APPLIED CLAY SCIENCE
Carreaux de pavement is a type of mediaeval tile common in northwestern Europe, whose method of producing has been unknown until now. In this article, the kiln firing conditions of the unique carreaux de pavement found in the Iberian Peninsula were determined by comparing the physicochemical and mineralogical properties of the archaeological tiles with those of some reproductions of the tile's body manufactured in the laboratory (replica) made by varying the firing temperature and time, as well as the sample size and thickness. The resistance to acid digestion exhibited by the fired samples was especially revealed. According to the results and the modelling performance with the collected data, it was established that the maximum firing temperature was between 900 and 975 °C, and the time was longer than 24 h. These results show the technology used by mediaeval French potters and are a basis for future studies.