Stoelzel, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Fordham, S. E.; Nandana, D.; et al.
Precision medicine can significantly improve outcomes for patients with cancer, but implementation requires comprehensive characterization of tumor cells to identify therapeutically exploitable vulnerabilities. Here, we describe somatic biallelic TET2 mutations in an elderly patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that was chemoresistant to anthracycline and cytarabine but acutely sensitive to 5 '-azacitidine (5 '-Aza) hypomethylating monotherapy, resulting in long-term morphological remission. Given the role of TET2 as a regulator of genomic methylation, we hypothesized that mutant TET2 allele dosage affects response to 5 '-Aza. Using an isogenic cell model system and an orthotopic mouse xenograft, we demonstrate that biallelic TET2 mutations confer sensitivity to 5 '-Aza compared with cells with monoallelic mutations. Our data argue in favor of using hypomethylating agents for chemoresistant disease or as first-line therapy in patients with biallelic TET2-mutated AML and demonstrate the importance of considering mutant allele dosage in the implementation of precision medicine for patients with cancer.
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Clonal evolution in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) originates long before diagnosis and is a dynamic process that may affect survival. However, it remains uninvestigated during routine diagnostic workups. We hypothesized that the mutational status of bone marrow dysplastic cells and leukemic blasts, analyzed at the onset of AML using integrated multidimensional flow cytometry (MFC) immunophenotyping and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with next-generation sequencing (NGS), could reconstruct leukemogenesis. Dysplastic cells were detected by MFC in 285 of 348 (82%) newly diagnosed patients with AML. Presence of dysplasia according to MFC and World Health Organization criteria had no prognostic value in older adults. NGS of dysplastic cells and blasts isolated at diagnosis identified 3 evolutionary patterns: stable (n= 12 of 21), branching (n= 4 of 21), and clonal evolution (n= 5 of 21). In patients achieving complete response (CR), integrated MFC and FACS with NGS showed persistent measurable residual disease (MRD) in phenotypically normal cell types, as well as the acquisition of genetic traits associated with treatment resistance. Furthermore, whole-exome sequencing of dysplastic and leukemic cells at diagnosis and of MRD uncovered different clonal involvement in dysplastic myelo-erythropoiesis, leukemic transformation, and chemoresistance. Altogether, we showed that it is possible to reconstruct leukemogenesis in 80% of patients with newly diagnosed AML, using techniques other than single-cell multiomics.
FRONTIERS IN ONCOLOGY
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the elderly remains a clinical challenge, with a five-year overall survival rate below 10%. The current ELN 2017 genetic risk classification considers cytogenetic and mutational characteristics to stratify fit AML patients into different prognostic groups. However, this classification is not validated for elderly patients treated with a non-intensive approach, and its performance may be suboptimal in this context. Indeed, the transcriptomic landscape of AML in the elderly has been less explored and it might help stratify this group of patients. In the current study, we analyzed the transcriptome of 224 AML patients > 65 years-old at diagnosis treated in the Spanish PETHEMA-FLUGAZA clinical trial in order to identify new prognostic biomarkers in this population. We identified a specific transcriptomic signature for high-risk patients with mutated TP53 or complex karyotype, revealing that low expression of B7H3 gene with high expression of BANP gene identifies a subset of high-risk AML patients surviving more than 12 months. This result was further validated in the BEAT AML cohort. This unique signature highlights the potential of transcriptomics to identify prognostic biomarkers in in elderly AML.
Nacionales y Regionales
Desarrollo y evaluación de inmunoterapia celular mediante CART alogénicas para el tratamiento de la Leucemia Mieloide Aguda
Código de expediente:
Felipe Luis Prósper Cardoso
GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
2020 GN Proyectos Colaborativos
Fecha de inicio: