Nuestros investigadores

María de los Ángeles Zulet Alzórriz

Departamento
Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Inflamación, Estrés oxidativo, Obesidad, Síndrome metabólico, Enfermedades cardiovasculares, Resistencia insulínica, Hígado graso no alcohólico, Nutrición personalizada, Nutrición de precisión, Promoción de la salud, Educación nutricional, Nutrigenómica, epigenética y metabolómica, Sexenios CNEAI: 2 (1997-2003; 2006-2011)
Índice H
34, (WoS, 19/06/2019)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Abete, Itziar; Konieczna, J.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles, (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CACHEXIA, SARCOPENIA AND MUSCLE
ISSN 2190-5991  Vol. 10  Nº 5  2019  págs. 974 - 984
Background Sarcopenia is a progressive age-related skeletal muscle disorder associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes. Muscle wasting is often accompanied by an increase in body fat, leading to 'sarcopenic obesity'. The aim of the present study was to analyse the association of lifestyle variables such as diet, dietary components, physical activity (PA), body composition, and inflammatory markers, with the risk of sarcopenic obesity. Methods A cross-sectional analysis based on baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study was performed. A total of 1535 participants (48% women) with overweight/obesity (body mass index: 32.5 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2); age: 65.2 +/- 4.9 years old) and metabolic syndrome were categorized according to sex-specific tertiles (T) of the sarcopenic index (SI) as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Anthropometrical measurements, biochemical markers, dietary intake, and PA information were collected. Linear regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between variables. Results Subjects in the first SI tertile were older, less physically active, showed higher frequency of abdominal obesity and diabetes, and consumed higher saturated fat and less vitamin C than subjects from the other two tertiles (all P < 0.05). Multiple adjusted linear regression models evidenced significant positive associations across tertiles of SI with adherence to the Mediterranean dietary score (P-trend < 0.05), PA (P-trend < 0.0001), and the 30 s chair stand test (P-trend < 0.0001), whereas significant negative associations were found with an inadequate vitamin C consumption (P-trend < 0.05), visceral fat and leucocyte count (all P-trend < 0.0001), and some white cell subtypes (neutrophils and monocytes), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet count (all P-trend < 0.05). When models were additionally adjusted by potential mediators (inflammatory markers, diabetes, and waist circumference), no relevant changes were observed, only dietary variables lost significance. Conclusions Diet and PA are important regulatory mediators of systemic inflammation, which is directly involved in the sarcopenic process. A healthy dietary pattern combined with exercise is a promising strategy to limit age-related sarcopenia.
Autores: Bibiloni, M. D. M.; Julibert, A.; Bouzas, C.; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2019  págs. 754
BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and diet quality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6060, men and women, with ages 55¿75 years old, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. METHODS: nut intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants who reported consuming zero quantity of nuts were classified as 'non-nut consumers'. 'Nut consumers' were participants who reported consuming any quantity of nuts. Nineteen micronutrients were examined (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine). The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) cut-points. Diet quality was also assessed using a 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire (Mediterranean diet score, MDS), a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and a fat quality index (FQI). RESULTS: eighty-two percent of participants were nut consumers (median of nut consumption 12.6 g/day; interquartile range: 6.0¿25.2). Nut consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, and Ca, Mg, Se and Zn than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for K and Cr than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers had lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, but also higher CQI, higher FQI, and better scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean diet score, MDS). CONCLUSIONS: nut consumers had better nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and adherence to the MedDiet than those non-nut consumers.
Autores: Marín-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete, Itziar; Cantero, Irene; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 2  2019  págs. 322
The relevance of sleep patterns in the onset or evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep characteristics and hepatic status indicators in obese people with NAFLD compared to normal weight non-NAFLD controls. Ninety-four overweight or obese patients with NAFLD and 40 non-NAFLD normal weight controls assessed by abdominal ultrasonography were enrolled. Hepatic status evaluation considered liver stiffness determined by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse elastography (ARFI) and transaminases. Additionally, anthropometric measurements, clinical characteristics, and biochemical profiles were determined. Sleep features were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hepatic status parameters, anthropometric measurements, and clinical and biochemical markers differed significantly in NAFLD subjects compared to controls, as well as sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance score, and sleep quality score. In the NAFLD group, a higher prevalence of short sleep duration (p = 0.005) and poor sleep quality (p = 0.041) were found. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for NAFLD considering sleep disturbance was 1.59 (1.11¿2.28). Regression models that included either sleep disturbance or sleep quality predicted up to 20.3% and 20.4% of the variability of liver stiffness, respectively, and after adjusting for potential confounders. Current findings suggest that sleep disruption may be contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD as well as the alteration of the liver may be affecting sleep patterns. Consequently, sleep characteristics may be added to the list of modifiable behaviors to consider in health promotion strategies and in the prevention and management of NAFLD.
Autores: Konieczna, J.; Abete, Itziar; Galmes, A. M. ; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 38  Nº 4  2019  págs. 1883 - 1891
Background & aims: Excess adiposity is associated with poor cardiometabolic (CM) health. To date, several techniques and indicators have been developed to determine adiposity. We aimed to compare the ability of traditional anthropometric, as well as standard and novel DXA-derived parameters related to overall and regional adiposity, to evaluate CM risk. Methods: Using the cross-sectional design in the context of the PREDIMED-Plus trial, 1207 Caucasian senior men and women with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were assessed. At baseline, anthropometry- and DXA-measured parameters of central, visceral, peripheral and central-to peripheral adiposity together with comprehensive set of CM risk factors were obtained. Partial correlations and areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were estimated to compare each adiposity measure with CM risk parameters, separately for men and women, and in the overall sample. Results: DXA-derived indicators, other than percentage of total body fat, showed stronger correlations (rho 0.172 to 0.206, p < 0.001) with CM risk than anthropometric indicators, after controlling for age, diabetes and medication use. In both sexes, DXA-derived visceral adipose tissue measures (VAT, VAT/Total fat, visceral-to-subcutaneous fat) together with lipodystrophy indicators (Trunk/Legs fat and Android/Gynoid fat) were strongly and positively correlated (p < 0.001) with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), triglycerides (TG), the ratio TG/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C), and were inversely related to HDL-C levels (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in AUC analyses for both sexes, VAT/Total fat showed the highest predictive ability for abnormal HbAl c levels (AUC = 0.629), VAT for TyG (AUC = 0.626), both lipodystrophy indicators for TG (AUCs = 0.556), and Trunk/Legs fat for HDL-C (AUC = 0.556) and TG/HDL-C (AUC = 0.581). Conclusions: DXA regional adiposity measures offer advantages beyond traditional anthropometric and DXA overall adiposity indicators for CM risk assessment in senior overweight/obese subjects with MetS. In particular, in both sexes, visceral adiposity better stratifies individuals at risk for glucose abnormalities, and indicators of lipodystrophy better predict markers of dyslipidemia. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Autores: Alvarez, Ismael; Martínez, Miguel Ángel, (Autor de correspondencia); Sánchez Tainta, Ana; et al.
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGIA
ISSN 0300-8932  Vol. 72  Nº 11  2019  págs. 925 - 934
Introduction and objectives: The cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean diet have usually been assessed under assumptions of ad libitum total energy intake (ie, no energy restriction). In the recently launched PREDIMED-Plus, we conducted exploratory analyses to study the baseline associations between adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of all PREDIMED-Plus participants (6874 older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) at baseline. The participants were assessed by their usual primary care physicians to ascertain the prevalence of 4 CVRF (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). A 17-point PREDIMED-Plus score was used to measure adherence to the MedDiet. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate differences in means and prevalence ratios for individual and clustered CVRF. Results: Better adherence to a MedDiet pattern was significantly associated with lower average triglyceride levels, body mass index, and waist circumference. Compared with low adherence (<= 7 points in the 17-point score), better adherence to the MedDiet (11-17 points) showed inverse associations with hypertension (prevalence ratio = 0.97; 95%CI, 0.94-1.00) and obesity (prevalence ratio = 0.96; 95%CI, 0.92-1.00), but positive associations with diabetes (prevalence ratio = 1.19; 95%CI, 1.07-1.32). Compared with the lowest third of adherence, women in the upper third showed a significantly lower prevalence of the clustering of 3 or more CVRF (prevalence ratio = 0.91; 95%CI, 0.83-0.98). Conclusions: Among participants at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to a MedDiet showed significant inverse associations with CVRF among women, and improved lipid profiles and adiposity measures. (C) 2018 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Autores: Mansego, Maria L; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 58  Nº 5  2019  págs. 1971 - 1980
Purpose The interindividual variable response to weight-loss treatments requires the search for new predictive biomarkers for improving the success of weight-loss programs. The aim of this study is to identify novel genes that distinguish individual responses to a weight-loss dietary treatment by using the integrative analysis of mRNA expression and DNA methylation arrays. Methods Subjects from Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) project were classified as low (LR) or high (HR) responders depending on their weight loss. Transcriptomic (n=24) and epigenomic (n=47) patterns were determined by array-based genome-wide technologies in human white blood cells at the baseline of the treatment period. CD44 expression was validated by qRT-PCR and methylation degree of CpGs of the gene was validated by MassARRAY((R)) EpiTYPER (TM) in a subsample of 47 subjects. CD44 protein levels were measured by ELISA in human plasma. Results Different expression and DNA methylation profiles were identified in LR in comparison to HR. The integrative analysis of both array data identified four genes: CD44, ITPR1, MTSS1 and FBXW5 that were differently methylated and expressed between groups. CD44 showed higher expression and lower DNA methylation levels in LR than in HR. Although differences in CD44 protein levels between LR and HR were not statistically significant, a positive association was observed between CD44 mRNA expression and protein levels. Conclusions In summary, the combination of a genome-wide methylation and expression array dataset can be a useful strategy to identify novel genes that might be considered as predictors of the dietary response. CD44 gene transcription and methylation may be a possible candidate biomarker for weight-loss prediction.
Autores: Cantero, Irene; Elorz, Mariana; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 1449-1907  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2019  págs. 75 - 83
Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may progress to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and complicated hepatocellular carcinoma with defined differential symptoms and manifestations. Objective: To evaluate the fatty liver status by several validated approaches and to compare imaging techniques, lipidomic and routine blood markers with magnetic resonance imaging in adults subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and methods: A total of 127 overweight/obese with NAFLD, were parallelly assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), ultrasonography, transient elastography and a validated metabolomic designed test to diagnose NAFLD in this cross-sectional study. Body composition (DXA), hepatic related biochemical measurements as well as the Fatty Liver Index (FLI) were evaluated. This study was registered as FLiO: Fatty Liver in Obesity study; NCT03183193. Results: The subjects with more severe liver disease were found to have worse metabolic parameters. Positive associations between MRI with inflammatory and insulin biomarkers were found. A linear regression model including ALT, RBP4 and HOMA-IR was able to explain 40.9% of the variability in fat content by MRI. In ROC analyses a combination panel formed of ALT, HOMA-IR and RBP4 followed by ultrasonography, ALT and metabolomic test showed the major predictive ability (77.3%, 74.6%, 74.3% and 71.1%, respectively) for liver fat content. Conclusions: A panel combination including routine blood markers linked to insulin resistance showed highest associations with MRI considered as a gold standard for determining liver fat content. This combination of tests can facilitate the diagnosis of early stages of non-alcoholic liver disease thereby avoiding other invasive and expensive methods.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu-Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 14  2019  págs. 11
BACKGROUND: Olfaction is an important sense influencing food preferences, appetite, and eating behaviors. This hypothesis-driven study aimed to assess associations between olfactory pathway gene methylation signatures, obesity features, and dietary intakes. METHODS: A nutriepigenomic analysis was conducted in 474 adults from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project. Anthropometric measurements, clinical data, and serum metabolic profiles of the study population were obtained from structured databases of the MENA cohorts. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. DNA methylation was measured in circulating white blood cells by microarray (Infinium Human Methylation 450¿K BeadChips). FDR values (p <¿0.0001) were used to select those CpGs that showed the best correlation with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Pathway analyses involving the characterization of genes involved in the olfactory transduction system were performed using KEGG and pathDIP reference databases. RESULTS: Overall, 15 CpG sites at olfactory pathway genes were associated with BMI (p <¿0.0001) and WC (p <¿0.0001) after adjustments for potential confounding factors. Together, methylation levels at the15 CpG sites accounted for 22% and 20% of the variability in BMI and WC (r 2 =¿0.219, p <¿0.001, and r 2 =¿0.204, p <¿0.001, respectively). These genes encompassed olfactory receptors (OR4D2, OR51A7, OR2T34, and OR2Y1) and several downstream signaling molecules (SLC8A1, ANO2, PDE2A, CALML3, GNG7, CALML6, PRKG1, and CAMK2D), which significantly regulated odor detection and signal transduction processes within the complete olfactory cascade, as revealed by pathway enrichment analyses (p =¿1.94¿×¿10-10). Moreover, OR4D2 and OR2Y1 gene methylation patterns strongly correlated with daily intakes of total energy (p <¿0.0001), carbohydrates (p <¿0.0001), protein (p <¿0.0001), and fat (p <¿0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest novel relationships between olfactory pathway gene methylation signatures, obesity indices, and dietary intakes.
