Nuestros investigadores

Felipe Prosper Cardoso

. Clínica Universidad de Navarra
Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Clínica Universidad de Navarra
. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Hematologia, Mecanismos de regulation de células madre hematopoyéticas, Sindromes Mielodisplasicos, Mieloma Múltiple Epigenética Células Madre y Medicina Regenerativa, Mecanismos de regulación de células madre y reprogramación celular, Terapia regenerativa
Índice H
54, (WoS, 01/07/2019)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Herrero D; Cañón S; Pelacho, Beatriz; et al.
ISSN 1079-5642  Vol. 39  Nº 3  2019  págs. E106 - E106
Autores: Martínez, Nicolás; Agirre, X, (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
Revista: CANCERS
ISSN 2072-6694  Vol. 11  Nº 10  2019 
Gene regulation through DNA methylation is a well described phenomenon that has a prominent role in physiological and pathological cell-states. This epigenetic modification is usually grouped in regions denominated CpG islands, which frequently co-localize with gene promoters, silencing the transcription of those genes. Recent genome-wide DNA methylation studies have challenged this paradigm, demonstrating that DNA methylation of regulatory regions outside promoters is able to influence cell-type specific gene expression programs under physiologic or pathologic conditions. Coupling genome-wide DNA methylation assays with histone mark annotation has allowed for the identification of specific epigenomic changes that affect enhancer regulatory regions, revealing an additional layer of complexity to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this review, we summarize the novel evidence for the molecular and biological regulation of DNA methylation in enhancer regions and the dynamism of these changes contributing to the fine-tuning of gene expression. We also analyze the contribution of enhancer DNA methylation on the expression of relevant genes in acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. The characterization of the aberrant enhancer DNA methylation provides not only a novel pathogenic mechanism for different tumors but also highlights novel potential therapeutic targets for myeloid derived neoplasms.
Autores: Garcés, Juan-José; Simicek, M.; Vicari, M.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  2019 
Autores: Willekens, B.; Presas-Rodríguez, S. ; Mansilla, M. J. ; et al.
Revista: BMJ OPEN
ISSN 2044-6055  Vol. 9  Nº 9  2019  págs. e030309
Introduction: Based on the advances in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), currently available disease-modifying treatments (DMT) have positively influenced the disease course of MS. However, the efficacy of DMT is highly variable and increasing treatment efficacy comes with a more severe risk profile. Hence, the unmet need for safer and more selective treatments remains. Specifically restoring immune tolerance towards myelin antigens may provide an attractive alternative. In this respect, antigen-specific tolerisation with autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDC) is a promising approach. Methods and analysis: Here, we will evaluate the clinical use of tolDC in a well-defined population of MS patients in two phase I clinical trials. In doing so, we aim to compare two ways of tolDC administration, namely intradermal and intranodal. The cells will be injected at consecutive intervals in three cohorts receiving incremental doses of tolDC, according to a best-of-five design. The primary objective is to assess the safety and feasibility of tolDC administration. For safety, the number of adverse events including MRI and clinical outcomes will be assessed. For feasibility, successful production of tolDC will be determined. Secondary endpoints include clinical and MRI outcome measures. The patients' immune profile will be assessed to find presumptive evidence for a tolerogenic effect in vivo. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval was obtained for the two phase I clinical trials. The results of the trials will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal, at scientific conferences and to patient associations. Trial registration numbers: NCT02618902 and NCT02903537; EudraCT numbers: 2015-002975-16 and 2015-003541-26.
Autores: Caruso, S. ; Llerena, S. ; Alvarez-Sola, G. ; et al.
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 69  Nº 2  2019  págs. 587 - 603
Epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation functionally cooperate in fostering tumor growth, including that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pharmacological targeting of these mechanisms may open new therapeutic avenues. We aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of action of our dual G9a histone-methyltransferase and DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor in human HCC cells and their crosstalk with fibrogenic cells. The expression of G9a and DNMT1, along with that of their molecular adaptor ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains-1 (UHRF1), was measured in human HCCs (n = 268), peritumoral tissues (n = 154), and HCC cell lines (n = 32). We evaluated the effect of individual and combined inhibition of G9a and DNMT1 on HCC cell growth by pharmacological and genetic approaches. The activity of our lead compound, CM-272, was examined in HCC cells under normoxia and hypoxia, human hepatic stellate cells and LX2 cells, and xenograft tumors formed by HCC or combined HCC+LX2 cells. We found a significant and correlative overexpression of G9a, DNMT1, and UHRF1 in HCCs in association with poor prognosis. Independent G9a and DNMT1 pharmacological targeting synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth. CM-272 potently reduced HCC and LX2 cells proliferation and quelled tumor growth, particularly in HCC+LX2 xenografts. Mechanistically, CM-272 inhibited the metabolic adaptation of HCC cells to hypoxia and induced a differentiated phenotype in HCC and fibrogenic cells. The expression of the metabolic tumor suppressor gene fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), epigenetically repressed in HCC, was restored by CM-272. Conclusion: Combined targeting of G9a/DNMT1 with compounds such as CM-272 is a promising strategy for HCC treatment. Our findings also underscore the potential of differentiation therapy in HCC.
Autores: Puig, N. ; Lourenco, Bruno David, (Autor de correspondencia); Lasa, M.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 33  Nº 5  2019  págs. 1256 - 1267
Early diagnosis and risk stratification are key to improve outcomes in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. Here we used multidimensional-flow-cytometry (MFC) to characterize bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PCs) from a series of 166 patients including newly-diagnosed AL amyloidosis (N = 9 4) , MGUS (N = 20) and multiple myeloma (MM, N = 52) vs. healthy adults (N= 30). MFC detected clonality in virtually all AL amyloidosis (99%) patients. Furthermore, we developed an automated risk-stratification system based on BMPCs features, with independent prognostic impact on progression-free and overall survival of AL amyloidosis patients (hazard ratio: >= 2.9;P <= .03). Simultaneous assessment of the clonal PCs immunophenotypic protein expression profile and the BM cellular composition, mapped AL amyloidosis in the crossroad between MGUS and MM; however, lack of homogenously-positive CD56 expression, reduction of B-cell precursors and a predominantly-clonal PC compartment in the absence of an MM-like tumor PC expansion, emerged as hallmarks of AL amyloidosis (ROC-AUC = 0.74;P < .001), and might potentially be used as biomarkers for the identification of MGUS and MM patients, who are candidates for monitoring pre-symptomatic organ damage related to AL amyloidosis. Altogether, this study addressed the need for consensus on how to use flow cytometry in AL amyloidosis, and proposes a standardized MFCbased automated risk classification ready for implementation in clinical practice.
