Nuestros investigadores

Tania Errasti Alcalá

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Hidalgo, J. J.; Ros, F.; Aubá, María; et al.
ISSN 0960-7692  Vol. 53  Nº 5  2019  págs. 693 - 700
Objectives To perform an external validation of the diagnostic performance of the three-step strategy proposed by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) group for classifying adnexal masses as benign or malignant, when ultrasound is performed by non-expert sonographers in the first two steps. The second objective was to assess the diagnostic performance of an alternative strategy using simple-rules risk (SRR), instead of simple rules (SR), in the second step. Methods This was a prospective observational study conducted at two university hospitals, from September 2015 to August 2017, of consecutive patients diagnosed with an adnexal mass. All women were evaluated by ultrasound using the IOTA three-step strategy. Non-expert sonographers performed the first step (use of simple descriptors to classify the masses) and the second step (use of SR if the mass could not be classified in the first step); masses that could not be classified in the first two steps were categorized by an expert sonographer based on their subjective assessment (third step). The reference standard was histological diagnosis in patients who underwent surgery or at least 12 months of follow-up in cases managed expectantly. The sensitivity, specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios and overall accuracy of the IOTA three-step strategy were estimated. Furthermore, we evaluated retrospectively an alternative two-step strategy using SRR in the second step to categorize the masses not classifiable with simple descriptors, classifying the lesions as being of low, intermediate or high risk for malignancy. The diagnostic performance of this strategy was estimated by calculating its sensitivity and specificity, assuming surgical intervention for intermediate-or high-risk lesions. Results The study included 283 patients (median age, 48 (range, 18-90) years), of whom 165 (58.3%) were premenopausal and 118 (41.7%) postmenopausal. Two hundred and sixteen (76.3%) women underwent surgery (154 benign and 62 malignant masses) and 67 (23.7%) were managed expectantly with serial ultrasound follow-up for at least 12 months. All expectantly managed masses were considered benign because no sonographic changes suggestive of malignancy were observed during follow-up. Simple descriptors could be applied in 126 (44.5%) masses. Of the remaining 157 lesions, 112 (39.6%) could be characterized using SR. Therefore, 238 (84.1%) masses could be classified by non-expert sonographers in the first two steps. Of the remaining 45 (15.9%) masses, all could be classified by an expert sonographer. Overall sensitivity, specificity, LR+ and LR- of the IOTA three-step strategy were 95.2%, 97.7%, 42.1 and 0.05, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was 97.2%. Following the two-step strategy using SRR in the second step, of the 157 lesions not classified with simple descriptors, 42, 38 and 77 presented low, intermediate or high risk for malignancy, respectively. Based on this method, 210 women would have undergone surgical treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of this two-step strategy were 98.4% and 63.8%, respectively. Conclusions The IOTA three-step strategy shows high accuracy for discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal lesions when used by non-expert sonographers. An alternative strategy using the SRR calculator in the second step might improve on this diagnostic performance by decreasing the number of surgical interventions and increasing sensitivity.
Autores: Pascual, A.; Guerriero, S.; Rams, N.; et al.
ISSN 0392-2936  Vol. 38  Nº 3  2017  págs. 382 - 386
Objective: To compare clinical and sonographic features of benign, borderline, and malignant invasive mucinous ovarian tumors (MOTs). Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational multicenter study comprising 365 women (mean age: 46.1 years) with a histologically confirmed benign, borderline or malignant invasive MOT. Clinical data (patient's age, patient's complaints), tumor markers (CA-125 and CA-19.9), and sonographic data (tumor size, bilaterality, morphology unilocular, multilocular, unilocular-solid, multilocular-solid and solid-, and IOTA color score) were reviewed and compared among these three groups. Women with ultrasound evidence on intra-abdominal disease spread were excluded. Results: Three hundred seventy-eight MOTs (14 women had bilateral lesions) were analyzed. Histologically, 287 tumors were benign, 51 were borderline, and 40 were malignant. No difference in patient's mean age was observed. Women with borderline or invasive tumors were less frequently asymptomatic. Tumors were larger in case of invasive lesions. Borderline and invasive tumors showed solid components and exhibited IOTA color score 3 or 4, more frequently than benign lesions (p < 0.001). However, the authors discovered that 16 out of 51 (31.4%) of borderline tumors and six out of 40 (15.0%) of invasive cancers had no solid components and a color score 1 or 2, and were considered as a benign lesion by the sonologist. On the other hand, 96 out of 287 (33.4%) benign mucinous cystadenoma exhibited solid components and/or a color score of 3 or 4. Conclusions: In spite of statistical differences, the authors observed significant overlapping in ultrasound features among benign, borderline, and invasive ovarian mucinous tumors that renders a difficult accurate preoperative discrimination among these lesions.