Autores: Galarregui, C.; Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 41  Nº 2  2018  págs. 227 - 243
El envejecimiento de la población supone un importante reto, económico y cualitativo, para el sistema de salud orientándolo hacia una atención de tipo preventivo, en la que la nutrición de precisión (NP) y la prescripción de hábitos saludables adquieren relevancia capital. El fin de la NP es procurar una nutrición adaptada a cada individuo, entendiendo que la prevención o el tratamiento de trastornos crónicos (obesidad, diabetes, enfermedad cardiovascular, etc.) deben abordarse de un modo integral, considerando información personal y clínica relevante, edad y características feno- y genotípicas. La elaboración de la presente guía surge de la necesidad de desarrollar modelos nutricionales de precisión que permitan la individualización del tratamiento nutricional, con énfasis en el adulto mayor. Las necesidades nutricionales, las recomendaciones dietéticas y los ingredientes para una NP en las personas pre-sénior y sénior quedan resumidas en realizar al menos 3 comidas diarias, reducir las calorías totales, optar por una alimentación variada y equilibrada con alimentos frescos y de alta densidad nutricional, incorporar verduras, legumbres y pescado, consumir productos lácteos y fibra, preferir carnes blancas en lugar de rojas, evitar frituras, embutidos y alimentos procesados, moderar el consumo de sal, café y alcohol, e hidratarse adecuadamente. The aging of the population underlines an important challenge for the health system not only from sanitary and economic reasons but
Autores: Malafarina, V., (Autor de correspondencia); Reginster, J. Y.; Cabrerizo, S. ; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 5  2018 
Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture. We searched the PubMed database for studies evaluating nutritional aspects in people aged 70 years and over with hip fracture. The total number of studies included in the review was 44, which analyzed 26,281 subjects (73.5% women, 83.6 +/- 7.2 years old). Older people with hip fracture presented an inadequate nutrient intake for their requirements, which caused deterioration in their already compromised nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was approximately 18.7% using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) (large or short form) as a diagnostic tool, but the prevalence was greater (45.7%) if different criteria were used (such as Body Mass Index (BMI), weight loss, or albumin concentration). Low scores in anthropometric indices were associated with a higher prevalence of complications during hospitalization and with a worse functional recovery. Despite improvements in the treatment of geriatric patients with hip fracture, mortality was still unacceptably high (30% within 1 year and up to 40% within 3 years). Malnutrition was associated with an increase in mortality. Nutritional intervention was cost effective and was associated with an improvement in nutritional status and a greater functional recovery. To conclude, in older people, the prevention of malnutrition and an early nutritional intervention can improve recovery following a hip fracture.
Autores: García, Marcos; Martínez, JA, (Autor de correspondencia); Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 13  Nº 8  2018 
Background Non-coding RNAs (i.e., miRNAs) play a role in the development of obesity and related comorbidities and the regulation of body weight. Objective To identify candidate miRNA biomarkers throughout omics approaches in order to predict the response to specific weight-loss dietary treatments. Design Genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from white blood cells of a subset from the RESMENA nutritional intervention study (Low-responders (LR) vs High-responders (HR)) was hybridized in Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip and in Illumina Human HT-12 v4 gene expression BeadChips arrays respectively. A bioinformatic prediction of putative target sites of selected miRNAs was performed by applying miRBase algorithms. HEK-293T cells were co-transfected with expression vectors containing the 3'-UTR of candidate genes to validate the binding of miRNAs to its target sites. Results 134 miRNAs were differentially methylated between HR and LR in the methylation array, whereas 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed between both groups in the expression array. Specifically, miR-1237, miR-1976, miR-642, miR-636, miR-612 and miR-193B were simultaneously hypomethylated and overexpressed in HR. miR-612 and miR-1976 showed greatest differences in methylation and expression levels, respectively. The bioinformatic prediction revealed that TP53 was a putative target gene of miR-612 and CD40 of miR-1976. Moreover, TP53 was downregulated in the expression array when comparing HR vs LR expression levels adjusted by sex, diet, age and baseline weight, and CD40 showed a statistical trend. Furthermore, gene expression levels of TP53 and CD40 in white blood cells, when measured by qPCR, were also downregulated in HR. Finally, miR-612 and miR-1976 potently repressed TP53 and CD40 respectively by targeting its 3'-UTR regions. Conclusion miR-612 and miR-1976 levels could be prospective biomarkers of response to specific weight-loss diets and might regulate the gene expression of TP53 and CD40.
Autores: Cantero, Irene; Abete, Itziar; del Bas, J. M. ; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1743-7075  Vol. 15  2018  págs. 51
Background: Obesity and comorbidities such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are major public health burdens. Alterations in lipid metabolism are involved in hepatic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of weight loss on lysophospholipid (LP) metabolism and liver status in obese subjects as well as to provide new evidence regarding the interaction of LP metabolism as a key factor in the onset and management of obesity-related diseases such as liver damage. Methods: Thirty-three subjects from the RESMENA (Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra, NCT01087086) study were selected based on their Fatty Liver Index (FLI). Plasma lipid species (lysophosphatidilcholine: LPC, lysophosphatidilethanolamines: LPE and lysophosphatidylinositols: LPI specifically) were determined by LC-MS, while waist circumference (WC) and other non-invasive liver markers such as, FLI and BAAT scores as well as dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, body composition by DXA and other metabolic determinants were analyzed before and after a six-month hypocaloric nutritional intervention. Results: Computed Z-scores of total LP (LPC, LPE, and LPI) were significantly decreased after 6-months of following a hypocaloric diet. Specifically, LPC14:0, LPC15:0, LPC16:1, LPC18:4, LPC20:4, showed clear relationships with weight loss. Changes in FLI score, WC and BAAT score revealed associations with general changes in LPC score. Interestingly the BAAT score was statistically associated with the LPC score after adjustment for weight loss. Conclusion: The lipidomic LPC profile analysis revealed a generalized decrease in circulating lysophospholipids after weight loss. The involvement of particular LP in liver metabolism and obesity merit further attention, as some of these specific non-invasive liver markers were reduced independently of weight loss.
Autores: Galarregui, C.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Cantero, Irene; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 19  Nº 11  2018  págs. 3662
Background: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) are accepted indicators of diet quality, which have an effect on diet-disease relationships. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential associations of dietary TAC, GI, and GL with variables related to nutritive status and insulin resistance (IR) risk in cardiometabolic subjects. Methods: A total of 112 overweight or obese adults (age: 50.8 +/- 9 years old) were included in the trial. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which was also used to calculate the dietary TAC, GI, and GL. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), glycemic and lipid profiles, C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as fatty liver quantification by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed. Results: Subjects with higher values of TAC had significantly lower circulating insulin concentration and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Participants with higher values of HOMA-IR showed significantly higher GI and GL. Correlation analyses showed relevant inverse associations of GI and GL with TAC. A regression model evidenced a relationship of HOMA-IR with TAC, GI, and GL. Conclusion: This data reinforces the concept that dietary TAC, GI, and GL are potential markers of diet quality, which have an impact on the susceptible population with a cardiometabolic risk profile.
Autores: Cantero, Irene; Abete, Itziar; Babio, N.; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 37  Nº 5  2018  págs. 1736 - 1743
Background & aims: To assess the possible association between a validated Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and specific dietary components with suitable non-invasive markers of liver status in overweight and obese subjects within the PREDIMED study. Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 794 randomized overweight and obese participants (mean +/- SD age: 67.0 +/- 5.0 y, 55% females) from the PREDIMED (PREvencion con Dleta MEDiterranea) trial was conducted. DII is a validated tool evaluating the effect of diet on six inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein). Furthermore, a validated 137-item food-frequency-questionnaire was used to obtain the information about the food intake. In addition, anthropometric measurements and several non-invasive markers of liver status were assessed and the Fatty Liver Index (FLI) score was calculated. Results: A higher DII and lower adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) were associated with a higher degree of liver damage (FLI > 60) in obese as compared to overweight participants. Furthermore, the DII score was positively associated with relevant non-invasive liver markers (ALT, AST, GGT and FLI) and directly affected FLI values. Interestingly, a positive correlation was observed between liver damage (>50th percentile FLI) and nutrients and foods linked to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern. Conclusions: This study reinforced the concept that obesity is associated with liver damage and revealed that the consumption of a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern might contribute to obesity and fatty liver disease features. These data suggest that a well-designed precision diet including putative anti-inflammatory components could specifically prevent and ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver manifestations in addition to obesity. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Autores: Galarregui, C.; Abete, Itziar; Cantero, Irene; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 73  Nº Supl. 2  2018  págs. 30 - 30
Autores: Konieczna, J. ; Abete, Itziar; Galmes, A. M.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 172 - 172
Autores: Panades, A. M. G.; Konieczna, J.; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 170 - 171
Autores: Cantero, Irene; Abete, Itziar; Marin-Alejandre, A. ; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 73  Nº Supl 2  2018  págs. 45
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, JA; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 34  Nº 4  2017  págs. 759 - 760
El consumo de alimentos de origen vegetal está relacionado con diversos beneficios sobre la salud humana gracias a su contenido en vitaminas, minerales y antioxidantes, entre otros componentes. El cacao es un alimento rico en polifenoles, concretamente en flavanoles, en los que se han demostrado algunas propiedades saludables. En este sentido, el artículo de Orozco-Arbelaez y cols., publicado en este número de Nutrición Hospitalaria, aborda un tema de relevancia, y al mismo tiempo de cierta controversia, sobre el papel del consumo habitual de chocolate en el estado cognitivo de personas mayores. Los resultados de esta investigación señalan que puede existir una relación entre la ingesta de chocolate, en particular de chocolate negro, y una mejora de la función cognitiva en este colectivo por medio de un estudio transversal basado en los datos del estudio ENRICA con 2.056 individuos.
Autores: Malafarina, V.; Uriz-Otano, F.; Malafarina, C.; et al.
Revista: MATURITAS
ISSN 0378-5122  Vol. 101  2017  págs. 42 - 50
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Functional deterioration and reduced mobility in elderly patients with a hip fracture are associated with a loss of both muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). The aim of this study was to assess whether oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) improves muscle mass and nutritional markers (BMI, proteins) in elderly patients with hip fracture. METHODS: Patients aged 65 years and over with hip fractures admitted to either of two rehabilitation facilities were included. Patients with diabetes, with Barthel index scores <40 prior to the fracture or with pathological fractures were excluded. A random-numbers generator was used to randomly allocate patients to the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG). Those in the IG received a standard diet plus ONS in the form of two bottles a day of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), while those in the CG received a standard diet only. The intervention was not blinded. In order to assess changes in body mass index (BMI), anthropometric parameters were recorded at both admission and discharge. Patients' functional situation was evaluated using the Barthel index (BI) and the Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC) score. Muscle mass was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis, which allowed us to calculate appendicular lean mass (aLM). The outcome variable was the difference between aLM upon discharge, minus aLM upon admission (¿-aLM). RESULTS: Of the 107 randomised patients (IG n55, CG n52), 49 finished the study in the IG and 43 in the CG. BMI and aLM were stable in IG patients, whilst these parametres decreased in the CG. A significant difference was observed between the two groups (p<0.001, and p=0.020 respectively). The predictive factors for ¿-aLM were ONS (p=0.006), FAC prior to fracture (p<0.001) and BI prior to fracture (p=0.007). The concentration of proteins (p=0.007) and vitamin D (p.001) had increased more in the IG than in the CG. CONCLUSION: A diet enriched in HMB improves muscle mass, prevents the onset of sarcopenia and is associated with functional improvement in elderly patients with hip fractures. Orally administered nutritional supplements can help to prevent the onset of sarcopenic obesity.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Samblas, M.; Milagro FI; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION RESEARCH
ISSN 0271-5317  Vol. 50  2017  págs. 53 - 62
Folate deficiency has been putatively implicated in the onset of diverse metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, by altering epigenetic processes on key regulatory genes. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is involved in the regulation of critical metabolic processes such as adiposity and glucose homeostasis. This study hypothesized associations between low folate intakes and lower methylation levels of the CAMKK2 gene, with the presence of metabolic alterations in subjects with obesity. A cross-sectional ancillary study was conducted in obese subjects (n=47) from the RESMENA study (Spain). Fat mass was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake and metabolic profile were assessed by validated methods. DNA methylation and gene expression in peripheral white blood cells were analyzed by microarray approaches. A total of 51 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites were associated with folate intake (false discovery rate values < 0.0001), including one located in the 5' untranslated region of the CAMKK2 gene (Illumina ID, cg16942632), which was selected and separately analyzed. Subjects with total folate intake lower than 300¿g/d showed more fat mass (especially trunk fat), as well as statistically higher levels of glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, cortisol, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 than those consuming at least or more than 300¿g/d. Of note, folate deficiency was related to lower CAMKK2 methylation. Interestingly, CAMKK2 methylation negatively correlated with the HOMA-IR index. Furthermore, CAMKK2 expression directly correlated with HOMA-IR values. In summary, this study suggests associations between low folate intakes, lower CAMKK2 gene methylation, and insulin resistance in obese individuals.
Autores: Crujeiras, A. B.; Gómez-Arbelaez, D.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 41  Nº 10  2017  págs. 1570 - 1578
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested to be an endocrine signal of nutritional status and an active regulator of metabolism. However, there is no agreement on the effect of weight-loss therapies on circulating levels of FGF21 in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess FGF21 circulating levels in adiposity excess and after different weight-loss strategies prescribed in five different groups from four independent centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and FGF21 were evaluated in 181 excess body weight and 14 normal-weight subjects. From the excess body weight patients, two independent groups (discovery cohort; n = 20 and validation cohort; n = 28) undertook a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet, a third group followed a low-calorie (LC) diet (n = 84) and other two groups underwent bariatric surgery (discovery cohort; n = 24 and validation cohort; n = 25). The follow-up was 4 to 6 or 12 months, respectively. RESULTS: FGF21 levels were higher in excess body weight patients than in normal-weight subjects. The energy-restriction therapy to lose weight induced a significant decrease, with respect to baseline, in circulating levels of FGF21 (VLCK: -62.5 pg ml(-1) or -14.8 pg ml(-1) and LC diet: -67.9 pg ml(-1)). There were no differences in FGF21 levels between both energy-restriction treatments. On the contrary, after bariatric surgery morbidly obese patients showed a significant increase in FGF21, especially 1 month after surgery (148.8 pg ml-1 higher than baseline). The FGF21 differential changes occur concomitantly with a non-induced ketosis situation (0.66 +/- 0.56 mM) in bariatric surgery, and an improvement in adiposity and insulin sensitivity induced by the three therapies. CONCLUSIONS: FGF21 levels were reduced after energy-restricted treatments and severely increased after bariatric surgery, independently of the weight reduction magnitude, insulin sensitivity or ketosis. Therefore, FGF21 appears to be a marker of severe nutritional stress.