Autores: Moreno, Laura; Zabaleta, Aintzane; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 25  Nº 10  2019  págs. 3176 - 3187
Purpose: Knowledge about the mechanism of action (MoA) of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is required to understand which patients with multiple myeloma (MM) benefit the most from a given mAb, alone or in combination therapy. Although there is considerable research about daratumumab, knowledge about other anti-CD38 mAbs remains scarce. Experimental Design: We performed a comprehensive analysis of the MoA of isatuximab. Results: Isatuximab induces internalization of CD38 but not its significant release from MMcell surface. In addition, we uncovered an association between levels of CD38 expression and different MoA: (i) Isatuximab was unable to induce direct apoptosis on MM cells with CD38 levels closer to those in patients with MM, (ii) isatuximab sensitized CD38(hi) MMcells to bortezomib plus dexamethasone in the presence of stroma, (iii) antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was triggered by CD38(lo) and CD38(hi) tumor plasma cells (PC), (iv) antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) was triggered only by CD38(hi) MM cells, whereas (v) complement-dependent cytotoxicity could be triggered in less than half of the patient samples (those with elevated levels of CD38). Furthermore, we showed that isatuximab depletes CD38(hi) B-lymphocyte precursors and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes ex vivo-the latter through activation followed by exhaustion and eventually phagocytosis. Conclusions: This study provides a framework to understand response determinants in patients treated with isatuximab based on the number of MoA triggered by CD38 levels of expression, and for the design of effective combinations aimed at capitalizing disrupted tumor-stroma cell protection, augmenting NK lymphocyte-mediated ADCC, or facilitating ADCP in CD38(lo) MM patients.
Autores: Grasa, J.; Pérez, Ana Isabel; Munoz, M. J. ; et al.
ISSN 1464-4207  Vol. 233  Nº 8  2019  págs. 1594 - 1603
Unlike other organs, skeletal muscle is endowed with a remarkable potential for regeneration that depends on the presence of satellite cells. Histological and functional (force generation) recoveries after muscle damage are not parallel processes. The aim of this study is to examine the in vivo contractile properties and in vitro passive stress-stretch behavior of muscle during degeneration-regeneration processes. Notexin was injected into rat tibialis anterior muscle, and functional recovery and histological changes were compared. We found that histological improvement of damaged muscle is delayed in comparison with its capacity to generate force. The elastic properties of muscle were not altered in agreement with the unchanged cross-linking index, probably as a consequence of the unaltered deposition of total collagen during degeneration-regeneration processes together with the maintenance of the ratio of collagens type I and III.
Autores: Martínez, Nicolás; Pascual, M.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  Nº 8  2019  págs. 1572 - 1579
In this study we interrogated the DNA methylome of myelofibrosis patients using high-density DNA methylation arrays. We detected 35,215 differentially methylated CpG, corresponding to 10,253 genes, between myelofibrosis patients and healthy controls. These changes were present both in primary and secondary myelofibrosis, which showed no differences between them. Remarkably, most differentially methylated CpG were located outside gene promoter regions and showed significant association with enhancer regions. This aberrant enhancer hypermethylation was negatively correlated with the expression of 27 genes in the myelofibrosis cohort. Of these, we focused on the ZFP36L1 gene and validated its decreased expression and enhancer DNA hypermethylation in an independent cohort of patients and myeloid cell-lines. In vitro reporter assay and 5'-azacitidine treatment confirmed the functional relevance of hypermethylation of ZFP36L1 enhancer. Furthermore, in vitro rescue of ZFP36L1 expression had an impact on cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in SET-2 cell line indicating a possible role of ZFP36L1 as a tumor suppressor gene in myelofibrosis. Collectively, we describe the DNA methylation profile of myelofibrosis, identifying extensive changes in enhancer elements and revealing ZFP36L1 as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene.
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 1932-6254  Vol. 13  Nº 5  2019  págs. 742 - 752
An attractive alternative to bone autografts is the use of autologous mesenchymal progenitor cells (MSCs) in combination with biomaterials. We compared the therapeutic potential of different sources of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with biomaterials in a bone nonunion model. A critical-size defect was created in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into six groups, depending on the treatment to be applied: bone defect was left empty (CTL); treated with live bone allograft (LBA); hrBMP-2 in collagen scaffold (CSBMP2); acellular polycaprolactone scaffold (PCL group); PCL scaffold containing periosteum-derived MSCs (PCLPMSCs) and PCL containing bone marrow-derived MSCs (PCLBMSCs). To facilitate cell tracking, both MSCs and bone graft were isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic rats. CTL group did not show any signs of healing during the radiological follow-up (n = 6). In the LBA group, all the animals showed bone bridging (n = 6) whereas in the CSBMP2 group, four out of six animals demonstrated healing. In PCL and PCLPMSCs groups, a reduced number of animals showed radiological healing, whereas no healing was detected in the PCLBMSCs group. Using microcomputed tomography, the bone volume filling the defect was quantified, showing significant new bone formation in the LBA, CSBMP2, and PCLPMSCs groups when compared with the CTL group. At 10 weeks, GFP positive cells were detected only in the LBA group and restricted to the outer cortical bone in close contact with the periosteum. Tracking of cellular implants demonstrated significant survival of the PMSCs when compared with BMSCs. In conclusion, PMSCs improve bone regeneration being suitable for mimetic autograft design.
Autores: Stuckensen, K.; et al.
ISSN 1996-1944  Vol. 12  Nº 19  2019  págs. 3105
In the treatment of bone non-unions, an alternative to bone autografts is the use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), e.g., BMP-2, BMP-7, with powerful osteoinductive and osteogenic properties. In clinical settings, these osteogenic factors are applied using absorbable collagen sponges for local controlled delivery. Major side effects of this strategy are derived from the supraphysiological doses of BMPs needed, which may induce ectopic bone formation, chronic inflammation, and excessive bone resorption. In order to increase the efficiency of the delivered BMPs, we designed cryostructured collagen scaffolds functionalized with hydroxyapatite, mimicking the structure of cortical bone (aligned porosity, anisotropic) or trabecular bone (random distributed porosity, isotropic). We hypothesize that an anisotropic structure would enhance the osteoconductive properties of the scaffolds by increasing the regenerative performance of the provided rhBMP-2. In vitro, both scaffolds presented similar mechanical properties, rhBMP-2 retention and delivery capacity, as well as scaffold degradation time. In vivo, anisotropic scaffolds demonstrated better bone regeneration capabilities in a rat femoral critical-size defect model by increasing the defect bridging. In conclusion, anisotropic cryostructured collagen scaffolds improve bone regeneration by increasing the efficiency of rhBMP-2 mediated bone healing.
