FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE
BackgroundTo better understand the patient's heterogeneity in fatty liver disease (FLD), metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by international experts as a new nomenclature for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk, assessed through coronary artery calcium (CAC) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), of patients without FLD and patients with FLD and its different subtypes. MethodsCross sectional study of 370 patients. Patients with FLD were divided into 4 groups: FLD without metabolic dysfunction (non-MD FLD), MAFLD and the presence of overweight/obesity (MAFLD-OW), MAFLD and the presence of two metabolic abnormalities (MAFLD-MD) and MAFLD and the presence of T2D (MAFLD-T2D). MAFLD-OW included two subgroups: metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). The patients without FLD were divided into 2 groups: patients without FLD and without MD (non-FLD nor MD; reference group) and patients without FLD but with MD (non-FLD with MD). EAT and CAC (measured through the Agatston Score) were determined by computed tomography. ResultsCompared with the reference group (non-FLD nor MD), regarding EAT, patients with MAFLD-T2D and MAFLD-MUHO had the highest risk for CVD (OR 15.87, 95% CI 4.26-59.12 and OR 17.60, 95% CI 6.71-46.20, respectively), patients with MAFLD-MHO were also at risk for CVD (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.83-7.16), and patients with non-MD FLD did not have a significantly increased risk (OR 1.77; 95% CI 0.67-4.73). Regarding CAC, patients with MAFLD-T2D had an increased risk for CVD (OR 6.56, 95% CI 2.18-19.76). Patients with MAFLD-MUHO, MAFLD-MHO and non-MD FLD did not have a significantly increased risk compared with the reference group (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.90-7.13; OR 1.84, 95% CI 0.67-5.00 and OR 2.11, 95% CI 0.46-9.74, respectively). ConclusionMAFLD-T2D and MAFLD-OW phenotypes had a significant risk for CVD. MAFLD new criteria reinforced the importance of identifying metabolic phenotypes in populations as it may help to identify patients with higher CVD risk and offer a personalized therapeutic management in a primary prevention setting.
218 - 227
Objective: To compare the findings on chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with COVID-19 during different phases of the disease and to evaluate the reproducibility of a visual radiologic score for estimating the extent of lung involvement.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed chest CT studies from 182 patients with RT-PCR findings positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patients were classified according to the time elapsed from the onset of symptoms, as follows: early (0-4 days), intermediate/progressive (5-9 days), or advanced (>= 10 days). We analyzed the frequency of each radiologic finding, as well as the pattern, appearance, and predominant distribution of lung involvement. A visual tomographic score (range, 0-25) was used to estimate the extent of involvement in each lobe and in the total lung volume.
Results: The predominant CT finding was the ground-glass pattern (n=110; 60.4%), the most common distribution was peripheral (n = 116; 66.7%), and the most prevalent appearance was typical (n=112; 61.5%). The halo sign was seen most frequently in the early phase (25%), whereas ground-glass opacities were more common in the intermediate/progressive and advanced phases. The median severity score was 10 (IQR: 5-13), and the scores increased as the disease progressed. The interobserver agreement (kappa) was 0.92 for the appearance, 0.84 for the distribution, 0.70 for the predominant pattern, and 0.89 for the visual score.
Conclusion: The CT findings in patients with COVID-19 vary with the course of the infection. The proposed visual radiologic score is a simple, reproducible, and reliable tool for assessing lung involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia. (C) 2021 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.