Autores: Cantero, Irene; Abete, Itziar; Monreal, José Ignacio; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 9  Nº 7  2017  págs. 667
he prevalence of non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of two energy-restricted diets on non-invasive markers and scores of liver damage in obese individuals with features of MS after six months of follow-up and to assess the role of fiber content in metabolic outcomes. Seventy obese individuals from the RESMENA (Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra) study were evaluated at baseline and after six months of energy-restricted nutritional intervention (American Heart Association (AHA) and RESMENA dietary groups). Dietary records, anthropometrical data, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and routine laboratory measurements were analyzed by standardized methods. Regarding liver status, cytokeratin-18 fragments and several non-invasive scores of fatty liver were also assessed. The RESMENA strategy was a good and complementary alternative to AHA for the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. Participants with higher insoluble fiber consumption (¿7.5 g/day) showed improvements in fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HIS), and NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD_LFS), while gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and transaminases evidenced significant improvements as a result of fruit fiber consumption (¿8.8 g/day). Remarkably, a regression model evidenced a relationship between liver status and fiber from fruits. These results support the design of dietary patterns based on the consumption of insoluble fiber and fiber from fruits in the context of energy restriction for the management of obese patients suffering fatty liver disease.
Autores: Loria-Kohen, A. K.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 17  Nº 11  2016  págs. 1877
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%¿50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; et al.
Revista: FOOD & NUTRITION RESEARCH
ISSN 1654-6628  Vol. 60  2016  págs. 30449
Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.
Autores: García-Lacarte, M.; Milagro FI; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: REDOX REPORT
ISSN 1351-0002  Vol. 21  Nº 2  2016  págs. 67 - 74
OBJECTIVES: Epigenetic markers, and in particular DNA methylation, have come to the fore as new tools in the personalization of the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. The objectives of the current investigation were to identify epigenetic biomarkers that might be predictive of response to a weight-loss intervention, and to better understand the influence of certain nutrients (particularly antioxidants) on the epigenome. METHODS: Global DNA (LINE-1) methylation levels were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 96 obese volunteers of the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra study, using a methylation-sensitive high resolution melting approach after bisulfite modification. RESULTS: Baseline LINE-1 DNA methylation levels were significantly higher (5.41%) in high responders (>8% of weight loss) as compared to low responders (<8%) to the energy-restricted treatment. Indeed, a LINE-1 methylation higher than 84.15% may be predictive of a high response to the hypocaloric diet. Statistically significant correlations were found between LINE-1 baseline DNA methylation levels and the response to the treatment involving total fat mass and body weight. Furthermore, LINE-1 baseline methylation levels positively correlated with baseline dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC). DISCUSSION: LINE-1 methylation levels in PBMCs might be used to predict response to a dietary weight-loss intervention, and seem to be related to the dietary TAC.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Ramírez, M.J.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 146  Nº 4  2016  págs. 897S - 904S
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with various health disorders, including psychological alterations. Cocoa consumption and weight management may produce a beneficial effect on these problems. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cocoa extract supplementation as part of an energy-restricted diet on psychological status and peripheral dopaminergic activity in overweight or obese middle-aged subjects. METHODS: In a 4-wk, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention, 22 men and 25 women [mean ± SD age: 57 ± 5 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 30.6 ± 2.3] were studied. After a 1-wk run-in period, volunteers consumed 15% energy-restricted diets; one-half of the volunteers were randomly assigned to receive ready-to-eat meals supplemented with 1.4 g cocoa extract/d (645 mg total polyphenols/d), whereas the rest of the volunteers received the same meals without cocoa supplementation. Plasma monoamines [dopamine, dopac, and homovanillic acid (HVA)], monoamine oxidase (MAO), and psychological status (anxiety and depressive symptoms) were analyzed in fasting participants at baseline and endpoint. Data were analyzed over time, and regression and correlation analyses were conducted to determine the relation between variables. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms decreased in both groups after the intervention (control: -9.4%, P < 0.001; cocoa: -6.3%, P = 0.008), but anxiety symptoms did not. The increase in plasma HVA was 11.5% greater in the cocoa group than in the control group (P = 0.016), but plasma dopamine, dopac, and MAO changes did not differ between groups. A negative relation between changes in depressive symptoms and changes in plasma HVA was observed in the cocoa group (ß = -0.39, P = 0.029). Moreover, the change in plasma dopamine was positively associated with the change in methyl-catechin-O-glucoronide in the cocoa-supplemented group (r = 0.69, P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: The intake of cocoa extract by participants consuming a 15% energy-restricted diet contributed to an increase in plasma HVA concentrations. This change was associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms, suggesting a potential effect of cocoa extract intake on this relation. The present results are secondary analyses of a clinical trial that was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01596309.
Autores: Ferguson, L. R.; De-Caterina, R.; Görman, U.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2016  págs. 12 - 27
Diversity in the genetic profile between individuals and specific ethnic groups affects nutrient requirements, metabolism and response to nutritional and dietary interventions. Indeed, individuals respond differently to lifestyle interventions (diet, physical activity, smoking, etc.). The sequencing of the human genome and subsequent increased knowledge regarding human genetic variation is contributing to the emergence of personalized nutrition. These advances in genetic science are raising numerous questions regarding the mode that precision nutrition can contribute solutions to emerging problems in public health, by reducing the risk and prevalence of nutrition-related diseases. Current views on personalized nutrition encompass omics technologies (nutrigenomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, foodomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, etc.), functional food development and challenges related to legal and ethical aspects, application in clinical practice, and population scope, in terms of guidelines and epidemiological factors. In this context, precision nutrition can be considered as occurring at three levels: (1) conventional nutrition based on general guidelines for population groups by age, gender and social determinants; (2) individualized nutrition that adds phenotypic information about the person's current nutritional status (e.g. anthropometry, biochemical and metabolic analysis, physical activity, among others), and (3) genotype-directed nutrition based on rare or common gene variation. Research and appropriate translation into medical practice and dietary recommendations must be based on a solid foundation of knowledge derived from studies on nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. A scientific society, such as the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics (ISNN), internationally devoted to the study of nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics, can indeed serve the commendable roles of (1) promoting science and favoring scientific communication and (2) permanently working as a 'clearing house' to prevent disqualifying logical jumps, correct or stop unwarranted claims, and prevent the creation of unwarranted expectations in patients and in the general public. In this statement, we are focusing on the scientific aspects of disciplines covering nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics issues. Genetic screening and the ethical, legal, social and economic aspects will be dealt with in subsequent statements of the Society.
Autores: Carraro, J. C.; Hermsdorff, H. H.; Mansego, Maria L; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 9  Nº 2 - 4  2016  págs. 95 - 105
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study hypothesized an association between healthy dietary patterns, hypermethylation of the tumor necrosis factor-¿ (TNF-¿) promoter and decreased risk of metabolic changes. METHODS: Forty normal-weight young women were involved in this cross-sectional study. DNA was isolated from white blood cells, and CpG site methylation in TNF-¿ was analyzed by Sequenom EpiTyper. The quality of the diet was assessed by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005). RESULTS: Contradicting our hypothesis, HEI-2005 score was negatively associated with CpG5 (r = -0.460, p = 0.003) and TNF-¿ total methylation (r = -0.355, p = 0.026). A higher intake of fruits was related to lower insulin, HOMA-IR, and TNF-¿ methylation. No other dietary pattern was related to TNF-¿ methylation. TNF-¿ total methylation correlated positively with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.323; p = 0.042) and CpG5 methylation with body mass index (r = 0.333, p = 0.036). Furthermore, fiber intake was negatively associated with the CpG5 (r = -0.324, p = 0.041) and TNF-¿ total methylation (r = -0.434, p = 0.005), whereas vitamin C intake was negatively associated with TNF-¿ total methylation (r = -0.411, p = 0.009). Intakes of apples and citrus fruits were negatively associated with TNF-¿ total methylation. CONCLUSION: A healthy dietary pattern and higher fruit intake (particularly apples and citrus fruits) were related to better glucose tolerance in healthy subjects, which could be mediated by lower TNF-¿ methylation.
Autores: Crujeiras, Ana Belén; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
ISSN 0307-0565  Vol. 40  Nº 3  2016  págs. 403 - 410
The present research evaluated circulating betatrophin levels in obese patients with metabolic syndrome features under energy-restricted weight-loss programs and in normal weight in order to stablish the putative interplay between the levels of this hormone, diet and metabolic risk factors linked to obesity and associated comorbidities.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Romo, Ana; González-Navarro, CJ; et al.
Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 7  Nº 4  2016  págs. 1924 - 1931
Metabolomics is used to assess the compliance and bioavailability of food components, as well as to evaluate the metabolic changes associated with food consumption. This study aimed to analyze the effect of consuming ready-to-eat meals containing a cocoa extract, within an energy restricted diet on urinary metabolomic changes. Fifty middle-aged volunteers [30.6 (2.3) kg m(-2)] participated in a 4-week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. Half consumed meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645 mg polyphenols) while the remaining subjects received meals without cocoa supplementation. Ready-to-eat meals were included within a 15% energy restricted diet. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks and were analyzed by high-performance-liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS) in negative and positive ionization modes followed by multivariate analysis. The relationship between urinary metabolites was evaluated by the Spearman correlation test. Interestingly, the principal component analysis discriminated among the baseline group, control group at the endpoint and cocoa group at the endpoint (p < 0.01), although in the positive ionization mode the baseline and control groups were not well distinguished. Metabolites were related to theobromine metabolism (3-methylxanthine and 3-methyluric acid), food processing (L-beta-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), flavonoids (2,5,7,3', 4'-pentahydroxyflavanone-5-O-glucoside and 7,4'-dimethoxy-6-C-methylflavanone), catecholamine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol-sulphate) and endogenous metabolism (uridine monophosphate). These metabolites were present in higher (p < 0.001) amounts in the cocoa group. 3-Methylxanthine and L-beta-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine were confirmed with standards. Interestingly, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol-sulphate was positively correlated with 3-methylxanthine (rho = 0.552; p < 0.001) and 7,4'-dimethoxy-6-C-methylflavanone (rho = 447; p = 0.002). In conclusion, the metabolomic approach supported the compliance of the volunteers with the intervention and suggested the bioavailability of cocoa compounds within the meals.
Autores: Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Goyenechea, E.; et al.
Revista: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
ISSN 1028-415X  Vol. 21  Nº 1  2016  págs. 70 - 78
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle, including dietary patterns, could involve specific factors participating in inflammation that confer a higher risk of suffering a stroke. However, little attention has been apparently given to habitual food consumption in patients suffering a cerebrovascular event. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of dietary habits as well as other lifestyle-related variables on the risk of suffering a stroke. DESIGN: A case-control study was designed. Fifty-one cases (age: 59.1¿±¿9.1y.o; BMI; 30.8¿±¿3.4¿kg/m2) and 51 controls (age: 61.1¿±¿9.1y.o; BMI; 30.4¿±¿3.6¿kg/m2) were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric and body composition variables were measured. Dietary information was obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Physical activity and lifestyle-related factors were assessed. Blood samples were drawn. RESULTS: Patients suffering a stroke showed higher prevalence of diabetes (30 vs. 7.7%; P¿=¿0.020) and hypertension (74.5 vs. 40.3%; P¿<¿0.001) and were less physically active (36.7 vs. 66.6%; P¿=¿0.024) than controls. Patients registered worse glucose and lipid profiles, higher levels of hepatic biomarkers, and higher blood cell counts than controls. Stroked patients showed lower adherence to a statistically derived healthy dietary pattern than controls (23.5 vs. 42.3%; P¿=¿0.017). A logistic regression model was built up considering hypertension, diabetes, smoking, physical activity, adherence to a 'healthy dietary pattern' and C-reactive protein concentration. The final model strongly associated with the risk of suffering a stroke (R2: 44.6%; Pmodel¿<¿0.0001). CONCLUSION: Lifestyle variables such as physical activity, smoking habit, and a dietary pattern including foods with low inflammatory potential play an important role in the reduction of the risk of suffering a stroke.
Autores: Marques-Rocha, J. L.; Milagro FI; Mansego, Maria L; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION
ISSN 0550-404X  Vol. 32  Nº 1  2016  págs. 48 - 55
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a dietary strategy for weight loss (the RESMENA [reduction of metabolic syndrome in Navarra, Spain] diet) on the expression of inflammation-related microRNAS (miRNAs) and genes in white blood cells (WBC) from individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods The clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics of 40 individuals with MetS (20 men and 20 women; age: 48.84 ± 10.02 y; body mass index: 35.41 ± 4.42 kg/m2) were evaluated before and after an 8-wk hypocaloric diet based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutrient intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 48-h weighed food records. Total RNA was isolated from WBC and the expression of some inflammation-related miRNAs and mRNAs (IL-6, TNF-¿, ICAM-1, IL-18, SERPINE1, VCAM-1, GAPDH) was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results The RESMENA nutritional intervention improved most anthropometric and biochemical features. The expression of miR-155-3p was decreased in WBC, whereas Let-7b was strongly upregulated as a consequence of the dietary treatment. However, they were not correlated with the expression of the proinflammatory genes in the same cells. The changes in the expression of let-7b, miR-125b, miR-130a, miR-132-3p, and miR-422b were significantly associated with changes in diet quality when assessed by the Healthy Eating Index. Moreover, low consumption of lipids and saturated fat (g/d) were associated with higher expression of let-7b after the nutritional intervention. Conclusions The Mediterranean-based nutritional intervention was able to induce changes in the expression of let-7b and miR-155-3p in WBC from patients with MetS after 8 wk. Moreover, the quality of the diet has an important effect on the miRNAs expression changes. These results should be highlighted because these miRNAs have been associated with inflammatory gene regulation and important human diseases.
Autores: Nicoletti, C. F.; Nonino, C. B.; de Oliveira, B. A.; et al.