Autores: Calvo, I. A.; Sáez, Borja; et al.
ISSN 2198-7866  Vol. 5  Nº 1  2019  págs. 1 - 10
Purpose of Review Stem cells reside in specialized anatomical locations called niches where supportive stromal cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulate their self-renewal and differentiation. This review explores the critical roles of the ECM in stem cell maintenance in tissue homeostasis, aging, and disease. Recent Findings It is well established that ECM proteins and their biomechanical properties control stem cell fate. In addition to specific molecular interactions, the ECM composition determines the topology and stiffness of the substrate, which also regulate stem cell behavior. Changes in the ECM during aging and disease can impair cell-ECM interactions and ultimately contribute to aging and disease pathogenesis. Summary A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which the ECM regulates stem cell behavior in health, as well as during aging and in disease states, will facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies. These therapies should focus on recovering normal matrix synthesis and deposition aiming at promoting endogenous repair.
Autores: Garbayo, Elisa; Mazo, Manuel María; et al.
ISSN 0022-3565  Vol. 370  Nº 3  2019  págs. 761 - 771
Cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs) are a promising cell source for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI) because they offer several advantages such as potential to remuscularize infarcted tissue, integration in the host myocardium, and paracrine therapeutic effects. However, cell delivery issues have limited their potential application in clinical practice, showing poor survival and engraftment after transplantation. In this work, we hypothesized that the combination of hiPSC-CMs with microparticles (MPs) could enhance long-term cell survival and retention in the heart and consequently improve cardiac repair. CMs were obtained by differentiation of hiPSCs by small-molecule manipulation of the Wnt pathway and adhered to biomimetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) MPs covered with collagen and poly(D-lysine). The potential of the system to support cell survival was analyzed in vitro, demonstrating a 1.70-fold and 1.99-fold increase in cell survival after 1 and 4 days, respectively. The efficacy of the system was tested in a mouse MI model. Interestingly, 2 months after administration, transplanted hiPSC-CMs could be detected in the peri-infarct area. These cells not only maintained the cardiac phenotype but also showed in vivo maturation and signs of electrical coupling. Importantly, cardiac function was significantly improved, which could be attributed to a paracrine effect of cells. These findings suggest that MPs represent an excellent platform for cell delivery in the field of cardiac repair, which could also be translated into an enhancement of the potential of cell-based therapies in other medical applications.
Autores: Vicente, Carmen, (Autor de correspondencia); Arriazu, Elena; Martinez-Balsalobre, E.; et al.
ISSN 0304-3835  Vol. 468  2019  págs. 1 - 13
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive disease associated with very poor prognosis. Most patients are older than 60 years, and in this group only 5-15% of cases survive over 5 years. Therefore, it is urgent to develop more effective targeted therapies. Inactivation of protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) is a recurrent event in AML, and overexpression of its endogenous inhibitor SET is detected in similar to 30% of patients. The PP2A activating drug FTY720 has potent anti-leukemic effects; nevertheless, FTY720 induces cardiotoxicity at the anti-neoplastic dose. Here, we have developed a series of non-phosphorylable FTY720 analogues as a new therapeutic strategy for AML. Our results show that the lead compound CM-1231 re-activates PP2A by targeting SET-PP2A interaction, inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in AML cell lines and primary patient samples. Notably, CM-1231 did not induce cardiac toxicity, unlike FTY720, in zebrafish models, and reduced the invasion and aggressiveness of AML cells more than FTY720 in zebrafish xenograft models. In conclusion, CM-1231 is safer and more effective than FTY720; therefore, this compound could represent a novel and promising approach for treating AML patients with SET overexpression.
Autores: Segovia, C.; San José, Edurne; Munera-Maravilla, E.; et al.
ISSN 1078-8956  Vol. 25  Nº 7  2019  págs. 1073 - 1081
Bladder cancer is lethal in its advanced, muscle-invasive phase with very limited therapeutic advances(1,2). Recent molecular characterization has defined new (epi) genetic drivers and potential targets for bladder cancer(3,4). The immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown remarkable efficacy but only in a limited fraction of bladder cancer patients(5-8). Here, we show that high G9a (EHMT2) expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in bladder cancer and that targeting G9a/DNMT methyltransferase activity with a novel inhibitor (CM-272) induces apoptosis and immunogenic cell death. Using an immunocompetent quadruple-knockout (Pten(loxP/loxP); Trp53(loxP/loxP); Rb1(loxP/loxP); Rbl1(-/-)) transgenic mouse model of aggressive metastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer, we demonstrate that CM-272 + cisplatin treatment results in statistically significant regression of established tumors and metastases. The antitumor effect is significantly improved when CM-272 is combined with anti-programmed cell death ligand 1, even in the absence of cisplatin. These effects are associated with an endogenous antitumor immune response and immunogenic cell death with the conversion of a cold immune tumor into a hot tumor. Finally, increased G9a expression was associated with resistance to programmed cell death protein 1 inhibition in a cohort of patients with bladder cancer. In summary, these findings support new and promising opportunities for the treatment of bladder cancer using a combination of epigenetic inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade.
Autores: Aguirre-Ruiz, P. ; Viguria, M. C.; Blasco-Iturri, Z. ; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  Nº S3  2019  págs. 329 - 330
Autores: Ezponda, Teresa; Romero, Juan Pablo; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  2019  págs. 88 - 88
Autores: Vinado-Solanas, A. C. ; CALVO, Isabel; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  2019  págs. 2 - 2
Autores: Ariceta, B.; Manu, A.; Larráyoz, María José; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  Nº S3  2019  págs. 249 - 249
Autores: Presas-Rodriguez, S. ; Willekens, B.; Mansilla, M. J.; et al.
ISSN 0028-3878  Vol. 92  Nº 15 Supl.  2019 
Autores: David, L.; Maillo, A.; et al.
ISSN 0021-9150  Vol. 287  2019  págs. E65 - E65
Autores: Kulis, M. ; Russinol, N. ; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  Nº S3  2019  págs. 19 - 20
Autores: Rodriguez, S.; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 30  Nº 11  2019  págs. A182 - A182
Autores: Vázquez, Iria; Ariceta, B.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  Nº S3  2019  págs. 110 - 110
Autores: Ezponda, Teresa; Meydan, C.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  2019  págs. 11 - 11
Autores: San José, Edurne; Garate, L.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 104  2019  págs. 49 - 49
Autores: Sargas, C.; Ayala, R. ; Chillon, C. ; et al.