Autores: Alcázar, Juan Luis; Martinez-Astorquiza Corral T; Orozco R; et al.
ISSN 0378-7346  Vol. 81  Nº 4  2016  págs. 289-95
A total number of 88 papers were identified. After exclusions, nine studies were ultimately included. Pooled estimated sensitivity was 98% (95% CI 91-100) with a moderate heterogeneity (I2: 64.8%, 95% CI 39.6-89.9; and Cochran Q 22.7, p < 0.001). Pooled estimated specificity was 90% (95% CI 83-95) with significant heterogeneity (I2: 80.3%, 95% CI 68.1-92.5; and Cochran Q 40.6, p < 0.001). Positive likelihood ratio was 10.3 (95% CI 5.6-18.7) and negative likelihood ratio was 0.02 (95% CI 0.00-0.21). CONCLUSION: 3D-HyCoSy is an accurate test for diagnosing tubal occlusion in women with infertility.
Autores: Alcázar, Juan Luis; Pascual, M. A.; Graupera, B.; et al.
ISSN 0960-7692  Vol. 48  Nº 3  2016  págs. 397 - 402
Objective To assess the diagnostic performance of a three-step strategy proposed by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) Group for discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses. Methods This was a prospective observational study, performed at two tertiary-care university hospitals, of women diagnosed with an adnexal mass on transvaginal or transabdominal ultrasound between December 2012 and December 2014. Women were scheduled for an ultrasound evaluation, which was initially performed by non-expert examiners. The examiner had to classify the mass using `simple descriptors¿ (first step) and, if not possible, using `simple rules¿ (second step). For inconclusive masses, an expert examiner classified the mass according to their subjective impression (third step). Masses were managed expectantly, with serial follow-up examinations, or surgically, according to ultrasound findings and clinical symptoms. Histology was used as the reference standard. Masses that were managed expectantly with at least 1 year of follow-up were considered as benign for analytical purposes. Women with less than 1 year of follow-up were not included in the study. Results Six hundred and sixty-six women were included (median age, 41 (range, 18¿81)¿years) of whom 514 were premenopausal and 152 were postmenopausal. Based on the three-step strategy, 362 women had surgical removal of the mass (53 malignant and 309 benign), 71 masses resolved spontaneously and 233 persisted. Four hundred and forty-eight (67.3%) of 666 masses could be classified using simple descriptors and, of the 218 that could not, 147 (67.4%) were classified using simple rules. Of the remaining 71 masses, the expert examiner classified 45 as benign, 12 as malignant and 14 as uncertain. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the three-step strategy were 94.3%, 94.9%, 18.6 and 0.06, respectively. Conclusion The IOTA three-step strategy, based on the sequential use of simple descriptors, simple rules and expert evaluation, performs well for classifying adnexal masses as benign or malignant.
Autores: Alcázar, Juan Luis; Aubá, María; et al.
ISSN 0960-7692  Vol. 45  Nº 5  2015  págs. 613-17
The addition of 2D-PDA in the differential diagnosis of an adnexal mass significantly increases specificity while sensitivity remains high; however performing subsequent 3D-PDA does not provide additional information or further improve diagnostic performance subsequent to 2D-PDA.
Autores: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Mikolajczyk, R. T.; Osorio, A; et al.
ISSN 0962-1067  Vol. 22  Nº 21-22  2013  págs. 3006 - 3015
Aims and Objectives: To assess women's attitudes towards the mechanisms of action of birth control methods. Background: When addressing women's knowledge of and attitudes towards birth control methods, researchers frequently focus on side effects, effectiveness or correct use. Women's opinions about mechanisms of action have been much less investigated, and research is usually concentrated on the EC pill. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Women, aged 18-49, from Germany, France, the UK, Sweden and Romania were randomly selected (n = 1137). They were asked whether they would use a method that may work after fertilisation or after implantation and whether they would continue using it after learning it may have such effects. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the influence of certain characteristics on women's attitudes. Results: Almost half of women in Romania and Germany would not use methods with postfertilisation effects, while the lowest percentages were found in Sweden and in France. Regarding methods with postimplantation effects, higher percentages were found in all the countries. Highly educated women and those using a highly effective method were more likely to use methods with postfertilisation effects. On the contrary, married women, those who stated that human life begins at fertilisation and women with middle/high religiosity were less likely to consider using methods that may act after fertilisation. Conclusions: One-third of European women reported that they would not consider using a method that may have postfertilisation effects. Relevance To Clinical Practice: Given that postfertilisation effects may not be acceptable to some women, informing them of which methods may have these effects is essential to obtaining complete informed consent and to promoting women's autonomy.