Revista: OBESITY SURGERY
ISSN 0960-8923  Vol. 26  Nº 3  2016  págs. 603 - 611
Weight loss can be influenced by genetic factors and epigenetic mechanisms that participate in the regulation of body weight. This study aimed to investigate whether the weight loss induced by two different obesity treatments (energy restriction or bariatric surgery) may affect global DNA methylation (LINE-1) and hydroxymethylation profile, as well as the methylation patterns in inflammatory genes. This study encompassed women from three differents groups: 1. control group (n = 9), normal weight individuals; 2. energy restriction group (n = 22), obese patients following an energy-restricted Mediterranean-based dietary treatment (RESMENA); and 3. bariatric surgery group (n = 14), obese patients underwent a hypocaloric diet followed by bariatric surgery. Anthropometric measurements and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected before the interventions and after 6 months. Lipid and glucose biomarkers, global hydroxymethylation (by ELISA), LINE-1, SERPINE-1, and IL-6 (by MS-HRM) methylation levels were assessed in all participants. Baseline LINE-1 methylation was associated with serum glucose levels whereas baseline hydroxymethylation was associated with BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. LINE-1 and SERPINE-1 methylation levels did not change after weight loss, whereas IL-6 methylation increased after energy restriction and decreased in the bariatric surgery group. An association between SERPINE-1 methylation and weight loss responses was found. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation might be biomarkers for obesity and associated comorbidities. Depending on the obesity treatment (diet or surgery), the DNA methylation patterns behave differently. Baseline SERPINE-1 methylation may be a predictor of weight loss values after bariatric surgery.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Suárez, M.; Arola-Arnal, A.; et al.
Revista: FOOD & NUTRITION RESEARCH
ISSN 1654-6628  Vol. 60  2016  págs. 30449
Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p = 0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p = 0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 34  Nº 5  2015  págs. 1010 - 1017
Background & aims: The aim of this study is to further clarify the role of plasma 25(OH)D concentration after a weight-lowering nutritional intervention on body composition, blood pressure and inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese middle-aged subjects. Methods: This longitudinal research encompassed a total of 50 subjects [57.26 (5.24) year], who were under a 15% energy restricted diet for 4 weeks. Anthropometric and body composition variables, blood routine, inflammatory markers as well as 25(OH)D were analysed. Results: Circulating 25(OH)D levels [12.13(+/- 17.61%)] increased while anthropometric, body composition, routine blood markers as well as the concentration of TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein and Lp-PLA2 were significantly reduced after the intervention. Multiple linear regression analyses evidenced that Delta 25(OH) D increase was linked to the decrease in weight, adiposity, SBP and IL-6 levels. Moreover, a relationship was found between Delta 25(OH)D, Mat mass (r = -0.405; p = 0.007), ASBP (r = -0.355; p = 0.021) and Delta IL6 (r = -0.386; p = 0.014). On the other hand, a higher increase in 25(OH)D was accompanied by reductions in weight, BMI, SBP, IL-6 and an increase in bone mineral concentration (p < 0.05). Interestingly, higher levels of 25(OH)D at the endpoint, showed a significantly higher decrease in weight, BMI and total fat mass. Conclusions: The increase in plasma 25(OH)D level is linked with the decrease in SBP and adiposity in middle-aged subjects after a weight-loss intervention. Therefore, 25(OH)D assessment is a potential marker to be accounted in metabolic measures related to blood pressure, adiposity and inflammation in obesity management.
Autores: Mansego, Maria L; Milagro FI; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 16  Nº 8  2015  págs. 16816 - 16832
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether genome-wide levels of DNA methylation are associated with age and the health risks of obesity (HRO); defined according to BMI categories as "Low HRO" (overweight and class 1 obesity) versus "High HRO" (class 2 and class 3 obesity). Anthropometric measurements were assessed in a subsample of 48 volunteers from the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) study and 24 women from another independent study, Effects of Lipoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Human Obesity (OBEPALIP study). In the pooled population; the methylation levels of 55 CpG sites were significantly associated with age after Benjamini-Hochberg correction. In addition, DNA methylation of three CpG sites located in ELOVL2; HOXC4 and PI4KB were further negatively associated with their mRNA levels. Although no differentially methylated CpG sites were identified in relation to HRO after multiple testing correction; several nominally significant CpG sites were identified in genes related to insulin signaling; energy and lipid metabolism. Moreover, statistically significant associations between BMI or mRNA levels and two HRO-related CpG sites located in GPR133 and ITGB5 are reported. As a conclusion, these findings from two Spanish cohorts add knowledge about the important role of DNA methylation in the age-related regulation of gene expression. In addition; a relevant influence of age on DNA methylation in white blood cells was found, as well as, on a trend level, novel associations between DNA methylation and obesity.
Autores: Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, R.; Avellaneda, A.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 12  2015  págs. 319 - 331
The effects on body composition and cardiovascular risk of functional meat products, within a balanced diet, were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, 10-week nutritional intervention. Fifty-four adults were distributed in three groups, consuming 600¿g/week of a reference meat product (RP), optimized nutritional product-1 (ONP-1), lower in fat, or ONP-2, n-3 PUFA enriched. Measures were performed at baseline and the endpoint. All groups lost fat mass, being subjects on the ONP-2 group those with more fat loss (p¿=¿0.042) compared to the other groups. Correlation analyses evidenced significant associations between alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake and plasma levels (p¿=¿0.001), as well as between plasma levels and fat mass changes (p¿=¿0.03). The inclusion of optimized meat products, with n-3 PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids) and an improved nutritional profile may be a healthy strategy, as a functional food, within an isocalorically controlled diet. ALA consumption may play a role in body composition changes.
Autores: Mansego, Maria L; Milagro FI; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 66  Nº 1  2015  págs. 1 - 9
The objective of this study was to examine whether 7 SNPs previously associated with obesity-related traits that add or remove potential sites of DNA methylation are accompanied by differential DNA methylation and subsequently affect adiposity variables or body weight reduction in WBC from obese subjects under an energy-restricted program. Material and Methods: Anthropometric measurements were assessed in 47 volunteers recruited within the RESMENA study (Spain). At baseline, DNA from white blood cells was isolated and 7 obesity-related trait CpG-SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan-PCR. Then, methylation levels of CpG-SNP sites were quantified by MassArray® EpiTyper¿ or MS-HRM approaches. Results: Differential DNA methylation levels were observed by genotypes in all of the CpG-SNPs analyzed. The FTO and BDNF methylation levels were further correlated with baseline body weight and, BDNF mRNA levels and body weight change, respectively. Moreover, the rs7359397 (SH2B1) was associated with the body weight, body mass index, and truncal fat mass reduction. Conclusions: Our results reveal the interaction of epigenetic and genetic variations in CpG-SNPs, especially in BDNF and SH2B1 genes, and how allele-specific methylation may contribute to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms as these SNPs are affecting the decrease of mRNA levels and contributing to a lower body weight reduction.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Azqueta, A; de Cerain, A.L.; et al.
Revista: MUTAGENESIS
ISSN 0267-8357  Vol. 30  Nº 1  2015  págs. 139 - 146
Nutrient excess and unbalanced diets can result in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with oxidative stress. Cocoa extract contains antioxidants that inhibit the harmful effects of ROS. This trial analysed the effect of cocoa extract consumption integrated as a bioactive compound into ready-to-eat meals, on oxidative stress at the level of DNA in overweight/obese subjects. Fifty volunteers [57.26(5.24) years, 30.59(2.33)kg/m(2)] participated in a 4-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention. Half of the volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g/day cocoa extract, while the other half received control meals, both within a 15% energy restriction diet. Lymphocytes were isolated and endogenous strand breaks, oxidised bases and resistance to H2O2-induced damage were measured by the comet assay. The intake of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract did not show relevant changes in the oxidative status of DNA. However, in the cocoa group, oxidised bases negatively correlated with methyl epicatechin-O-sulphate (r = -0.76; P = -0.007) and epicatechin sulphate (r = -0.61; P = -0.046). When volunteers of both groups were analysed together, a marginal decrease (P = 0.072) in oxidised bases was observed, which attributed to weight loss. Subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage showed a greater reduction in oxidised bases after 4 weeks (P = 0.040) compared to those who had lower baseline levels. In conclusion, even if 1.4 g of cocoa supplementation for 4 weeks did not show notable changes in terms of antioxidant status of DNA, the energy restriction showed a slightly decrease in oxidised bases and this was seen to a greater extent in subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage. On the other hand, the inverse associations found between oxidised bases and some cocoa-derived metabolites suggest that a protective effect might be seen in a longer period of time or in subjects with higher baseline DNA damage.
Autores: Martínez, JA; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 59  Nº 4  2015  págs. 711 - 728
Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Metabolomics approach may contribute to identify beneficial associations of metabolic changes affected by Mediterranean diet-based interventions with inflammatory and oxidative-stress markers related to the etiology and development of the MetS. Methods and Results: Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight-MS metabolic profiling was applied to plasma from a 6-month randomized intervention with two sequential periods, a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, and a 4-month self-control period, with two energy-restricted diets; the RESMENA diet (based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the Control diet (based on the American Heart Association guidelines), in 72 subjects with a high BMI and at least two features of MetS. The major contributing biomarkers of each sequential period were lipids, mainly phospholipids and lysophospholipids. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between metabolic changes and clinical variables after 2 and 6 month of intervention, with a highly interconnected network during the nutritional-learning intervention period of the study. Conclusion: The 2-month RESMENA diet produced significant changes in the plasma metabolic profile of subjects with MetS features. However, at the end of the 6-month study, most of the associations between metabolic and clinical variables disappeared; suggesting that adherence to healthy dietary habits had declined during the self-control period.
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Martínez, JA;
Revista: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
ISSN 1028-415X  Vol. 18  Nº 3  2015  págs. 137 - 144
Background/objective The interplay between individual's mood fluctuations and nutrition has important health implications. However, little information is available on the relationship between dietary intake and mood state in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between dietary intake and mood state in subjects with MetS. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on the baseline data of 84 volunteers (mean age 49 ± 1 years) recruited into the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra-Spain (RESMENA-S) study. Mood state was determined using a mood thermometer visual analogue scale. The dietary intake was assessed with a 48-hours weighted food record, from which a Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score was obtained. Anthropometrical measurements and biochemical parameters were also analysed. Results At baseline, a positive association between mood thermometer and HEI was observed. Among the 10 HEI components, vegetables, fruits, calories from lipids, saturated fatty acids, and dietary variety were related with higher mood. Moreover, those participants who consumed more water, fibre, vitamin B6, ascorbic acid, tryptophan, magnesium, and selenium have higher mood. Discussion In conclusion, an association between both the overall dietary pattern and isolated nutrients with mood state was observed. The analyses of both dietary patterns and specific nutrients are important to determine the association between mental disorders and dietary intake.
Autores: Cardoso-Carraro, J. C.; Hermsdorff, H. H.; Puchau, María Blanca; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 71  Nº 3  2015  págs. 527 - 535
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 111  Nº 4  2014  págs. 643 - 652
The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7 %; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7 %; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8 %; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4 %; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9 %; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8 %; P= 0·008 and - 14·0 %; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9 %; P= 0·011), AST (11·3 %; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0 %; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4 %; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8 %; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7 %; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1 %; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1 %; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good long-term dietary treatment for the MetS.
Autores: Crujeiras, Ana Belén; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
ISSN 0026-0495  Vol. 63  Nº 4  2014  págs. 520 - 531
Objective Weight regain is associated with the promotion of insulin resistance. The newly discovered myokine irisin, which was proposed to be involved in the management of insulin sensitivity, could play a role in this process. This study aimed to investigate the association between irisin and reduced insulin sensitivity induced by weight regain. Materials/Methods Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 136 obese patients who followed an eight-week hypocaloric diet (30% reduced energy expenditure) to lose weight and was re-evaluated four or six months after treatment. Irisin plasma levels, as well as the levels of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and TNF-¿, were quantified in a sub-cohort (n=73) from the initially studied patients at baseline (T0), at the diet endpoint (T1) and after the follow-up period (T2). Results After a successful dietary intervention to lose weight, 50% of the patients who regained the lost weight during the follow-up period were categorized as insulin resistant (HOMA-IR¿2.5) compared with only 25% of patients who maintained the weight loss (p=0.018). Importantly, in addition to the well-studied hormones leptin and adiponectin, irisin plasma levels were statistically associated with several risk factors for insulin resistance. Indeed, the increased risk of insulin resistance during the follow-up period was related to high irisin levels at baseline (odds ratio=4.2; p=0.039). Conclusions Circulating irisin predicts the insulin resistance onset in association with weight regain. Therefore, irisin could be secreted as an adaptive response to counteract the deleterious effect of excess adiposity on glucose homeostasis.
Autores: Fuller, N. R. ; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0964-7058  Vol. 23  Nº 3  2014  págs. 360 - 368
The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.
Autores:  et al.
Revista: NUTRITION JOURNAL
ISSN 1475-2891  Vol. 13  Nº 1  2014  págs. 36
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression have become two prevalent diseases worldwide, whose interaction needs further investigation. Dietary treatment for weight loss in patients with MetS may improve depressive manifestations, however, the precise interactive pathways remain uncertain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a hypocaloric diet designed to reduce MetS features on self-perceived depression and the possible underlying factors. METHODS: Sixty subjects (Age: 50 ± 1 y; BMI: 36.1 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) with MetS were selected from the RESMENA study (control and intervention) after they completed the 6-months hypocaloric treatment and rated for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Anthropometric and biochemical measurements including leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and insulin levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms decreased during the weight loss intervention, with no differences between both dietary groups (control group -4.2 ± 0.8 vs RESMENA group -3.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.490). The number of criteria of the MetS was higher among subjects with more somatic-related depressive symptoms at baseline (B = 1.032, P-trend = 0.017). After six months of dietary treatment, body weight decreased in all subjects (-8.7%; confidence interval (95% CI)¿= 7.0-9.7) and also self-perceived depression (-37.9%; 95% CI = 2.7-4.9), as well as circulating leptin (-20.1%; 95% CI = 1.8-6.8), CRP (-42.8%; 95% CI = 0.6-3.0) and insulin (-37.7%; 95% CI = 4.1-7.2) concentrations. The decrease in BDI was significantly associated with declines in body fat mass (B = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.11-0.56) and also with the decrease in leptin (B = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04-0.28) and CRP (B = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.01-0.46) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in depressive manifestations after a weight loss intervention was related with adiposity, CRP and leptin in subjects with MetS.