ISSN 0939-5555  Vol. 98  Nº Suppl. 1  2019  págs. S38 - S39
Autores: Colyn, L.; Alvarez-Sola, G.; Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 70  Nº Supl. 1  2019  págs. E27 - E28
Autores: de Juan, María Elena; prosper f; et al.
ISSN 1932-6254  Vol. 12  Nº 4  2018  págs. 1012 - 1019
Tissue-specific stem cells reside in a specialized environment known as niche. The niche plays a central role in the regulation of cell behaviour and, through the concerted action of soluble molecules, supportive somatic cells, and extracellular matrix components, directs stem cells to proliferate, differentiate, or remain quiescent. Great efforts have been done to decompose and separately analyse the contribution of these cues in the in vivo environment. Specifically, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix influence many aspects of cell behaviour, including self-renewal and differentiation. Deciphering the role of biomechanics could thereby provide important insights to control the stem cells responses in a more effective way with the aim to promote their therapeutic potential. In this review, we provide a wide overview of the effect that the microenvironment stiffness exerts on the control of cell behaviour with a particular focus on the induction of stem cells differentiation. We also describe the process of mechanotransduction and the molecular effectors involved. Finally, we critically discuss the potential involvement of tissue biomechanics in the design of novel tissue engineering strategies
Autores: prosper f; Pelacho, Beatriz, (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 19  Nº 10  2018  págs. E3236
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide with huge socio-economic consequences. Cell therapy, and particularly mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), are considered a promising option to treat this disorder, due to their robust trophic and immunomodulatory properties. However, limitations such as their low rate of engraftment and poor survival after administration into the heart have precluded their large-scale clinical use. Nevertheless, the combination of MSC with polymer-made scaffolds or hydrogels has proven to enhance their retention and, therefore, their efficacy. Additionally, their allogeneic use could permit the creation of ready-to-use cell patches able to improve their feasibility and promote their application in clinical settings. In this review, the experimental and clinical results derived from the use of MSC in cardiac pathology, as well as advances in the bioengineering field to improve the potential of therapeutic cells, are extensively discussed. Additionally, the current understanding of the heart response to the allogeneic MSC transplants is addressed.
Autores: Mora, Gonzalo; Blanco, J. F.; et al.
ISSN 1479-5876  Vol. 16  2018  págs. 213
Background: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising option to treat knee osteoarthritis (OA). Their safety and usefulness have been reported in several short-term clinical trials but less information is available on the long-term effects of MSC in patients with osteoarthritis. We have evaluated patients included in our previous randomized clinical trial (CMM-ART, NCT02123368) to determine their long-term clinical effect. Materials: A phase I/II multicenter randomized clinical trial with active control was conducted between 2012 and 2014. Thirty patients diagnosed with knee OA were randomly assigned to Control group, intraarticularly administered hyaluronic acid alone, or to two treatment groups, hyaluronic acid together with 10 x 10(6) or 100 x 10(6) cultured autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs), and followed up for 12 months. After a follow up of 4 years adverse effects and clinical evolution, assessed using VAS and WOMAC scorings are reported. Results: No adverse effects were reported after BM-MSCs administration or during the follow-up. BM-MSCs-administered patients improved according to VAS, median value (IQR) for Control, Low-dose and High-dose groups changed from 5 (3, 7), 7 (5, 8) and 6 (4, 8) to 7 (6, 7), 2 (2, 5) and 3 (3, 4), respectively at the end of follow up (Low-dose vs Control group, p = 0.01; High-dose vs Control group, p = 0.004). Patients receiving BM-MSCs also improved clinically according to WOMAC. Control group showed an increase median value of 4 points (-11;10) while Low-dose and High-dose groups exhibited values of -18 (-28;-9) and -10 (-21;-3) points, respectively (Low-dose vs Control group p = 0.043). No clinical differences between the BM-MSCs receiving groups were found. Conclusions: Single intraarticular injection of in vitro expanded autologous BM-MSCs is a safe and feasible procedure that results in long-term clinical and functional improvement of knee OA.
Autores: Martínez, Nicolás, (Autor de correspondencia); Rodriguez, Paula; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 103  Nº 7  2018  págs. E318 - E321
Autores:  Lopez-Muneta, L.; Arellano-Viera, E.; Ripalda, Purificación; et al.
ISSN 1873-5061  Vol. 33  2018  págs. 125 - 129
Islet-1 (Isl1) is a transcription factor essential for life expressed in specific cells with different developmental origins. We have generated iPSC lines from fibroblasts of the transgenic Ai6 x Isl1-Cre (Ai6IslCre) mouse. Here we describe the complete characterization of four iPSC lines: ATCi-Ai6IslCre10, ATCi-Ai6IslCre35, ATCi-Ai6IslCre74 and ATCi-Ai6IslCre80.
Autores: Apaolaza, Iñigo; San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
ISSN 2372-3556  Vol. 30  Nº 5  2018  págs. e1389672.
The identification of therapeutic strategies exploiting the metabolic alterations of malignant cells is a relevant area in cancer research. Here, we discuss a novel computational method, based on the COBRA (COnstraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis) framework for metabolic networks, to perform this task. Current and future steps are presented.
Autores: Zabaleta, Nerea; Barberia, M.; Martin-Higueras, C. ; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 9  2018  págs. 5454
CRISPR/Cas9 technology offers novel approaches for the development of new therapies for many unmet clinical needs, including a significant number of inherited monogenic diseases. However, in vivo correction of disease-causing genes is still inefficient, especially for those diseases without selective advantage for corrected cells. We reasoned that substrate reduction therapies (SRT) targeting non-essential enzymes could provide an attractive alternative. Here we evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of an in vivo CRISPR/Cas9-mediated SRT to treat primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1), a rare inborn dysfunction in glyoxylate metabolism that results in excessive hepatic oxalate production causing end-stage renal disease. A single systemic administration of an AAV8-CRISPR/Cas9 vector targeting glycolate oxidase, prevents oxalate overproduction and kidney damage, with no signs of toxicity in Agxt1(-/-) mice. Our results reveal that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated SRT represents a promising therapeutic option for PH1 that can be potentially applied to other metabolic diseases caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolites.
Autores: Stuckensen, K.; Schwab, A.; Knauer, M.; et al.