Autores: Pluchino, N.; Carmignani, A.; Cubeddu, A.; et al.
ISSN 0932-0067  Vol. 288  Nº 4  2013  págs. 731 - 737
Androgens play a primary role in female physiopathology. The age-related reduction in the production of ovarian and adrenal androgens may significantly affect women's health. The decline of circulating androgens results from a combination of two events: reduced ovarian production and aged-related decline in adrenal androgen synthesis. The relative androgen deficiency in pre- and postmenopausal women may induce impairment of sexual function, libido, well-being, energy and may contribute to reduced cognitive functions. Whether androgen deficiency also affects cardiovascular or bone biology in women during reproductive aging is still controversial. Both in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, there are multiple ways whereby androgens target their specific actions through a particular tropism of the brain areas that are involved in sexual function, behavior and cognition. Among circulating available androgens that are involved in several domains of sexual response, adrenal androgens seem to be related to some sexual symptoms as well as diminished cognitive function in postmenopausal women. The possibilities of treating low sexual desire/hypoactive sexual desire disorder are multifaceted and should include the combination of both pharmacological treatments able to maximize biological signals that drive the sexual response as well as individualized psychosocial therapies to overcome personal and relational difficulties. Transdermal testosterone has been proved to be effective but the use of additional treatment like oral or vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone is still controversial, despite many evidences support it. The decision to treat premenopausal or postmenopausal women with signs/symptoms of androgen insufficiency is mainly based on the clinical judgment, together with estrogens co-administration and following informed consent related to the unknown long-term risks.
Autores: Lopez-del Burgo, C; T., Rafael; Osorio, A; et al.
ISSN 0010-7824  Vol. 85  Nº 1  2012  págs. 69 - 77
ICS Background: Adequate knowledge is essential for making informed decisions. We attempted to determine the level of knowledge about mechanisms of action of birth control methods in five representative samples of European women. Study Design: Randomly selected women, aged 18-49 years, completed an anonymous survey in Germany, France, the UK, Sweden and Romania (N=1137). Participants were asked about how contraceptive methods work and if providers should inform them about this issue. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate women's characteristics associated with their knowledge of mechanisms of action. Results: The majority of women identified the unequivocal mode of action of condoms, sterilization and abortion. Fewer than 2% identified all possible mechanisms of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine devices. Highly educated women correctly identified the mechanism or mechanisms of action of more methods than less educated women (beta=0.22, 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.43). Regardless of their sociodemographic characteristics and their belief about when human life begins, most women (75%) stated that the provider should inform them about possible postfertilization effects. Conclusions: European women have low knowledge about mechanisms of action of several contraceptive methods. The majority want to be informed about possible postfertilization effects. Since adequate knowledge is essential for making informed decisions, providers are encouraged to info
Autores: López, Natalia María; Errasti, T; Santiago, E.;
ISSN 0328-8390  Vol. 22  Nº 75  2011  págs. 185 - 200
In the period between puberty and maturity takes place the process of brain maturation. Hormone levels induce changes in neurons and direct the architecture and structural functionality thus affecting patterns of development of different brain areas. The onset of puberty brings with it the invasion of the female brain by high levels of hormones, cyclic surges of estrogen and progesterone in addition to steroids produced in situ. Control centers of emotions (amygdala), memory and learning (hippocampus) and sexual activity (hypothalamus) are modified according to the cyclical concentrations of both hormones. Sex hormones stimulate multimodal actions, both short and longer terms, because neurons in various brain areas have different types of receptors, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear. The composition of emergency contraceptive pill (postcoital pill) with high hormonal content raises the urgency of a thorough knowledge about the possible effect that the lack of control of the menstrual cycle in a time of consolidation of brain maturation, can bring in structuring and development of brain circuitry. Changes in the availability of sex steroids during puberty and adolescence underlie psychiatric disorders whose prevalence is typically feminine, such as depression, anxiety disorders. It is a fundamental ethical duty to present scientific data about the influence of estrogen in young female brain maturation, both for full information to potential users, and also to induce the appropriate public health measures.