Autores: Mansego, Maria L; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Campión, Francisco Javier; et al.
Revista: ANALES DE LA REAL ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE FARMACIA
ISSN 1697-4271  Vol. 80  Nº 3  2014  págs. 614 - 623
Mediante una aproximación epigenómica, se analizaron las posibles asociaciones entre los niveles basales en la metilación del ADN y una mejor respuesta a la pérdida de peso después de un programa de intervención nutricional en la población obesa del estudio RESMENA. Esta investigación ha identificado 3 regiones de ADN (genes RGS6, A2BP1 y RASGRF1) que se encuentran diferencialmente metiladas entre sujetos con alta y baja respuesta a la pérdida de peso. Además, estos genes están implicados en la misma ruta metabólica y habían sido previamente significativamente asociados con la obesidad.
Autores:  et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 33  Nº 6  2014  págs. 1061 - 1067
Background & aim Metabolic syndrome and depression seem to share some common underlying mechanisms, although less is known about the impact of metabolic syndrome dietary treatments on depression. This study examined the association between a hypocaloric treatment designed to reduce metabolic syndrome features in self-perceived depression and the potential involvement of dietary components and oxidative stress changes. Methods Analyses were based on volunteers (n = 55) with metabolic syndrome (age 50 ± 1 y.o.; 38M/17F), where depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Participants followed two hypocaloric diets (control diet and RESMENA diet) with the same energy restriction (¿30% TCV) for six months. Depressive symptoms, dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress levels were analysed. Results Both diets improved self-perceived depression similarly (p = 0.528). Participants with lower depressive symptoms at baseline reported a significantly higher intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p trend = 0.002). Interestingly, after adjusting for potential confounders, the increase in folate consumption (p = 0.011) and the decrease in plasma malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.012) throughout the intervention, were associated with the improvement in depressive symptoms. Conclusions A higher intake of folate and a decline in malondialdehyde plasma levels during a weight loss intervention, were related to improvements in manifestations of depression
Autores: Aguado-Barrios, A.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: ANALES DE LA REAL ACADEMIA DE FARMACIA
ISSN 0034-0618  Vol. 80  Nº 3  2014  págs. 624 - 636
El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar en adultos sanos los efectos de una cuajada con perfil lipídico modificado sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. El estudio consistió en una intervención nutricional posprandial, doble ciego, aleatorizada, en 20 adultos sanos. En cada visita los participantes consumían la cuajada asignada y se obtuvieron muestras de sangre basales y durante 6 horas, para analizar variables relacionadas con riesgo cardiovascular. Los niveles posprandiales de Apolipoproteína-B fueron significativamente inferiores (p=0.008), mientras que los valores de colesterol total y LDL-colesterol también se redujeron modestamente (ns), observándose una tendencia (p<0.10) a mejorar la sensibilidad a la insulina tras consumir la cuajada experimental frente al control. Estos resultados permiten atribuir un posible efecto beneficioso sobre la salud, asociado al consumo de un postre con perfil lipídico modificado.
Autores: Crujeiras, Ana Belén; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION AND DIABETES
ISSN 2044-4052  Vol. 4  2014  págs. e110
Irisin is assumed to be a relevant link between muscle and weight maintenance as well as to mediate exercise benefits on health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible associations between irisin levels and glucose homeostasis in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) following an energy-restricted treatment. Ninety-six adults with excessive body weight and MetS features underwent a hypocaloric dietary pattern for 8 weeks, within the RESMENA randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). After the intervention, dietary restriction significantly reduced body weight and evidenced a dietary-induced decrease in circulating levels of irisin in parallel with improvements on glucose homeostasis markers. Interestingly, participants with higher irisin values at baseline (above the median) showed a greater reduction on glucose (P=0.022) and insulin (P=0.021) concentrations as well as on the homeostasis model assessment index (P=0.008) and triglycerides (P=0.006) after the dietary intervention, compared with those presenting low-irisin baseline values (below the median). Interestingly, a positive correlation between irisin and carbohydrate intake was found at the end of the experimental period. In conclusion, irisin appears to be involved in glucose metabolism regulation after a dietary-induced weight loss.
Autores: Alves, R.; Esteves-de-Oliveira, F. C.; Hermsdorff, H. H. M.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 53  Nº 1  2014  págs. 49 - 60
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men. Methods: Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (¿10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile. Results: In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMA. After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups. Conclusion: Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.
Autores: Crujeiras, Ana Belén; Pardo, M.; Roca-Rivada, A.; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY
ISSN 1042-0533  Vol. 26  Nº 2  2014  págs. 198 - 207
Objective: The recently discovered peptide irisin has been hypothesized to be a regulator of body metabolism. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether circulating human irisin levels are modulated by body size and changes in adiposity during an energy restriction treatment and the subsequent weight regain. Methods: A group of 94 obese patients (50 men, 44 women; 49.4¿±¿9.4 years; BMI 35.6¿±¿4.5 kg/m(2) ) participated in a weight loss program following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) with a weight maintenance follow-up. The patients were evaluated at 0, 8, and 24 weeks after starting treatment. In addition, 48 normal-weight subjects (16 men, 32 women; 35.71¿±¿8.8 years; BMI 22.9¿±¿2.2 kg/m(2) ) participated as controls. Plasma irisin, body weight, body composition, and hormones controlling energy homeostasis were measured. Results: Irisin levels were higher in obese subjects (353.1¿±¿18.6 ng/mL) than in those of normal-weight (198.4¿±¿7.8 ng/mL; P¿¿¿0.001) and were also higher in men (340.9¿±¿20 ng/mL) than in women (267.6¿±¿12 ng/mL; P¿&lt;¿0.05). Moreover, irisin plasma levels were significantly correlated with high levels of direct and indirect adiposity markers, such as weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass, as measured by bioimpedance, but not with height or leptin levels. Interestingly, irisin levels paralleled body weight reduction after the dietary treatment (week 8) and again returned to the baseline levels at 24 weeks in those patients regaining the lost weight. Conclusions: Irisin strongly reflects body fat mass, suggesting that the irisin circulating levels are conditioned by adiposity level.
Autores: Ramírez, M.J.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: PSYCHONEUROENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 0306-4530  Vol. 47  2014  págs. 98 - 106
Reduced circulating monoamines may have a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is becoming a major health problem worldwide. Moreover, an association between anxiety disorder and MetS has been reported; however, it is not clear whether weight loss can diminish anxiety. This investigation is aimed to examine the effects of a weight loss intervention on peripheral monoamines levels and anxiety symptoms in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study population encompassed subjects with MetS (age: 50±10 y.o. and BMI: 35.8±4.3kg/m(2)) selected from the RESMENA study after they had completed the 6-month weight loss intervention (-30% energy). Anthropometric measurements, dietary records, anxiety symptoms, and blood monoamines levels were analysed before and after the intervention. Dopamine (DA) (+18.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -51.2 to -0.5) and serotonin (5-HT) (+16.1%; 95% CI: -26.3 to -2.2) blood levels were significantly increased after the intervention. Higher DA blood concentrations at the end of the study were inversely related with the carbohydrate intake during the study (B=-3.3; 95% CI: -8.4 to -0.4) and basal DA levels predicted a greater decrease in body weight and anthropometric parameters. Subjects with higher 5-HT concentrations after the weight loss intervention also showed a lower energy intake during the intervention (B=-0.04; 95% CI: -0.07 to -0.01). Additionally, anxiety symptoms decreased after the weight loss treatment (-28.3%; 95% CI: 6.2-20.4), which was parallel to a greater decrease in body weight and anthropometric markers, being related to lower 5-HT basal levels. Dietary restriction in patients with MetS may help in reducing anxiety symptoms, and also in increasing 5-HT and DA blood levels. These results provide further insights regarding emotional and neurological factors behind weight loss.
Autores: Crujeiras, Ana Belén; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 0300-0664  Vol. 81  Nº 2  2014  págs. 306 - 311
OBJECTIVE: A recently discovered myokine, irisin, may have an important role in energy metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between this hormone and the lipid profile of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) following a hypocaloric diet. DESIGN: Ninety-three Caucasian adults (52 men/41 women) diagnosed with MetS followed an 8-week-long energy-restricted programme (-30% of the energy requirements). Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers and plasma irisin levels were analysed before and after the nutritional intervention. RESULTS: Global plasma irisin levels were significantly reduced at the end of the study (-72·0±100·9ng/ml, P<0·001) accompanying the weight loss (-6·9%). The depletion of irisin significantly correlated with changes in some atherogenic-related variables: total cholesterol (B=0·106, P=0·018), total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (B=0·002, P=0·036), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (B=0·085, P=0·037) and apolipoprotein B (B=0·052, P=0·002), independently of changes in body weight. CONCLUSIONS: An association between the reduction in plasma irisin levels and the depletion of important lipid metabolism biomarkers was observed in patients with MetS undergoing an energy-restricted programme.
Autores: Barbosa, K. B. F.; Pinheiro-Volp, A. C.; Marques-Rocha, J. L.; et al.
Revista: REDOX REPORT (ONLINE)
ISSN 1743-2928  Vol. 19  Nº 6  2014  págs. 251 - 258
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential modulators of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in young and apparently healthy individuals. One hundred one individuals (53 women and 48 men) were evaluated for anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, clinical, dietary, and endogenous and exogenous components of the antioxidant defense system. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences among subjects by the median of GPx activity. A linear regression model and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to screen the associations between GPx activity and interest variables. Individuals with higher GPx enzymatic activity were older and higher circulating levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) values, but conversely lower nail concentrations of selenium and copper (P<0.05). The GPx activity was positively correlated to truncal fat percentage values (r=0.24, P=0.016), circulating levels of ox-LDL (r=0.28, P=0.004), and daily vitamin C intake (r=0.28, P=0.007), and negatively correlated to the nail concentration of selenium (r=-0.24, P=0.026). Interesting, it was noticed that the truncal fat percentage and circulating levels of ox-LDL explained 5.9 and 7.4% of the GPx enzymatic activity. Thus, preventive measures such as adequate antioxidant intake and proper fat percentage would be a priority in the nutritional care of young and apparently healthy individuals.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Cuervo, M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 53  Nº 1  2014  págs. 201 - 210
Purpose: Dietary food composition influences postprandial glucose homeostasis. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects of an acute intake of three different types of strawberry jam, differing in carbohydrate and antioxidants content, on postprandial glucose metabolism, lipid profile, antioxidant status, and satiety. Methods: Sixteen healthy adults participated in a randomized, crossover, double-blind study with three arms, receiving 60 g of three different strawberry jams. Blood samples were collected at fasting and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after its intake. Blood analyses were performed with validated procedures and satiety was estimated with visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Blood glucose concentrations were maintained at normal values and without peaks within the 2 h after consumption of low-sugar jams. However, blood glucose and insulin were significantly higher at 30 and 60 min after high-sugar (HS) jam intake versus both low-sugar jams. Furthermore, HS jam produced more satisfaction at short time, but decreased as soon as blood glucose concentration began to decrease. Moreover, HS ingestion produced lower free fatty acid levels ( p < 0.05) throughout the trial with respect both the low-sugar jams. However, no additional benefits on oxidative status (malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity, and uric acid), glucose, lipid, and satiety variables were observed due to the inclusion of an antioxidant to low-sugar jam. Conclusions: This study reinforces the idea that products without added sugars are appropriate for the management of glycemic alterations and provides further insight into the effect of natural antioxidants as a functional ingredient on oxidative status and related metabolic disturbances.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 24  Nº 4  2014  págs. 416 - 422
Background and Aims: Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Methods and Results: Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p < 0.05) anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and blood biochemical measurements. Oxidised LDL cholesterol (oxLDL), showed a higher reduction (p = 0.030) in the cocoa group. Moreover, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels decreased only in the cocoa supplemented group (p = 0.007). Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) decreased significantly in both groups, while Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) did not present differences after the 4 weeks of intervention. Interestingly, cocoa intake showed a different effect by gender, presenting more beneficial effects in men. Conclusions: The consumption of cocoa extract as part of ready-to-eat meals and within a hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males.
Autores: Brennan, L.; Ibero, Idoya; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 70  Nº 2  2014  págs. 593 - 602
The application of metabolomics in nutritional research may be a useful tool to analyse and predict the response to a dietary intervention. The aim of this study was to examine metabolic changes in serum samples following exposure to an energy-restricted diet (-15% of daily energy requirements) over a period of 8weeks in overweight and obese older adults (n=22) using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabolomic approach. After 8weeks, there were significant reductions in weight (7%) and metabolic improvement (glucose and lipid profiles). Metabolomic analysis found that total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), were significantly decreased after the 8-week intervention. Furthermore, palmitoleic acid (C16:1) was found to be a negative predictor of change in body fat loss. Both the total omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) significantly decreased, although the overall total amounts of PUFAs did not. The branched chain amino acid (BCAA) isoleucine significantly decreased in the serum samples after the intervention. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the weight loss intervention based on a hypocaloric diet identified changes in the metabolic profiles of serum in overweight and obese older adults, with a reduction in anthropometric and biochemical parameters also found.