ISSN 0935-9648  Vol. 30  Nº 28  2018  págs. e1706754
An integral approach toward in situ tissue engineering through scaffolds that mimic tissue with regard to both tissue architecture and biochemical composition is presented. Monolithic osteochondral and meniscus scaffolds are prepared with tissue analog layered biochemical composition and perpendicularly oriented continuous micropores by a newly developed cryostructuring technology. These scaffolds enable rapid cell ingrowth and induce zonal-specific matrix synthesis of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells solely through their design without the need for supplementation of soluble factors such as growth factors.
Autores: García, María José; Sarasquete, M. E.; Panizo, Carlos Manuel; et al.
ISSN 0022-3417  Vol. 245  Nº 1  2018  págs. 61 - 73
The increased risk of Richter transformation (RT) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy with fludarabine other targeted agents remains controversial. Among 31 RT cases classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), seven (23%) showed EBV expression. In contrast to EBV- tumours, EBV+ DLBCLs derived predominantly from IGVH-hypermutated CLL, and they also showed CLL-unrelated IGVH sequences more frequently. Intriguingly, despite having different cellular origins, clonally related and unrelated EBV+ DLBCLs shared a previous history of immunosuppressive chemo-immunotherapy, a non-germinal centre DLBCL phenotype, EBV latency programme type II or III, and very short survival. These data suggested that EBV reactivation during therapy-related immunosuppression can transform either CLL cells or non-tumoural B lymphocytes into EBV+ DLBCL. To investigate this hypothesis, xenogeneic transplantation of blood cells from 31 patients with CLL and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) was performed in Rag2(-/-) IL2c(-/-) mice. Remarkably, the recipients' impaired immunosurveillance favoured the spontaneous outgrowth of EBV+ B-cell clones from 95% of CLL and 64% of MBL patients samples, but not from healthy donors. Eventually, these cells generated monoclonal tumours (mostly CLL-unrelated but also CLL-related), recapitulating the principal features of EBV+ DLBCL in patients. Accordingly, clonally related and unrelated EBV+ DLBCL xenografts showed indistinguishable cellular, virological and molecular features, and synergistically responded to combined inhibition of EBV replication with ganciclovir and B-cell receptor signalling with ibrutinib in vivo. Our study underscores the risk of RT driven by EBV in CLL patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies, and provides the scientific rationale for testing ganciclovir and ibrutinib in EBV+ DLBCL. Copyright (c) 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Rodríguez, José Antonio; Orbe, J; Saenz-Pipaon, G.; et al.
ISSN 0049-3848  Vol. 170  2018  págs. 1 - 9
Introduction: Wound healing after myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by different cell types, secreted proteins, components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and, as increasing evidences suggest, extracellular vesicles (EVs). We aim to determine the dynamics of release and origin of EVs after MI, as well as their biological activity on endothelial cells (ECs). Methods: MI was induced in WT mice and blood and tissues collected at baseline, 3, 15 and 30 days post-ligation for cardiac function (echocardiography) and histological evaluation. Circulating EVs subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry in mouse, and in a small cohort of patients with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI, n= 6). In vitro, EVs were isolated from a cardiomyocyte cell line (HL1) and their function assayed on ECs. Results: Leukocyte and endothelial EVs increased concomitant to inflammatory and angiogenic processes triggered by ischemia. More strikingly, cardiomyocyte EVs (connexin43+) were detected in STEMI patients and in murine MI, where a significant increase in their levels was reported at day 15 post-ischemia (p < 0.05 vs baseline). In vitro, HL1EVs induced ECs migration (p= 0.05) and proliferation (p < 0.05), but impaired tube formation. These apparent contradictory results could be partially explained by the upregulation of MMP3, and the apoptosis and senescence genes, p53 and p16, induced by HL1EVs on ECs (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MI induces the release of different EVs subpopulations, including those of cardiac origin, in a preclinical model of MI and STEMI patients. In vitro, cardiomyocyte derived EVs are able to modulate endothelial function, suggesting their active role in heart repair after ischemia.
Autores: Sanoja-Flores, L.; Flores-Montero, J. ; Garcés, Juan-José; et al.
ISSN 2044-5385  Vol. 8  2018  págs. 117
Here, we investigated for the first time the frequency and number of circulating tumor plasma cells (CTPC) in peripheral blood (PB) of newly diagnosed patients with localized and systemic plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) using next-generation flow cytometry (NGF) and correlated our findings with the distinct diagnostic and prognostic categories of the disease. Overall, 508 samples from 264 newly diagnosed PCN patients, were studied. CTPC were detected in PB of all active multiple myeloma (MM; 100%), and smoldering MM (SMM) patients (100%), and in more than half (59%) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) cases (p < 0.0001); in contrast, CTPC were present in a small fraction of solitary plasmacytoma patients (18%). Higher numbers of CTPC in PB were associated with higher levels of BM infiltration and more adverse prognostic features, together with shorter time to progression from MGUS to MM (p < 0.0001) and a shorter survival in MM patients with active disease requiring treatment (p <= 0.03). In summary, the presence of CTPC in PB as assessed by NGF at diagnosis, emerges as a hallmark of disseminated PCN, higher numbers of PB CTPC being strongly associated with a malignant disease behavior and a poorer outcome of both MGUS and MM.
Autores: Garate, A.; Sanchez, P.; Delgado, D.; et al.
ISSN 1549-3296  Vol. 106  Nº 2  2018  págs. 377 - 385
In the field of tissue engineering, diverse types of bioscaffolds are being developed currently for osteochondral defect applications. In this work, a novel scaffold based on platelet rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been evaluated to observe its effect on immobilized cells. The bioscaffolds were prepared by mixing different volumes of synovial fluid (SF) with PRP from patients obtaining three formulations at PRP-SF ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 (v/v). The live/dead staining revealed that although the cell number of each type of bioscaffold was different, these this constructs provide cells with a suitable environment for their viability and proliferation. Moreover, immobilized MSCs showed their ability to secrete fibrinolytic enzymes, which vary depending on the fibrin amount of the scaffold. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the positive staining for collagen type II in all cases, proving the biologic action of SF derived MSCs together with the suitable characteristics of the bioscaffold for chondrogenic differentiation. Considering all these aspects, this study demonstrates that these cells-based constructs represent an attractive method for cell immobilization, achieving completely autologous and biocompatible scaffolds. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 377-385, 2018.
Autores: Castellano, D.; Sanchis, A.; Blanes, M.; et al.
