indicate a significant role of olive oil polyphenols in the down-regulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a TMD. In addition, the benefits associated with a TMD and olive oil polyphenol consumption on cardiovascular risk can be mediated through nutrigenomic effects.-Konstantinidou, V., Covas, M.-I., Munoz-Aguayo, D., Khymenets, O., de la Torre, R., Saez, G., del Carmen Tormos, M., Toledo, E., Marti, A., Ruiz-Gutierrez, V., Ruiz Mendez, M. V., Fito, M. In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial.
Autores: Marti A; Martínez, JA;
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 3  Nº 4-6  2010  págs. 157 - 169
Autores: Milagro FI; García, Diego Fernando; et al.
Revista: Lipids in Health and Disease
ISSN 1476-511X  Vol. 9  2010  págs. 60 -
Autores: Razquin, Cristina; Martínez, JA; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 54  Nº 1  2010  págs. S75 - S82
Only a few studies have analyzed the effects of the potential interaction between the -174G/C polymorphism of IL6 gene and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) on adiposity indexes. Our aim was to investigate the interplay between the -174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene and a Mediterranean-style diet on body weight changes after 3 years of nutritional intervention in a high cardiovascular risk population. A total of 737 participants, aged 55-80 years were assigned to a low-fat diet or to a Mediterranean-style diet group with high intake of virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and after 3-year follow-up. The -174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene was genotyped. Minor allele frequency (C) was 0.39. At baseline, the CC genotype was associated with higher measures of adiposity. After 3 years, a significant interaction (p = 0.028) was found between the polymorphism (GG+GC versus CC) and the nutritional intervention: CC subjects following the MD+VOO had the lowest body weight gain. In conclusion, at baseline, CC subjects for the -174G/C polymorphism of IL6 had the highest body weight and BMI. However, after 3 years of nutritional intervention with MD+VOO, these subjects were predicted to have the greatest reduction in body weight.
Autores: Puchau, María Blanca; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 25  Nº Supl. 1  2010  págs. 186 - 187
Autores: Muñoz-Hornillos, M. M.; Marti A; Zazpe I;
Libro:  Nutrición y Dietética Clínica
2014  págs. 111 - 130
Autores:  et al.
Libro:  Fundamentos de nutrición y dietética
2011  págs. 281 - 284
Autores: Marti A; Martínez, JA; et al.
Libro:  Fundamentos de nutrición y dietética
2011  págs. 445 - 451
Autores: Marti A; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Personalized nutrition. Translating nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic. Research into dietary guidelines
2010  págs. 21 - 33
Autores: Marti A; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Los perfiles nutricionales de los alimentos y la obesidad en Europa
2010  págs. 59 - 67
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Marti A;
Libro:  Fundamentos de nutrición y dietética : bases metodológicas y aplicaciones
2010  págs. 355 - 358

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