Blood-Brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, and oxidative stress is one of the molecular mechanisms that may underlie this process. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are involved in oxidative stress-mediated vascular dysfunction and participate in the pathophysiology of its target organs. The NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) isoform is absent in rodents, and although little is known about the role it may play in disrupting the BBB, it has recently been implicated in experimental stroke. Our aim was to investigate the role of NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) in promoting vascular alterations and to identify its impact on the cognitive status of aged mice. No differences were detected in the arterial blood pressure or body weight between knock-in mice expressing endothelial NOX5 and the control mice. The Morris water maze test showed memory impairments in the aged knock-in mice expressing NOX5 compared with their control littermates. For assessing the BBB integrity, we studied the protein expression of two tight junction (TJ) proteins: Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin. Compared to the control animals, Aged NOX5 mice exhibited reduced levels of both proteins, demonstrating an alteration of the BBB integrity. Our data indicate that vascular NOX5 may favor behavioral changes with aging through oxidative stress-mediated BBB breakdown.
The aim of the present investigation was to identify putative miRNAs involved in the response to weight loss. Reverse-transcribed RNA isolated from white blood cells (WBCs) of a subpopulation from the Reduction of the Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra-Spain (RESMENA-S) study (low-responders (LR) and high-responders (HR)) was hybridized in a gene expression microarray. Moreover, miRNAs were sequenced by miRNA-Seq. It was found that miR-548q and miR-1185-1 were overexpressed in HR, both in the microarray and in the miRNA-Seq. A bioinformatic prediction of putative target genes of the selected miRNAs found that GSK3B, a putative target for miR-548q and miR-1185-1, was downregulated in HR. Particular 3 '-UTR binding regions of GSK3B were cloned downstream of the firefly luciferase gene. HEK-293T cells were co-transfected with either 0.25 mu g of empty pmiR-GLO or pmiR-GLO-548q-3 '-UTR/pmiR-GLO-1185-1-3 '-UTR, and 7.5 pmol of miR-548q/miR-1185-1 mimics, demonstrating that miR-1185-1 bound to the 3 '-UTR region of GSK3B. THP-1 cells were transfected with either 20/40 nM of miR-548q/miR-1185-1 mimics, evidencing that miR-1185-1inhibited the expression of the gene when transfected at doses of 20/40 nM, whereas miR-548q inhibited GSK3B expression at a dose of 40 nM. As a conclusion, miR-548q and miR-1185-1 levels in WBCs are biomarkers of response to weight-loss diets and could be involved in the regulation of the proinflammatory gene GSK3B.
Background Non-coding RNAs (i.e., miRNAs) play a role in the development of obesity and related comorbidities and the regulation of body weight. Objective To identify candidate miRNA biomarkers throughout omics approaches in order to predict the response to specific weight-loss dietary treatments. Design Genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from white blood cells of a subset from the RESMENA nutritional intervention study (Low-responders (LR) vs High-responders (HR)) was hybridized in Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip and in Illumina Human HT-12 v4 gene expression BeadChips arrays respectively. A bioinformatic prediction of putative target sites of selected miRNAs was performed by applying miRBase algorithms. HEK-293T cells were co-transfected with expression vectors containing the 3'-UTR of candidate genes to validate the binding of miRNAs to its target sites. Results 134 miRNAs were differentially methylated between HR and LR in the methylation array, whereas 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed between both groups in the expression array. Specifically, miR-1237, miR-1976, miR-642, miR-636, miR-612 and miR-193B were simultaneously hypomethylated and overexpressed in HR. miR-612 and miR-1976 showed greatest differences in methylation and expression levels, respectively. The bioinformatic prediction revealed that TP53 was a putative target gene of miR-612 and CD40 of miR-1976. Moreover, TP53 was downregulated in the expression array when comparing HR vs LR expression levels adjusted by sex, diet, age and baseline weight, and CD40 showed a statistical trend. Furthermore, gene expression levels of TP53 and CD40 in white blood cells, when measured by qPCR, were also downregulated in HR. Finally, miR-612 and miR-1976 potently repressed TP53 and CD40 respectively by targeting its 3'-UTR regions. Conclusion miR-612 and miR-1976 levels could be prospective biomarkers of response to specific weight-loss diets and might regulate the gene expression of TP53 and CD40.
JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
579 - 589
The main aim of this investigation was to study the regulatory roles of let-7b and miR-155-3p on the expression of inflammation-associated genes in monocytes, macrophages, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages (AcM). A second goal was to analyze the potential modulatory roles of different fatty acids, including oleic, palmitic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on the expression of these miRNAs in the three cell types. This hypothesis was tested in human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1), which were differentiated into macrophages with 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and further activated with LPS for 24h. Monocytes, macrophages, and AcM were transfected with a negative control, or mimics for miR-155-3p and miR-let-7b-5p. The expression of both miRNAs and some proinflammatory genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Interestingly, let-7b mimic reduced the expression of IL6 and TNF in monocytes, and SERPINE1 expression in LPS-activated macrophages. However, IL6, TNF, and SERPINE1 were upregulated in macrophages by let-7b mimic. IL6 expression was higher in the three types of cells after transfecting with miR-155-3p mimic. Similarly, expression of SERPINE1 was increased by miR-155-3p mimic in monocytes and macrophages. However, TLR4 was downregulated by miR-155-3p in monocytes and macrophages. Regarding the effects of the different fatty acids, oleic acid increased the expression of let-7b in macrophages and AcM and also increased the expression of miR-155 in monocytes when compared with DHA but not when compared with non-treated cells. Overall, these results suggest anti- and proinflammatory roles of let-7b and miR-155-3p in THP-1 cells, respectively, although these outcomes are strongly dependent on the cell type. Noteworthy, oleic acid might exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in immune cells (i.e., non-activated and LPS-activated macrophages) by upregulating the expression of let-7b.
19 - 27
Background: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in obesity onset and its consequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DNA methylation status in microRNA (miRNA) coding regions is associated with childhood obesity.
Material and Methods: DNA isolated from white blood cells of 24 children (identification sample: 12 obese and 12 non-obese) from the Grupo Navarro de Obesidad Infantil study was hybridized in a 450K methylation microarray. Several CpGs whose DNA methylation levels were statistically different between obese and non-obese were validated by MassArray (R) in 95 children (validation sample) from the same study.
Results: Microarray analysis identified 16 differentially methylated CpGs between both groups (6 hypermethylated and 10 hypomethylated). DNA methylation levels in miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions significantly correlated with body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and explained up to 40% of the variation of BMI-SDS. The network analysis identified 19 well-defined obesity-relevant biological pathways from the KEGG database. MassArray (R) validation identified three regions located in or near miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children.
Conclusions: The current work identified three CpG sites located in coding regions of three miRNAs (miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A) that were differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children, suggesting a role of miRNA epigenetic regulation in childhood obesity.
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GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
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