ISSN 1932-6254  Vol. 12  Nº 2  2018  págs. E983 - E994
Human dermo-epidermal skin equivalents (DE) comprising in vitro expanded autologous keratinocytes and fibroblasts are a good option for massive burn treatment. However, the lengthy expansion time required to obtain sufficient surface to cover an extensive burn together with the challenging surgical procedure limits their clinical use. The integration of DE and biodegradable scaffolds has been proposed in an effort to enhance their mechanical properties. Here, it is shown that poly(hydroxybutyrate) electrospun scaffolds (PHB) present good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo and are superior to poly-epsilon-caprolactone electrospun scaffolds as a substrate for skin reconstruction. Implantation of PHB scaffolds in healthy rats polarized macrophages to an M2-type that promoted constructive in vivo remodelling. Moreover, implantation of DE-PHB composites in a NOD/SCID mouse xenograft model resulted in engraftment accompanied by an increase in angiogenesis that favoured the survival of the human graft. Thus, PHB scaffolds are an attractive substrate for further exploration in skin reconstruction procedures, probably due in part to their greater angiogenic and M2 macrophage polarization properties. Copyright (c) 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Sánchez-Arias; San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
ISSN 0022-2623  Vol. 61  Nº 15  2018  págs. 6546-6573
Epigenetic regulators that exhibit aberrant enzymatic activities or expression profiles are potential therapeutic targets for cancers. Specifically, enzymes responsible for methylation at histone-3 lysine-9 (like G9a) and aberrant DNA hypermethylation (DNMTs) have been implicated in a number of cancers. Recently, molecules bearing a 4-aminoquinoline scaffold were reported as dual inhibitors of these targets and showed a significant in vivo efficacy in animal models of hematological malignancies. Here, we report a detailed exploration around three growing vectors born by this chemotype. Exploring this chemical space led to the identification of features to navigate G9a and DNMT1 biological spaces: not only their corresponding exclusive areas, selective compounds, but also common spaces. Thus, we identified from selective G9a and first-in-class DNMT1 inhibitors, >1 log unit between their IC50 values, with IC50 < 25 nM (e.g., 43 and 26, respectively) to equipotent inhibitors with IC50 < 50 nM for both targets (e.g., 13). Their ADME/Tox profiling and antiproliferative efficacies, versus some cancer cell lines, are also reported.
Autores: Montiel, Veronica; Granero-Moltó, Froilán; et al.
ISSN 2240-4554  Vol. 8  Nº 2  2018  págs. 261-275
Conclusion: Animal models for muscular degeneration after rotator cuff tears have been well established and described. The next challenge is the achievement of a therapeutic target that could be transferred to the clinical setting.
Autores: Montes-Medina, L. ; Hernandez-Fernandez, A.; Gutierrez-Rivera, A. ; et al.
ISSN 0020-1383  Vol. 49  Nº 11  2018  págs. 1979 - 1986
Acceleration of the consolidation of the distracted bone is a relevant medical need. As a platform to improve in vivo bone engineering, we developed a novel distraction osteogenesis (DO) model in a rabbit large bone (femur) and tested if the application of cultured bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) immediately after the osteotomy promotes the formation of bone. This report consists of two components, an animal study to evaluate the quality of the regenerate following different treatments and an in vitro study to evaluate osteogenic potential of BMSC cultures. To illuminate the mechanism of action of injected cells, we tested stem cell cultures enriched in osteogenic-BMSCs (O-BMSCs) as compared with cultures enriched in non-osteogenic BMSCs (NO-BMSCs). Finally, we included a group of animals treated with biomaterials (fibrin and ground cortical bone) in addition to cells. Injection of O-BMSCs promoted the maturity of distracted callus and decreased fibrosis. When combined with biomaterials, O-BMSCs modified the ossification pattern from endochondral to intramembranous type. The use of NO-BMSCs not only did not increase the maturity but also increased porosity of the bone. These preclinical results indicate that the BMSC cultures must be tested in vitro prior to clinical use, since a number of factors may influence their outcome in bone formation. We hypothesize that the use of osteogenic BMSCs and biomaterials could be clinically beneficial to shorten the consolidation period of the distraction and the total period of bone lengthening. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Ezponda, Teresa; et al.
ISSN 1949-2553  Vol. 9  Nº 16  2018  págs. 12842 - 12852
Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Several lncRNAs are involved in cell proliferation and are deregulated in several human tumors. Few lncRNAs have been described to play a role in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). In this study, we carried out a genome wide lncRNA expression profiling in ALL samples and peripheral blood samples obtained from healthy donors. We detected 43 lncRNAs that were aberrantly expressed in ALL. Interestingly, among them, linc-PINT showed a significant downregulation in T and B-ALL. Re-expression of linc-PINT in ALL cells induced inhibition of leukemic cell growth that was associated with apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. linc-PINT induced the transcription of HMOX1 which reduced the viability of ALL cells. Intriguingly, we observed that treatment with anti-tumoral epigenetic drugs like LBH-589 (Panobinostat) and Curcumin induced the expression of linc-PINT and HMOX1 in ALL. These results indicate that the downregulation of linc-PINT plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of ALL, and linc-PINT re-expression may be one of the mechanisms exerted by epigenetic drugs to reduce cell proliferation in ALL.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; Sánchez-Arias, JA; et al.
ISSN 0022-2623  Vol. 61  Nº 15  2018  págs. 6518-6545
Using knowledge- and structure-based approaches, we designed and synthesized reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the activity of two epigenetic targets, histone 3 lysine 9 methyltransferase (G9a) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), at nanomolar ranges. Enzymatic competition assays confirmed our design strategy: substrate competitive inhibitors. Next, an initial exploration around our hit 11 was pursued to identify an adequate tool compound for in vivo testing. In vitro treatment of different hematological neoplasia cell lines led to the identification of molecules with clear antiproliferative efficacies (GI50 values in the nanomolar range). On the basis of epigenetic functional cellular responses (levels of lysine 9 methylation and 5-methylcytosine), an acceptable therapeutic window (around 1 log unit) and a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, 12 was selected for in vivo proof-of-concept ( Nat. Commun. 2017 , 8 , 15424 ). Herein, 12 achieved a significant in vivo efficacy: 70% overall tumor growth inhibition of a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenograft in a mouse model.
Autores: Herrero, D.; Canon, S. ; Pelacho, Beatriz; et al.