Autores: Mansego, Maria L; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 6  Nº 6  2014  págs. 2387 - 2403
Understanding the regulation of gene activities depending on DNA methylation has been the subject of much recent study. However, although polymorphisms of the HTR2A gene have been associated with both obesity and psychiatric disorders, the role of HTR2A gene methylation in these illnesses remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of HTR2A gene promoter methylation levels in white blood cells (WBC) with obesity traits and depressive symptoms in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) enrolled in a behavioural weight loss programme. Analyses were based on 41 volunteers (mean age 49 +/- 1 year) recruited within the RESMENA study. Depressive symptoms (as determined using the Beck Depression Inventory), anthropometric and biochemical measurements were analysed at the beginning and after six months of weight loss treatment. At baseline, DNA from WBC was isolated and cytosine methylation in the HTR2A gene promoter was quantified by a microarray approach. In the whole-study sample, a positive association of HTR2A gene methylation with waist circumference and insulin levels was detected at baseline. Obesity measures significantly improved after six months of dietary treatment, where a lower mean HTR2A gene methylation at baseline was associated with major reductions in body weight, BMI and fat mass after the treatment. Moreover, mean HTR2A gene methylation at baseline significantly predicted the decrease in depressive symptoms after the weight loss treatment. In conclusion, this study provides newer evidence that hypermethylation of the HTR2A gene in WBC at baseline is significantly associated with a worse response to a weight-loss intervention and with a lower decrease in depressive symptoms after the dietary treatment in subjects with MetS.
Autores: Hermsdorff, H. H. M.; Barbosa, K. B. F.; Volp, A. C.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY
ISSN 2047-4881  Vol. 21  Nº 7  2014  págs. 884 - 891
Background: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the onset of obesity-related chronic diseases. This study assessed potential gender differences in the associations of adiposity (total vs. central) with oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 272 subjects (97 males, 175 females; 22 +/- 3 years, body mass index 22.0 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)). Body composition, cardiometabolic and lifestyle features, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ox-LDL) concentrations, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in erythrocytes were determined by validated procedures. Results: Compared to women, men had statistically higher concentrations of ox-LDL (61.7 vs. 53.5 U/l, p 0.022). In analyses with the whole sample, those individuals included in the highest tertile of central adiposity indicators (waist circumference, WC, or waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) presented higher ox-LDL and lower TAC values (p < 0.01), while no statistical differences were found across tertiles of total body fat. WHR values were more strongly associated with ox-LDL and TAC concentrations, compared to other adiposity indicators, with higher slopes for women. Sex differences in ox-LDL concentrations were abolished (p > 0.05) after individual pairing of men and women for WC (53.8 vs. 61.6 U/l, p = 0.225) or WHR (56.1 vs. 56.3 U/l, p = 0.471). No differences were found in GPx values concerning gender or adiposity indicators. Conclusions: Plasma ox-LDL and TAC values were more strongly influenced by central adiposity indicators (WHR and WC) in women than in men, suggesting that the change of the gynoid to android pattern phenotype among young women could lead to a steeper unfavourable redox status compared to men.
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION
ISSN 0899-9007  Vol. 30  Nº 4  2014  págs. 424 - 429
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two energy-restricted, differing with regard to protein content, on the inflammation state of obese individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Methods Ninety-six participants completed an 8-wk randomized intervention trial that compared the RESMENA diet (¿30% energy, with 30% energy from protein) with a control diet (¿30% energy, with 15% energy from protein) that was based on American Heart Association criteria. Results The mean body weight losses were 7.09 ± 0.82 kg and 6.73 ± 0.71 kg, respectively, with no differences seen between the groups. The endpoint inflammation score¿which was based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-¿, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels¿was significantly lower (P = 0.012) in the low-protein group (6.81 ± 2.32 versus 7.94 ± 1.94). The linear regression analyses revealed that total protein intake was positively associated with inflammation (P = 0.007) as well as with animal protein (P = 0.025) and meat protein (P = 0.015), but neither vegetable- nor fish-derived proteins were found to influence inflammatory status. Conclusions Our results suggest that the type of protein consumed (more than the total protein consumed) within an energy-restricted diet influences the inflammation status associated with obesity-related comorbidities.
Autores: Mansego, Maria L; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.; et al.
Revista: EXCLI JOURNAL
ISSN 1611-2156  Vol. 13  2014  págs. 416 - 426
Autores: Barbosa, K. B. F.; Pinheiro-Volp, A. C.; Marques-Rocha, J. L.; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION
ISSN 0899-9007  Vol. 30  Nº 11-12  2014  págs. 1349 - 1354
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and dietary measurements in young and apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: We evaluated 156 individuals (91 women and 65 men; ages 23.1 ± 3.5 y; body mass index 22 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) for anthropometrics, biochemical markers, clinical, dietary, and some components of the antioxidant defense system, including the plasma TAC. Statistical analyses were performed to detect differences between individuals with TAC higher and lower than the mean value and to screen the associations between TAC and variables of interest. A linear regression model was fitted to identify TAC predictors. RESULTS: Daily caloric intake and macronutrient consumption were lower in individuals who exhibited the highest TAC values (P < 0.05). Linear regression analysis showed that daily calories and carbohydrate intake was a possible negative TAC predictor (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, there was no difference in the values of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the individuals separated by means of TAC. In contrast, individuals whose plasma TAC values were above the mean showed higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values, and selenium in nails (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In physiological conditions, the caloric intake level seems to be an important factor to act in the modulation of plasma TAC, before establishing anthropometric impairments of body or metabolic composition, or both. Additionally, the plasma TAC increase may be able to act as a compensatory mechanism.
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Lara-y-Sánchez, D.; et al.
Revista: PHYTOMEDICINE
ISSN 0944-7113  Vol. 21  Nº 10  2014  págs. 1162 - 1169
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of an extract obtained from seeds/fruits of an Oleaceae (Fraxinus excelsior L.) on glucose homeostasis and associated metabolic markers in non-diabetic overweight/obese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed in 22 participants (50-80 years-old; BMI 31.0kg/m(2)). The design was a longitudinal, randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled 7-week nutritional intervention. The participants received daily 3 capsules each containing either 333mg of an extract from Fraxinus excelsior L. seeds (Glucevia((R))) or placebo capsules (control) in a random order for 3 weeks with 1 week of washout between treatments. Moreover, they followed a balanced covert energy-restricted diet (-15% energy). All variables were measured at the beginning and at the end of each period. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, the administration of 1g of Glucevia((R)) for 3 weeks resulted in significantly lower incremental glucose area under the curve (-28.2%; p<0.01), and significantly lower 2h blood glucose values (-14%; p<0.01) following an oral glucose tolerance test. No significant changes were found in the control group (-7.9% AUC, -1.6% 2h blood glucose). Furthermore, significant differences were found between responses in the control and Glucevia((R)) groups with respect to serum fructosamine and plasma glucagon levels (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Interestingly, administration of Glucevia((R)) significantly increased the adiponectin:leptin ratio (p<0.05) and decreased fat mass (p<0.01) compared to control (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The administration of an extract from Fraxinus excelsior L. seeds/fruits in combination with a moderate hypocaloric diet may be beneficial in metabolic disturbances linked to impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, insulin resistance and inflammatory status, specifically in older adults.
Autores: Mansego, Maria L; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0912-0009  Vol. 53  Nº 3  2013  págs. 139 - 144
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been associated with metabolic disorders, through different mechanisms, which could involve changes in DNA methylation. This work aimed to assess the potential relationships of the cytosine methylation levels within SERPINE1 gene transcriptional regulatory region, which codes for PAI-1, in peripheral white blood cells with anthropometrical, metabolic and inflammatory features. Forty-six obese subjects with metabolic syndrome features followed Control or Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) energy-restricted (-30%E) diets for 8 weeks. SERPINE1 transcriptional regulatory region methylation at baseline was analyzed by a microarray technical. Both dietary strategies reduced anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The Control group significantly reduced plasma PAI-1 concentrations but not the RESMENA group. Participants from both nutritional interventions with higher SERPINE1 methylation levels at baseline showed significantly major reductions in body weight, total fat mass, android fat mass, total cholesterol and triglycerides, as compared with those with lower initial SERPINE1 methylation levels. In conclusion, the DNA methylation levels of SERPINE1 transcriptional regulatory region were associated with some metabolic and anthropometric changes in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome under energy restriction, suggesting a complex epigenetic network in the regulation of this recognized pro-inflammatory marker.
Autores: Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 5  Nº 1  2013  págs. 28-35
Tomato and tomato products are known as potential factors to decrease oxidative stress biomarkers. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effects of consumption of two tomato sauces with different concentrations of lycopene on oxidative stress markers. Thirty healthy subjects (Men/women: 9/21; Aged 39 +/- 6 years old; BMI: 24.5 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2)) were recruited to participate in a double-blind crossover study. Participants had to consume 160 g/day of tomato sauce, while maintaining their usual dietary and physical activity habits. The regular consumption of the high-lycopene tomato sauce induced a significant reduction in the oxidized-LDL cholesterol levels (-9.27 +/- 16.8%; p < 0.05). Moreover, total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to increase with the high-lycopene tomato sauce, while it decreased slightly with commercial tomato sauce consumption (2.69 +/- 13.4 vs 0.05 +/- 0.4; p = 0.058). Lipid, glucose profile and C-reactive protein concentrations were stable during both intervention periods, as well as anthropometric and body composition variables. Thus, the daily consumption of 160 g of a high-lycopene tomato sauce improved oxidizedLDL cholesterol levels, evidencing the putative role of lycopene in combination with other bioactive compounds in the prevention of oxidative stress related diseases. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Hermsdorff, H.H.; Mansego, Maria L; Campión, Francisco Javier; et al.
Revista: CYTOKINE
ISSN 1043-4666  Vol. 64  Nº 1  2013  págs. 265 - 271
The aim of this article is to assess the potential relationships between TNFalpha gene promoter methylation in peripheral white blood cells and central adiposity (truncal fat), metabolic features and dietary fat intake. A group of 40 normal-weight young women (213y; BMI 21.01.7kg/m(2)) was included in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric, biochemical and dietary data were assessed using validated procedures. DNA from white blood cells was isolated and 5-methylcytosine levels of the CpGs sites present in TNFalpha gene promoter (from -170 to +359 pb) were analyzed by Sequenom EpiTyper. Those women with high truncal fat (¿52.3%) showed lower 5-methylcytosine levels (P<0.05) in the site CpG13 (at position +207) and CpG19 (+317 pb) of the TNFalpha gene promoter when were compared to women with lower truncal adiposity. The methylation levels of CpG13 were also correlated with circulating TNFalpha levels, which were higher in those women with greater truncal adiposity. In a linear regression model, truncal fat, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, plasma TNFalpha, and daily n-6 PUFA intake explained the methylation levels of CpG13 site +207 by 48% and the average of CpG13 and CpG19 by 43% (P<0.001). In conclusion, women with higher truncal fat showed lower methylation levels of TNFalpha promoter in peripheral white blood cells and higher plasma TNFalpha concentrations. DNA methylation levels of TNFalpha promoter were associated with some metabolic features and with n-6 PUFA intake, suggesting a complex nutriepigenomic network in the regulation of this recognized pro-inflammatory marker.
Autores: Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 1678
Autores: Cañellas, N.; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: OMICS: A JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 1557-8100  Vol. 17  Nº 12  2013  págs. 611 - 618
Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by (1)H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel subspecialty of postgenomics integrative biology.
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1743-7075  Vol. 10  2013  págs. 22
Background: Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Methods: Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Results: Both diets equally (p > 0.05) improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034), body mass index (p = 0.026), waist circumference (p = 0.083) and fat mass (p = 0.015) reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST) levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively) were associated with lower TAC values. Conclusion: RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction.
Autores: Celada P; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 14  Nº 4  2013  págs. 6903 - 6919
Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (-30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG) levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia.
Autores: Malafarina, V.; Úriz-Otano, F.; Gil-Guerrero, L.; et al.
Revista: MATURITAS
ISSN 0378-5122  Vol. 76  Nº 2   2013  págs. 123 - 128
INTRODUCTION: Loss of muscle strength is associated with falls, which, in turn, are the main cause of hip fractures in elderly people. The factors that most influence loss of strength in elderly people are a decrease in muscle mass, i.e. sarcopenia, and an increase in fat, i.e. obesity. METHODS: A prospective randomized clinical trial among patients who have undergone an operation for a traumatic hip fracture and who are aged 65 or above will be implemented. We shall compare a control diet against a high-protein diet enriched with beta-hydroxy-betamethylbutirate, calcium and vitamin D. The diet will be administered during 30 days of hospitalization in the orthopaedic geriatric rehabilitation unit. There will be 50 patients in each arm of the study. The main objective is to assess whether the experimental diet, together with rehabilitation, improves functional recovery, measured on the Barthel index. Secondary objectives are to assess changes in body composition and the prevalence of sarcopenia, obesity and mortality one year after the hip fracture. We shall also assess whether there is a relationship between specific inflammatory markers, sarcopenia and functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Ageing is accompanied by changes in body composition that increase the risk of falls and progressive functional loss. These factors are a public health problem because they are highly associated with disability in older people. The present study seeks to gain knowledge of those factors that are most often associated with the onset of disability and those that can be modified through diet.
Autores: Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Abete, Itziar; Cuervo, M; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 64  Nº 6  2013  págs. 674 - 681
This study evaluated the influence of curd consumption (a dairy product in which most whey proteins are discarded) on nutritional status markers and on gastrointestinal symptoms through an open-label randomized nutritional intervention. A total of 20 males and 20 females were involved in the study. Body weight and plasma levels of different health markers were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms and satiety were assessed by self-reported subjective questionnaires. There were neither relevant changes in body weight and composition, nor in all screened plasma determinations after the intervention. Satiety score analyses revealed no differences between the two experimental groups. The regular consumption of curd-improved abdominal pain (19%) and deposition scores (16%) when compared with those participants non-consuming curd, which may indicate a better tolerability of this product. Curd intake within a balanced diet improved some subjective markers of gastrointestinal status, which may be explained by the nutritional composition of curds.
