Obesity is a global health issue associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which correlates with insulin resistance, altered lipid homeostasis, and other pathologies. One of the mechanisms involved in the development of these pathologies is the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the main producers of ROS is the family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, among which NOX5 is the most recently discovered member. The aim of the present work is to describe the effect of endothelial NOX5 expression on neighboring adipose tissue in obesity conditions by using two systems. An in vivo model based on NOX5 conditional knock-in mice fed with a high-fat diet and an in vitro model developed with 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured with conditioned media of endothelial NOX5-expressing bEnd.3 cells, previously treated with glucose and palmitic acid. Endothelial NOX5 expression promoted the expression and activation of specific markers of thermogenesis and lipolysis in the mesenteric and epididymal fat of those mice fed with a high-fat diet. Additionally, the activation of these processes was derived from an increase in IL-6 production as a result of NOX5 activity. Accordingly, 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with conditioned media of endothelial NOX5-expressing cells, presented higher expression of thermogenic and lipolytic genes. Moreover, endothelial NOX5-expressing bEnd.3 cells previously treated with glucose and palmitic acid also showed interleukin (IL-6) production. Finally, it seems that the increase in IL-6 stimulated the activation of markers of thermogenesis and lipolysis through phosphorylation of STAT3 and AMPK, respectively. In conclusion, in response to obesogenic conditions, endothelial NOX5 activity could promote thermogenesis and lipolysis in the adipose tissue by regulating IL-6 production.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
Obesity is a global health issue associated with insulin resistance and altered lipid homeostasis. It has been described that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity are involved in the development of these pathologies. The present study describes the role of endothelial NOX5 expression over adipose tissue by using two experimental systems: NOX5 conditional knock-in mice fed with a high-fat diet and 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured with conditioned media of NOX5-expressing endothelial cells previously treated with glucose and palmitic acid. Animals expressing NOX5 presented lower body weight gain and less mesenteric and epididymal adipose mass compared to control mice fed with the same diet. NOX5-expressing mice also showed significantly lower glycaemia and improved insulin-induced glucose uptake. In addition, Glut4 and Caveolin 1 (Cav1) expression were significantly increased in the adipose tissue of these animals. Likewise, 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with conditioned media from NOX5-expressing endothelial cells, incubated with high glucose and palmitic acid, presented a reduction in lipid accumulation and an increase in glucose uptake. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of Glut4 and Cav1 was also detected in these cells. Taken together, all these data support that, in response to a highly caloric diet, NOX5 endothelial activity may regulate glucose sensitivity and lipid homeostasis in the adipose tissue.