ISSN 1079-5642  Vol. 38  Nº 9  2018  págs. 2160 - 2173
Objective Cardiac progenitor cells reside in the heart in adulthood, although their physiological relevance remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that after myocardial infarction, adult Bmi1(+) (B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog [PCGF4]) cardiac cells are a key progenitor-like population in cardiac neovascularization during ventricular remodeling. Approach and Results These cells, which have a strong in vivo differentiation bias, are a mixture of endothelial- and mesenchymal-related cells with in vitro spontaneous endothelial cell differentiation capacity. Genetic lineage tracing analysis showed that heart-resident Bmi1(+) progenitor cells proliferate after acute myocardial infarction and differentiate to generate de novo cardiac vasculature. In a mouse model of induced myocardial infarction, genetic ablation of these cells substantially deteriorated both heart angiogenesis and the ejection fraction, resulting in an ischemic-dilated cardiac phenotype. Conclusions These findings imply that endothelial-related Bmi1(+) progenitor cells are necessary for injury-induced neovascularization in adult mouse heart and highlight these cells as a suitable therapeutic target for preventing dysfunctional left ventricular remodeling after injury.
Autores: Beekman R; Chapaprieta V; Russiñol N; et al.
ISSN 1078-8956  Vol. 24  Nº 6  2018  págs. 868-880
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological neoplasm in which underlying epigenetic alterations are only partially understood. Here, we analyze the reference epigenome of seven primary CLLs and the regulatory chromatin landscape of 107 primary cases in the context of normal B cell differentiation. We identify that the CLL chromatin landscape is largely influenced by distinct dynamics during normal B cell maturation. Beyond this, we define extensive catalogues of regulatory elements de novo reprogrammed in CLL as a whole and in its major clinico-biological subtypes classified by IGHV somatic hypermutation levels. We uncover that IGHV-unmutated CLLs harbor more active and open chromatin than IGHV-mutated cases. Furthermore, we show that de novo active regions in CLL are enriched for NFAT, FOX and TCF/LEF transcription factor family binding sites. Although most genetic alterations are not associated with consistent epigenetic profiles, CLLs with MYD88 mutations and trisomy 12 show distinct chromatin configurations. Furthermore, we observe that non-coding mutations in IGHV-mutated CLLs are enriched in H3K27ac-associated regulatory elements outside accessible chromatin. Overall, this study provides an integrative portrait of the CLL epigenome, identifies extensive networks of altered regulatory elements and sheds light on the relationship between the genetic and epigenetic architecture of the disease.
Autores: Pascual, Simón; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 1061-186X  Vol. 27  Nº 5 - 6  2018  págs. 573 - 581
Neuregulin-1 loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles hold great promise for treating acute myocardial infarction, as they have been proved to recover heart function and induce positive heart remodelling in preclinical studies. More recently, the inflammatory response of the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been identified as one of the major mechanisms in cardiac tissue remodelling and repair. However, the connection between neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles and inflammation is still not well characterised. In the present study we assessed this relationship in a mouse AMI model. First, in vitro evidence indicated that neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles induced a macrophage polarisation toward a regenerative phenotype (CD206+ cells), preventing macrophages from evolving toward the inflammatory phenotype (B7-2+ cells). This correlated with in vivo experiments, where neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles locally improved the CD206+/B7-2+ ratio. Moreover, neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles were administered at different time points (15¿min, 24, 72 and 168¿h) after infarction induction without causing secondary inflammatory issues. The time of treatment administration did not alter the inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles can be administered depending on the therapeutic window of the encapsulated drug and that they enhance the heart's reparative inflammatory response after acute myocardial infarction, helping cardiac tissue repair.
Autores: Zabaleta, Nerea; Barberia, M.; Martin-Higueras, C. ; et al.
ISSN 1525-0016  Vol. 26  Nº 5  2018  págs. 384 - 385
Autores: Puig, N.; Lourenco, Bruno David; Lasa, M.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 132  Nº Supl. 1  2018 
Autores: Abaigar, M. ; López Cadenas, F.; Ramos, F. ; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 103  Nº Supl. 2  2018  págs. 74 - 75
Autores: Wagener, R.; Schnaudt, C.; Kleinheinz, K.; et al.
ISSN 0007-1048  Vol. 182  2018  págs. 43 - 44
Autores: Willekens, B.; Presas-Rodriguez, S. ; Mansilla, M.; et al.
ISSN 1352-4585  Vol. 24  Nº 2_suppl: P1202  2018  págs. 530 - 737
Objectives: To assess the clinical use of tolDC in a well-defined population of MS patients in two single-center clinical trials, comparing two ways of tolDC administration, namely intradermal (i.d.) (MS-tolDC, Antwerp) and intranodal (i.n.) (TOLERVIT-MS, Badalona). Aims: To demonstrate safety and feasibility of therapeutic use of tolDC in MS patients.
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; López, A; Inoges S; et al.
ISSN 0195-668X  Vol. 39  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 1196 - 1196
Autores: Zabaleta, Nerea; Torella, L. ; Rodríguez, Saray; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 29  Nº 12  2018  págs. A108 - A108
Autores: Lourenco, Bruno David; Martinez-Cuadron, D.; Bergua-Burgues, J. M.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 132  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 433
Autores: Cuenca, I.; Sanchez-Vega, B. ; Lourenco, Bruno David; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 103  Nº Supl. 2  2018  págs. 91 - 91
Autores: Vicari, M. ; Lara-Astiaso, D.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 132  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 188
Autores: Rodriguez, Paula; Lourenco, Bruno David; Engelhardt, M. ; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 102  Nº 3  2017  págs. 423 - 432
Immune escape and impaired immune surveillance have been identified as emerging hallmarks of cancer.(1) Multiple myeloma represents a genuine example of disrupted immune surveillance characterized by: impaired antibody production, deregulation of the T and natural killer cell compartment, disruption of antigen presentation machinery, upregulation of inhibitory surface ligands, and recruitment of immunosuppressive cells. Although the potential value of immunotherapeutic interventions had a clear antecedent in the graft-versus-myeloma effect induced by allogeneic stem cell transplant and donor lymphocyte infusions, it is only recently that this field has faced a real revolution. In this review we discuss the current results obtained with immune approaches in patients with multiple myeloma that have placed this disease under the scope of immuno-oncology, bringing new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of multiple myeloma patients.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; Oyarzabal, Julen; et al.
ISSN 2372-3556  Vol. 4  Nº 4  2017 
Autores: Coppiello, Giulia; Abizanda, Gloria María; Aguado, N.; et al.
ISSN 1873-5061  Vol. 21  Nº 47-50  2017 
We generated a rat iPSC line called ATCi-rSD95 from transgenic Sprague-Dawley GFP fetal fibroblasts. Established ATCi-rSD95 cells present a normal karyotype, silencing of the transgenes and express pluripotency-associated markers. Additionally, ATCi-rSD95 cells are able to form teratoma with differentiated cells derived from the three germ-layers that maintain the GFP expression.