Autores: Ibero, Idoya; Massis Zahid, A.; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 1636
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 6  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 60
Autores: Hermsdorff, H. H. M.; Milagro FI; Campión, Francisco Javier; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 6  Nº 4-5  2013  págs. 222 - 223
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 171
Autores: Brennan, L.; Ibero, Idoya; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 62  Nº Suppl. 2  2013  págs. 83
Autores: Flanagan, J.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 181
Autores:  et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 173
Autores: Pérez Cordero, A.; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 6  Nº Supl. 1  2013  págs. 179
Autores:  et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 203 - 204
Autores: Chavan, S. D.; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 35  Nº 1  2012  págs. 185 - 186
Autores: Rosa, F. T.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Marchini, J. S.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 63  Nº 6  2012  págs. 749-765
Obesity and other chronic diseases are accompanied by adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, muscle and brain low-grade chronic inflammation. Indeed, the obese condition and metabolic syndrome are characterized by an increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of immune cells in adipocytes. The inflammatory response promotes the activation of transcriptional factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to an unresolved inflammatory response associated with an inhibition of insulin signalling and high risk for cardiovascular events. Epidemiological and intervention studies have been carried out to find out dietary patterns, foods and bioactive compounds with protective anti-inflammatory actions. The most studied compounds are polyphenols, especially isoflavone and anthocyanin, but quercertin, catechin and resveratrol have also been investigated. Furthermore, some studies have reported the effects of milk peptides, plant sterol and stanol, L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid on inflammatory processes. This review aimed to collect and discuss those relevant studies reported in the scientific literature following a systematic scientific search about the effect of such bioactive compounds on inflammation in humans.
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Volp, AC; Puchau, María Blanca; et al.
Revista: INFLAMMATION RESEARCH
ISSN 1023-3830  Vol. 61  Nº 5  2012  págs. 427 - 435
This cross-sectional study assessed the potential contribution of gender, body fat distribution, and their interactions to some inflammatory marker concentrations [C-reactive protein (CRP), complement factor 3 (C3), and ceruloplasmin (Cp)] in young adults. Measurements included body composition, lifestyle features, blood biochemical and selected inflammatory markers on 317 healthy subjects [122 males/195 females; 22 +/- A 3 years; 22.1 +/- A 2.8 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD)]. Women had significantly higher CRP and Cp concentrations than men. No gender difference was noted in C3 concentrations. In a multivariate model of the whole sample, body fat (BF), waist circumference (WC) and the sex x WC interaction term presented the highest R (2) for variance of CRP (11%), C3 (2%), and Cp (12%), respectively. In regression models separated by sex, BF was the adiposity indicator that explained the variability of CRP in men (13%) and women (7%). WC was the only variable significantly associated with C3 concentrations in women (3%). BF presented the highest partial R (2) for Cp in men (8%) and WC in women (16%). Our findings indicate a relevant interaction between gender and body fat distribution on the variance of CRP, C3, and Cp concentrations in apparently healthy young adults.
Autores: Van der Made, SM; Baumgartner, S; González-Muniesa, P; et al.
Revista: Current Nutrition & Food Science
ISSN 1573-4013  Vol. 8  Nº 1  2012  págs. 25 - 44
The metabolic syndrome is one of the most evident health concerns worldwide. It is characterized by several metabolic abnormalities, which include obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, increased oxidative stress, an increased pro-inflammatory state and hypertension. Nowadays, functional foods are used in the prevention and amelioration of several chronic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. The relation of the consumption of certain functional foods and the improvement in health status is regulated through health claims. This review focuses on the different features of the metabolic syndrome and the influence of functional foods on these aspects, involving weight management, improvement of insulin sensitivity, serum lipid profile, anti-oxidant status, inflammatory status and hypertension. The role of plant sterols, dietary fiber, soy protein, omega-3 fatty acids, coffee, vitamin E and C, isoflavones, lycopene, sodium-low foods, a high protein diet, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, minerals and thermogenic compounds is examined concerning their functional properties
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
ISSN 0022-3476  Vol. 161  Nº 3  2012  págs. 466-470
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of 9 obesity-related polymorphisms and a genetic predisposition score (GPS) on anthropometric and biochemical variables before and after a weight loss intervention program in overweight/obese Spanish adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Overweight/obese adolescents (n = 168; 12-16 years) participating in the EVASYON program were genotyped for 9 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, IL6, PPARG, and ADIPQ genes. RESULTS: At baseline, the GPS showed a significant association with body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and fat mass. After 3 months of intervention, this GPS also showed a relationship with the variation of both anthropometric measurements. After adjusting for baseline BMI-SDS, subjects with a lower GPS had a greater improvement on metabolic profile, as well as a better response to physical activity, compared with those subjects with a higher GPS. CONCLUSIONS: The GPS seems to have an important relationship with BMI-SDS and fat mass both at baseline and after a 3-month weight loss lifestyle intervention. Obese and overweight adolescents with a lower GPS have a greater benefit of weight loss after 3 months of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention.
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Barbosa, KB; Volp, AC; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 107  Nº 8  2012  págs. 1119 - 1127
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the potential relationships between fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and some oxidative stress markers in young adults, with particular emphasis on fibre and vitamin C intake. The study enrolled 246 healthy subjects (eighty-eight men and 158 women), with a mean age of 22 (sd 3) years and a mean BMI of 21·9 (sd 2·8) kg/m2. Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features and blood biochemical data were assessed with validated procedures. Those subjects in the highest tertile (T) of FV consumption ( ¿ 705 g/d) had statistically lower oxidised LDL (ox-LDL) concentrations as well as higher plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (P for trend <0·05), after adjusting for sex, age, energy intake, physical activity, smoking, BMI, vitamin supplement use and other confounding factors. Moreover, plasma ox-LDL concentrations showed a decreasing trend and TAC an increasing trend across tertiles of fibre (T3: ¿14 g/d) and vitamin C (T3: ¿150 mg/d) from FV intake, while GPx activity was positively associated with vitamin C intake (P for trend < 0·05). In conclusion, greater FV consumption was independently associated with reduced ox-LDL as well as increased TAC and GPx activity in healthy young adults, with dietary fibre and vitamin C from FV clearly being implicated in this beneficial relationship.
Autores:  et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 5  2012  págs. 1702 - 1703
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 5  Nº Suppl. 1  2012  págs. 231
Autores: Hermsdorff HH; Milagro FI; Campión, Francisco Javier; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRIGENETICS AND NUTRIGENOMICS
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 5  Nº 4-5  2012  págs. 234
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 5  Nº Suppl. 1  2012  págs. 230 - 231
Autores: Bressan, J.; Esteves-Oliveira, F. C.; Duarte-Moreira, R.; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 5  Nº Suppl. 1  2012  págs. 265
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 5  2012  págs. 25
Autores: Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 5  2012  págs. 4
Autores: Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 21  Nº Supl.2  2011  págs. B1 - B15
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) manifestations is rapidly increasing worldwide, and is becoming an important health problem. Actually, MetS includes a combination of clinical complications such as obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. All these alterations predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease inducing earlier mortality rates among people. In general terms, it is difficult for patients to follow a standard long-term diet/exercise regime that would improve or alleviate MetS symptoms. Thus, the investigation of food components that may deal with the MetS features is an important field for ameliorate and facilitate MetS dietary-based therapies. Currently antioxidants are of great interest due to the described association between obesity, cardiovascular alterations and oxidative stress. On the other hand, high MUFA and PUFA diets are being also considered due to their potential benefits on hypertension, insulin resistance and triglyceride levels. Mineral composition of the diet is also relevant since high potassium intake may improve hypertension and high calcium consumption may promote lipid oxidation. Thus, although nutritional supplements are at the peak of dietetic therapies, the consumption of some specific foods (legumes, fatty fish, vegetables and fruits, etc) with bioactive components within an energy-restricted diet is a promising approach to manage MetS manifestations. Therefore, the present review focuses on some of the most important food components currently investigated to improve and make easier the nutritional MetS treatment.
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: European Journal of Nutrition
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 50  Nº 1  2011  págs. 61 - 69
The nutritional composition of the dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables and inflammatory marker concentrations. This study assessed the effects of two hypocaloric diets (legume-restricted- vs. legume-based diet) on metabolic and inflammatory changes, accompanying weight loss. Thirty obese subjects (17 M/13F; BMI: 32.5 +/- A 4.5 kg/m(2); 36 +/- A 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of the following hypocaloric treatments (8 weeks): Calorie-restricted legume-free diet (Control: C-diet) or calorie-restricted legume-based diet (L-diet), prescribing 4 weekly different cooked-servings (160-235 g) of lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood biochemical and inflammatory marker concentrations as well as dietary intake were measured at baseline and after the nutritional intervention. The L-diet achieved a greater body weight loss, when compared to the C-diet (-7.8 +/- A 2.9% vs. -5.3 +/- A 2.7%; p = 0.024). Total and LDL cholesterol levels and systolic BP were improved only when consuming the L-diet (p < 0.05). L-diet also resulted in a significant higher reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement C3 (C3) concentrations (p < 0.05), compared to baseline and C-diet values. Interestingly, the reduction in the concentrations of CRP and C3 remained significantly higher to L-diet group, after adjusting by weight loss (p < 0.05). In addition, the reduction (%) in CRP concentrations was positively associated with decreases (%) in systolic BP and total cholesterol concentration specifically in the L-diet group, independent from weight loss (p < 0.05). The consumption of legumes (4 servings/week) within a hypocaloric diet resulted in a specific reduction in proinflammatory markers, such as CRP and C3 and a clinically significant improvement of some metabolic features (lipid profile and BP) in overweight/ obese subjects, which were in some cases independent from weight loss.
Autores: Barbosa, KB; Volp, AC; Miranda, Helen Hermana; et al.
Revista: LIPIDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
ISSN 1476-511X  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2011  págs. 61
Autores: Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: Nutrition Journal
ISSN 1475-2891  Vol. 10  Nº 74  2011  págs. 1- 11
BACKGROUND: Obesity is the most relevant overnutrition disease worldwide and is associated to different metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Low glycemic load foods and diets and moderately high protein intake have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass, exerting also beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, postprandial glucose curve and HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study aimed at studying the potential functionality of a series of low glycemic index products with moderately high protein content, as possible coadjuvants in the control of type-2 diabetes and weight management following a chronologically planned snacking offer (morning and afternoon). METHODS: The current trial followed a single group, sequential, longitudinal design, with two consecutive periods of 4 weeks each. A total of 17 volunteers participated in the study. The first period was a free living period, with volunteers' habitual ad libitum dietary pattern, while the second period was a free-living period with structured meal replacements at breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack, which were exchanged by specific products with moderately high protein content and controlled low glycemic index, following a scheduled temporal consumption. Blood extractions were performed at the beginning and at the end of each period (free-living and intervention). Parameters analysed were: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C - reactive protein and Homocysteine concentrations. Postprandial glucose and insulin were also measured. Anthropometrical parameters were monitored each 2 weeks during the whole study. RESULTS: A modest but significant (p = 0.002) reduction on body weight (1 kg) was observed during the intervention period, mainly due to the fat mass loss (0.8 kg, p = 0.02). This weight reduction was observed without apparently associated changes in total energy intake. None of the biochemical biomarkers measured was altered throughout the whole study. CONCLUSIONS: Small changes in the habitual dietary recommendations in type-2 diabetes patients by the inclusion of specific low-glycemic, moderately high-protein products in breakfast, morning and afternoon snacks may promote body weight and fat-mass loss, without apparently altering biochemical parameters and cardiovascular risk-related factors.
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Puchau, María Blanca; Volp, AC; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1743-7075  Vol. 8  Nº 59  2011  págs. 1 - 8
BACKGROUND: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been assumed as a useful tool to assess the relationship between the cumulative antioxidant food capacity and several chronic disorders. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the potential relationships of dietary TAC with adiposity, metabolic and oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults. METHODS: This study enrolled 266 healthy subjects (105 men/ 161 women; 22 ± 3 years-old; 22.0 ± 2.7 kg/m2). Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features, and biochemical data were assessed with validated procedures. RESULTS: In linear regression analyses, dietary TAC values were inversely associated with glycemia, total cholesterol:HDL-c ratio, triglycerides and oxidized-LDL concentrations, and positively associated with HDL-c concentrations, independently of gender, age, smoking status, physical activity, vitamin use supplement, waist circumference, energy intake, fatty acid intake. In addition, plasma TAC was negatively correlated with ox-LDL concentrations (r= -0.20, P = 0.003), independently of the assessed confounding variables. Finally, dietary TAC values were inversely related to waist circumference values (r= -0.17, P = 0.005) as well as to lower mild central obesity occurrence (waist circumference ¿ 80/ 94 cm for women/ men, respectively). CONCLUSION: Dietary TAC values are inversely associated with glucose and lipid biomarkers as well as with central adiposity measurements in healthy young adults, indicating dietary TAC as a useful tool to assess the health benefits of cumulative antioxidant capacity from food intake. In addition, the independent and inverse relationships of ox-LDL concentrations with dietary and plasma TAC respectively suggest a putative role of antioxidant rich-diet in the link between redox state and atherogenesis at early stage.
Autores: Milagro FI; Campión, Francisco Javier; Cordero, Paúl; et al.
Revista: FASEB J
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 25  Nº 4  2011  págs. 1378 - 1389
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: Nutricion Hospitalaria
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 26  Nº 1  2011  págs. 16-26
Autores: Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Cuervo, M; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH
ISSN 0163-4984  Vol. 143  Nº 1  2011  págs. 8 - 19
To assess the effects of a moderately high-protein intake on the body composition, biochemical, and antioxidant status parameters in young adults depending on either selenium- (Se) or non-enriched chicken consumption. The volunteers (n = 24) that completed the 10-week nutritional intervention were distributed in two parallel groups and randomly assigned to follow an isocaloric diet with moderately high content in protein (30% energy), either with the consumption of four 200 g portions/week of Se- or non-enriched chicken breasts. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and at the end of the study and body composition was monitored during the trial. There was a significant reduction in weight, accompanying a decrease on fat mass in both groups, while fat-free mass remained unchanged during the 10 weeks of intervention, without differences between both dietary groups. Selenium blood levels and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as lipid, glucose, and selected inflammation biomarkers remained stable during the intervention period in both dietary groups. Frequent chicken consumption, within a controlled diet with a moderately high content in protein, produced a slight but statistically significant weight reduction mainly due to the loss of fat mass. An extra Se supplementation (22 mu g/day) in the Se-enriched chicken breast did not affect tachyphylactic antioxidant status of the participants neither inflammatory-related markers after weight loss.
