Ni, J.; Nishi, S. K.; Babio, N.; et al.
MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
Scope Dairy consumption has been suggested to impact cognition; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent. This study aims to longitudinally assess the association between dairy consumption with cognitive changes in an older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods and results Four thousand six hundred sixty eight participants aged 55-75 years, completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline and a neuropsychological battery of tests at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Multivariable linear regression models are used, scaled by 100 (i.e., the units of beta correspond to 1 SD/100), to assess associations between baseline tertile daily consumption and 2-year changes in cognitive performance. Participants in the highest tertile of total milk and whole-fat milk consumption have a greater decline in global cognitive function (beta: -4.71, 95% CI: -8.74 to -0.69, p-trend = 0.020 and beta: -6.64, 95% CI: -10.81 to -2.47, p-trend = 0.002, respectively) compared to those in the lowest tertile. No associations are observed between low fat milk, yogurt, cheese or fermented dairy consumption, and changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion Results suggest there are no clear prospective associations between consumption of most commonly consumed dairy products and cognition, although there may be an association with a greater rate of cognitive decline over a 2-year period in older adults at high cardiovascular disease risk for whole-fat milk.
JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
1257 - 1268
Background: Available evidence on the association of physical activity (PA) or sedentary behavior with cognitive decline is inconclusive. Objective: To assess the association between an active lifestyle score and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and changes in cognitive function in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) prospective cohort. Methods: Cognitive function was evaluated in a subsample of 806 participants of the SUN cohort study using the validated Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified (STICS-m) questionnaire at baseline and after 6 years. LTPA was evaluated with a previously validated 17-item self-administered questionnaire and with information on sedentary lifestyles. We also calculated a multidimensional 8-item PA score. Multivariable linear regression analysis evaluated the association between PA and changes in cognitive function and its interaction by APOE genotype. Results: Mean age of participants was 66 (SD 5.3) years and 69.7% were male. When stratifying by APOE variants, no significant associations between the active lifestyle score or LTPA and changes in cognitive performance over time were found among APOE epsilon 4 carriers. However, we observed that a higher adherence to an active lifestyle (high versus low PA score beta = 0.76 95%CI 0.15,1.36; p trend = 0.011) and a high LTPA (Q4 versus Q1 beta = 0.63; 95%CI -0.01,1.26; p trend = 0.030) were associated with more favorable changes in cognitive function over time among APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers with statistically significant interactions in both cases (p for interaction = 0.042 for PA score, and p = 0.039 for LTPA). Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an active lifestyle is associated with a better status of cognitive function over time only among APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers.