Nuestros investigadores

Rodrigo Vinueza Gavilanes

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Bugallo Delgado, Ricardo José; Marlin Rodriguez, Elías; Baltanás Bordonaba, Ana; et al.
ISSN 2041-4889  Vol. 11  Nº 5  2020  págs. 397
Loss of protein folding homeostasis features many of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. As coping mechanism to folding stress within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the unfolded protein response (UPR) comprises a set of signaling mechanisms that initiate a gene expression program to restore proteostasis, or when stress is chronic or overwhelming promote neuronal death. This fate-defining capacity of the UPR has been proposed to play a key role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the several genetic or pharmacological attempts to explore the therapeutic potential of UPR modulation have produced conflicting observations. In order to establish the precise relationship between UPR signaling and neuronal death in ALS, we have developed a neuronal model where the toxicity of a familial ALS-causing allele (mutant G93A SOD1) and UPR activation can be longitudinally monitored in single neurons over the process of neurodegeneration by automated microscopy. Using fluorescent UPR reporters we established the temporal and causal relationship between UPR and neuronal death by Cox regression models. Pharmacological inhibition of discrete UPR processes allowed us to establish the contribution of PERK (PKR-like ER kinase) and IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme-1) mechanisms to neuronal fate. Importantly, inhibition of PERK signaling with its downstream inhibitor ISRIB, but not with the direct PERK kinase inhibitor GSK2606414, significantly enhanced the survival of G93A SOD1-expressing neurons. Characterization of the inhibitory properties of both drugs under ER stress revealed that in neurons (but not in glial cells) ISRIB overruled only part of the translational program imposed by PERK, relieving the general inhibition of translation, but maintaining the privileged translation of ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) messenger RNA. Surprisingly, the fine-tuning of the PERK output in G93A SOD1-expressing neurons led to a reduction of IRE1-dependent signaling. Together, our findings identify ISRIB-mediated translational reprogramming as a new potential ALS therapy.
Autores: Rojo-Bustamante, E.; Íñigo Marco, Ignacio; Abellanas Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; et al.
ISSN 2218-273X  Vol. 10  Nº 8  2020  págs. 1198
Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition (MAGL) has emerged as an interesting therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disease treatment due to its ability to modulate the endocannabinoid system and to prevent the production of proinflammatory mediators. To obtain a beneficial response, it is necessary to understand how this inhibition affects the neuron-glia crosstalk and neuron viability. In this study, the effect of MAGL inhibition by KML29 was evaluated in two types of rat cortical primary cultures; mixed cultures, including neuron and glial cells, and neuron-enriched cultures. The risk of neuronal death was estimated by longitudinal survival analysis. The spontaneous neuronal risk of death in culture was higher in the absence of glial cells, a process that was enhanced by KML29 addition. In contrast, neuronal survival was not compromised by MAGL inhibition in the presence of glial cells. Blockade of cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors expressed mainly by microglial cells did not affect the spontaneous neuronal death risk but decreased neuronal survival when KML29 was added. Modulation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors did not affect neuronal survival. Our results show that neuron-glia interactions are essential for neuronal survival. CB2 receptors play a key role in these protective interactions when neurons are exposed to toxic conditions.
Autores: Vinueza Gavilanes, Rodrigo; Íñigo Marco, Ignacio; Larrea, L. ; et al.
ISSN 0969-9961  Vol. 137  2020  págs. 104781
Alpha-synuclein (aSyn) protein levels are sufficient to drive Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. Despite the biomedical/therapeutic potential of aSyn protein regulation, little is known about mechanisms that limit/control aSyn levels. Here, we investigate the role of a post-translational modification, N-terminal acetylation, in aSyn neurotoxicity. N-terminal acetylation occurs in all aSyn molecules and has been proposed to determine its lipid binding and aggregation capacities; however, its effect in aSyn stability/neurotoxicity has not been evaluated. We generated N-terminal mutants that alter or block physiological aSyn N-terminal acetylation in wild-type or pathological mutant E46K aSyn versions and confirmed N-terminal acetylation status by mass spectrometry. By optical pulse-labeling in living primary neurons we documented a reduced half-life and accumulation of aSyn N-terminal mutants. To analyze the effect of N-terminal acetylation mutants in neuronal toxicity we took advantage of a neuronal model where aSyn toxicity was scored by longitudinal survival analysis. Salient features of aSyn neurotoxicity were previously investigated with this approach. aSyn-dependent neuronal death was recapitulated either by higher aSyn protein levels in the case of WT aSyn, or by the combined effect of protein levels and enhanced neurotoxicity conveyed by the E46K mutation. aSyn N-terminal mutations decreased E46K aSyn-dependent neuronal death both by reducing protein levels and, importantly, by reducing the intrinsic E46K aSyn toxicity, being the D2P mutant the least toxic. Together, our results illustrate that the N-terminus determines, most likely through its acetylation, aSyn protein levels and toxicity, identifying this modification as a potential therapeutic target.
Autores: Vinueza Gavilanes, Rodrigo; Adin Marcos, Íñigo; Larrea Urcola, Luis María; et al.
ISSN 2211-5463  Vol. 8  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 412 - 412