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Puchau, María Blanca; et al.
Revista: INFLAMMATION
ISSN 0360-3997  Vol. 34  Nº 3  2011  págs. 161 - 170
This study assessed the potential association of some proinflammatory markers with adiposity (total vs. central) and metabolic features in young adults. Measurements included body composition, lifestyle features, blood biochemical, and selected inflammatory indicators on 154 healthy subjects (53 M/101 F; 21.5 +/- 3 years; 22.1 +/- 2.6 kg/m(2)). Those subjects with higher waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) showed higher (P < 0.05) C-reactive protein (CRP), complement C3, interleukin-6 (IL6), and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) concentrations, while only IL6 was positively associated with total body fat (%). Furthermore, CRP and RBP4 were higher in former/current smokers, as compared to never smokers (P < 0.05). Some indicators of glucose (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) and lipid metabolism (total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides) were positively associated with the assayed inflammatory markers (P < 0.05). The findings of this cross-sectional study indicate that central adiposity-related indicators (WC/WHR) correlated better than those assessing total adiposity with plasma proinflammatory markers, which additionally were associated with lifestyle and metabolic features in healthy young adults.
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Martínez, JA;
Revista: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 93  Nº 6  2011  págs. 1384 - 1384
Autores: Hermsdorff HH; Volp A; Barbosa K; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Suppl. 3  2011  págs. 379
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Volp, A; Barbosa, K; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Supl. 3  2011  págs. 379 -
Autores: Cuervo, M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Abete, Itziar; et al.
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
ISSN 2173-1292  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2011  págs. 133
Autores: Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Supl. 3  2011  págs. 125 - 125
Autores: Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Abete, Itziar; Cuervo, M; et al.
Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
ISSN 1467-7881  Vol. 12  Nº Suppl. 1  2011  págs. 223
Autores: Abete, Itziar; Miranda, Helen Hermana; Bressan, J; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Supl. 3  2011  págs. 265 - 265
Autores: Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Abete, Itziar; Cuervo, M; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Supl. 3  2011  págs. 265 -
Autores: Sotos-Prieto, M.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Corella, D.;
Revista: MEDICINA CLINICA
ISSN 0025-7753  Vol. 134  Nº 1  2010  págs. 22 - 29
The follow-up of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been associated with lower mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. However, it is important to evaluate the scientific evidence provided by published articles. Therefore, in order to analyze the literature on the overall effects of MD on intermediate and final disease phenotypes, we reviewed the findings from 30 selected experimental and observational studies. We analyzed the effect of MD on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, recurrence of cardiovascular events, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels. In general, MD was found to have beneficial effects on final and intermediate disease phenotypes. However, more randomized, controlled interventional studies on the overall effects of MD offering the highest level of scientific evidence are needed before adequate dietary recommendations concerning the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease can be given.
Autores: Abete, Itziar; Astrup, A; Martínez, JA; et al.
Revista: Nutrition Reviews
ISSN 0029-6643  Vol. 68  Nº 4  2010  págs. 214 - 231
Weight loss and subsequent body weight maintenance are difficult for obese individuals despite the wide variety of dietary regimens and approaches. A substantial body of scientific evidence has shown that by simply varying the macronutrient distribution and composition of dietary factors, weight losses of varying amounts, longer-term body weight maintenance periods, better appetite regulation, and changes in features of the metabolic syndrome can be achieved. At present, renewed efforts are underway to increase the protein content of weight-loss diets, simultaneously restrict fat consumption to no more than 30%, favor polyunsaturated fat, have carbohydrates account for between 40 and 50% of total energy intake, and promote the consumption of low-glycemic foods. The present article reviews the scientific evidence for the effects of several dietary manipulations and sustainable strategies for weight loss and body weight stability as well as for treating specific features of the metabolic syndrome.
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Puchau, María Blanca; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1743-7075  Vol. 7  2010  págs. 42 -
Background: Fruits and vegetables are important sources of fiber and nutrients with a recognized antioxidant capacity, which could have beneficial effects on the proinflammatory status as well as some metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease features. The current study assessed the potential relationships of fruit and vegetable consumption with the plasma concentrations and mRNA expression values of some proinflammatory markers in young adults. Methods: One-hundred and twenty healthy subjects (50 men/70 women; 20.8 +/- 2.6 y; 22.3 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)) were enrolled. Experimental determinations included anthropometry, blood pressure and lifestyle features as well as blood biochemical and inflammatory measurements. The mRNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the gene expression concerning selected inflammatory markers was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Nutritional intakes were estimated by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Results: The highest tertile of energy-adjusted fruit and vegetable consumption (> 660 g/d) was associated with lower plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine and with lower ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, TNF alpha and NF kappa B1 gene expression in PBMC (P for trend < 0.05), independently of gender, age, energy intake, physical activity, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and circulating non-esterified fatty acids. In addition, plasma CRP, homocysteine and TNF alpha concentrations and ICAM1, TNF alpha and NF kappa B1 gene expression in PBMC showed a descending trend as increased fiber intake (> 19.5 g/d) from fruits and vegetables (P for trend < 0.05). Furthermore, the participants within the higher tertile (> 11.8 mmol/d) of dietary total antioxidant capacity showed lower plasma CRP and mRNA values of ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, TNF alpha and NF kappa B1 genes (P for trend < 0.05). The inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and study proinflammatory markers followed the same trend and remained statistically significant, after the inclusion of other foods/nutrients in the linear regression models. Conclusion: A higher fruit and vegetable consumption was independently associated not only with reduced CRP and homocysteine concentrations but also with a lower mRNA expression in PBMC of some relevant proinflammatory markers in healthy young adults.
Autores: Puchau, María Blanca; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 61  Nº 7  2010  págs. 713 - 721
BACKGROUND: Dietary antioxidant intake has been suggested to protect against oxidative damage and related clinical complications. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential relationships between the dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and obesity-related features in children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anthropometric variables from 369 children and adolescents were measured (184 obese and 185 control). A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the TAC and the daily nutrient and energy intake. RESULTS: Dietary TAC showed positive associations with fiber, folic acid, magnesium, and vitamins A, C and E. The body mass index, standard deviation score of body mass index and total body fat were inversely associated with dietary TAC only in obese subjects. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that dietary TAC may be a potential indicator of the risk to develop obesity-related features and could be considered a useful method in assessing antioxidant intake.
Autores: Puchau, María Blanca; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Miranda, Helen Hermana; et al.
Revista: BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH
ISSN 0163-4984  Vol. 133  Nº 3  2010  págs. 304 - 312
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Puchau, María Blanca; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: OMICS-A JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY
ISSN 1536-2310  Vol. 14  Nº 3  2010  págs. 297 - 307
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) measurements have proved useful in recent studies to discern peripheral biomarkers for common complex diseases and for understanding host responses to drugs and nutrition in personalized medicine. Despite the initial promising data from PBMC, there is little information, however, on inflammatory and immune gene regulation in the context of body fat distribution and metabolic features in healthy adults. We investigated the putative association of body fat distribution and related-metabolic features with mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in PBMC. This study enrolled 136 healthy subjects (85 females/51 males; age: 21.5 +/- 2.5 years). Anthropometrical, clinical, metabolic, and proinflammatory variables were assessed with validated tools. Interestingly, in normal-weight subjects with lower truncal fat (TF) values, mRNA levels of ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, and TNF-alpha in PBMC were lower (p < 0.05), compared to normal-weight individuals with higher TF (>58.5/50.2% for men/women, respectively) and overweight/obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2)]. After regression analyses were performed, individuals with the highest tertiles of TF and waist circumference displayed higher mRNA gene expressions as well as circulating proinflammatory (C-reactive protein and IL6) and metabolic (blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and LDL-c:HDL-c ratio) variables values (p < 0.05), independent from gender. Our findings collectively suggest that the mRNA expression of certain proinflammatory markers in PBMC is associated with body fat distribution in healthy adult subjects, which in turn, was also related to metabolic features and plasma proinflammatory markers concentrations.
Autores: Puchau, María Blanca; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Gonzalez de Echavarri, A; et al.
Revista: Nutrition
ISSN 0899-9007  Vol. 26  Nº 5  2010  págs. 534 - 541
Objective: Oxidative stress has been related to the development of obesity and other features accompanying chronic diseases Furthermore, dietary antioxidant intake has been suggested to protect against oxidative damage and related clinical complications Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential associations among dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and several early metabolic syndrome manifestations in healthy young adults. Methods: Anthropometric variables and blood pressure from 153 healthy subjects (20 8 +/- 27 y old) were measured Dietary intake was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire and a 3-d record, which were also used to calculate TAC and to adjust by daily energy intake. Fasting blood samples were collected for measuring biochemical markers. Results: Dietary TAC showed positive and significant associations with fiber, folic acid, vitamin A and C. magnesium, selenium, and zinc intakes, after adjusting by sex and daily energy intake Interestingly, systolic blood pressure, serum glucose. and free fatty acids were also found to be negatively associated with dietary TAC independently of sex and daily energy intake Also, a relevant relation was found between body mass index and TAC values. Interestingly, after adjusting by sex and daily enemy intake, complement factor-3 circulating levels appeared to be negatively and significantly associated with dietary TAC, whereas blood plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and homocysteine concentrations showed an Inverse marginally statistical trend. Conclusions: These data suggest that dietary TAC may be also a potential early estimate of the risk to develop metabolic syndrome features and that dietary TAC could be a useful research tool in assessing antioxidant intake
Autores: Puchau, María Blanca; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 25  Nº Supl. 1  2010  págs. 186 - 187
Autores: Pinheiro, A. C.; Barra, K.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 25  Nº Supl. 1  2010  págs. 191
Autores: Pinheiro, A. C.; Barra, K.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 25  Nº Supl. 1  2010  págs. 199
Autores: Hermsdorff, H. H.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Puchau, María Blanca; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 25  Nº Supl. 1  2010  págs. 187 - 188
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Moreno-Aliaga MJ; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Adipose tissue biology
2017  págs. 319 - 382
Body weight and fat content as well as enery metabolism depends on several factors such as food intake, nutrient-associated turnover, thermogenesis, and physical activity. These elements underlie complex interrelated feedback mechanisms, which are affected by personal genetic traits. A number of investigations have evidenced that not all calorie may count equal and that some specific biofactors occurring in foods may affect energy efficiency and fat deposition. Thus, the role of protein and specific amino acids, the glycemic load of different carbohydrates and foods, the type of fats, as well as the involvement of some food components with bioactive functions affecting the energy equation are being ascertained, since they can influence body composition and adiposity. Indeed, moderately high protein intake, carbohydrate with low glycemic index, n-3 fatty acids, calcium, and some thermogenic substances and antioxidants have been found to possibly contribute to reduce the body fat content. Many of these findings have been supported not only through epidemiological studies, but also by animal and cell investigations as well as through controlled nutritional interventions in humans. A better understanding of the putative involved mechanisms concerning the effects of individual fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in body composition maintenance, as well as the identification of new bioactive compounds affecting lipid turnover and energy metabolism will open the way for a better control and management of fat deposition in different stages of the life cycle, since some of them are able to control relevant metabolic pathways at the molecular level, which will contribute to precision nutrition.
Autores: Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Libro:  Interrogantes y educación sanitaria para la oficina de farmacia: inflamación, grasa dietética y enfermedades crónicas, Alzheimer, insulinorresistencia, anemias y ciencias "ómicas"
2012  págs. 87 - 99
Autores: Sánchez, Elena; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Farmacología en nutrición
2012  págs. 295 - 305
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Moreno-Aliaga MJ; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Adipose Tissue Biology
2012  págs. 271 - 315
Summary: In conjunction with the obesity zepidemicy in the developed world there has been an exponential increase in academic and medical interest in adipose tissue
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Moreno-Aliaga MJ; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Adipose tissue biology
2012  págs. 271 - 315
The stability of body weight and fat composition depends on several components such as food intake, nutrient-associated turnover, thermogenesis, and physical activity. These elements underlie complex interrelated feedback mechanisms, which are affected by personal genetic traits. A number of investigations have evidence that not all calories count equal and that some specifi c biofactors occurring in foods may affect energy effi ciency and fat deposition. Thus, the role of protein and specifi c amino acids, the glycemic load of different carbohydrates and foods, the type of fat, as well as the involvement of some food components with bioactive functions affecting the energy equation are being ascertained, since they can infl uence body composition and adiposity. Indeed, moderately high protein intake, carbohydrate with low glycemic index, n -3 fatty acids, calcium, and some thermogenic substances and antioxidants have been found to possibly contribute to reduce the body fat content. Many of these fi ndings have been supported not only through epidemiological studies, but also by animal and cell investigations as well as through controlled nutritional interventions in humans. A better understanding of the putative involved mechanisms in the effects of individual fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in body composition maintenance, as well as the identifi cation of new bioactive compounds affecting lipid turnover and energy metabolism will open the way for a better control and management of fat deposition in different stages of the life cycle, since some of them are able to control relevant metabolic pathways at the molecular level.
Autores: Sánchez, E.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Farmacología en nutrición
2011  págs. 295-305
Autores: Pérez, Aurora; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Díaz, L.E.; et al.
Libro:  Inmunonutrición: en la salud y la enfermedad
2011  págs. 568 - 578
Autores: Puchau, María Blanca; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Vitamin A: Nutrition, side effects and supplements
2011  págs. 2 - 16
Autores: Miranda, Helen Hermana; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Libro:  Alimentos funcionais. Benefícios para a saúde
2010  págs. 207 - 234
Autores: Puchau, B.; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Vitamin A: nutrition, side effects and supplements
2010  págs. 125 - 142
Autores: Martínez, JA; Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Bressan, J.; et al.
Libro:  Alimentación, ejercicio físico y salud
2010  págs. 63 - 89
Autores: Zulet, María de los Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, JA;
Libro:  Fundamentos de Nutrición y dietética. Bases metodológicas y aplicaciones
2010  págs. 293-297
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Libro:  Fundamentos de nutrición y dietética : bases metodológicas y aplicaciones
2010  págs. 355 - 358
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