Autores: Coppiello, Giulia; Abizanda, Gloria María; Aguado, N.; et al.
ISSN 1873-5061  Vol. 21  2017  págs. 40-43
We generated two rat embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines: ATCe-SD7.8 from Sprague-Dawley strain and ATCe-WK1 from Wistar Kyoto strain. Cells were marked with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) by transduction with a lentiviral vector. Cells present a normal karyotype and express pluripotency-associated markers. Pluripotency was tested in vivo with the teratoma formation assay. Cells maintain eGFP expression upon differentiation to the three-germ layers. These cells can be a useful tool for cell therapy studies and chimera generation as they can be easily tracked by eGFP expression.
Autores: Coppiello, G; Abizanda, Gloria María; Aguado, N.; et al.
ISSN 1873-5061  Vol. 21  2017  págs. 1-4
We generated ATCi-MF1 induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell line from Macaca fascicularis adult skin fibroblasts using non-integrative Sendai viruses carrying OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2 and c-MYC. Once established, ATCi-MF1 cells present a normal karyotype, are Sendai virus-free and express pluripotency associated markers. Microsatellite markers analysis confirmed the origin of the iPS cells from the parental fibroblasts. Pluripotency was tested with the in vivo teratoma formation assay. ATCi-MF1 cell line may be a useful primate iPS cell model to test different experimental conditions where the use of human cells can imply ethical issues, as microinjection of pluripotent stem cells in pre-implantational embryos.
Autores: Recalde, Sergio; et al.
ISSN 2162-2531  Vol. 15  Nº 9  2017  págs. 1-11
Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a potent antiangiogenic, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective molecule that is the endogenous inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina. An ex vivo gene therapy approach based on transgenic overexpression of PEDF in the eye is assumed to rebalance the angiogenic-antiangiogenic milieu of the retina, resulting in growth regression of choroidal blood vessels, the hallmark of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here, we show that rat pigment epithelial cells can be efficiently transfected with the PEDF-expressing non-viral hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system delivered in a form free of antibiotic resistance marker miniplasmids. The engineered retinal and iris pigment epithelium cells secrete high (141 ± 13 and 222 ± 14 ng) PEDF levels in 72 hr in vitro. In vivo studies showed cell survival and insert expression during at least 4 months. Transplantation of the engineered cells to the subretinal space of a rat model of choroidal neovascularization reduces almost 50% of the development of new vessels.
Autores: Díaz, Paula; Saludas, L.; Pascual, Simón; et al.
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 249  2017  págs. 23 - 31
Tissue engineering is a promising strategy to promote heart regeneration after a myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we investigated the reparative potential of a system that combines adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) with microparticles (MPs) loaded with neuregulin (NRG), named ADSC-NRG-MPs, on a rat MI model. First, cells were attached to the surface of MPs encapsulating NRG and coated with a 1:1 mixture of collagen and poly-D-lysine. One week after in vivo administration, the system favored the shift of macrophage expression from a pro-inflammatory to a regenerative phenotype. At long-term, the adhesion of ADSCs to MPs resulted in an increased cell engraftment, with cells being detectable in the tissue up to three months. In consonance, better tissue repair was observed in the animals treated with cells attached to MPs, which presented thicker left ventricles than the animals treated with ADSCs alone. Moreover, the presence of NRG in the system promoted a more complete regeneration, reducing the infarct size and stimulating cardiomyocyte proliferation. Regarding vasculogenesis, the presence of ADSCs and NRG-MPs alone stimulated vessel formation when compared to the control group, but the combination of both induced the largest vasculogenic effect, promoting the formation of both arterioles and capillaries. Importantly, only when ADSCs were administered adhered to MPs, they were incorporated into newly formed vessels. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the combination of ADSCs, MPs and NRG favored a synergy for inducing a greater and more complete improvement in heart regeneration and provided strong evidence to move forward with preclinical studies with this strategy. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Inoges S; Tejada, Sonia; López, A; et al.
ISSN 1479-5876  Vol. 15  Nº 1  2017  págs. Article number 104
Background: Prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains dismal, with median overall survival (OS) of about 15 months. It is therefore crucial to search alternative strategies that improve these results obtained with conventional treatments. In this context, immunotherapy seems to be a promising therapeutic option. We hypothesized that the addition of tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) vaccination to maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide could improve patients' survival. Methods: We conducted a phase-II clinical trial of autologous DCs vaccination in patients with newly diagnosed patients GBM who were candidates to complete or near complete resection. Candidates were finally included if residual tumor volume was lower than 1 cc on postoperative radiological examination. Autologous DCs were generated from peripheral blood monocytes and pulsed with autologous whole tumor lysate. The vaccination calendar started before radiotherapy and was continued during adjuvant chemotherapy. Progression free survival (PFS) and OS were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Immune response were assessed in blood samples obtained before each vaccines. Results: Thirty-two consecutive patients were screened, one of which was a screening failure due to insufficient resection. Median age was 61 years (range 42-70). Karnofsky performance score (KPS) was 90-100 in 29%, 80 in 35.5% and 60-70 in 35.5% of cases. MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase) promoter was methylated in 45.2% of patients. No severe adverse effects related to immunotherapy were registered. Median PFS was 12.7 months (CI 95% 7-16) and median OS was 23.4 months (95% CI 16-33.1). Increase in post-vaccination tumor specific immune response after vaccines (proliferation or cytokine production) was detected in 11/27 evaluated patients. No correlation between immune response and survival was found. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the addition of tumor lysate-pulsed autologous DCs vaccination to tumor resection and combined radio-chemotherapy is feasible and safe. A multicenter randomized clinical trial is warranted to evaluate the potential survival benefit of this therapeutic approach. Trial registration This phase-II trial was registered as EudraCT: 2009-009879-35 and Identifier: NCT01006044 retrospectively registered.
Autores: Lourenco, Bruno David; Puig, N.; Cedena, M. T.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 31  Nº 2  2017  págs. 382 - 392
The notion that plasma cells (PCs) are terminally differentiated has prevented intensive research in multiple myeloma (MM) about their phenotypic plasticity and differentiation. Here, we demonstrated in healthy individuals (n = 20) that the CD19 - CD81 expression axis identifies three bone marrow (BM) PC subsets with distinct age- prevalence, proliferation, replication- history, immunoglobulin- production, and phenotype, consistent with progressively increased differentiation from CD19+ CD81+ into CD19 - CD81+ and CD19 - CD81 - BMPCs. Afterwards, we demonstrated in 225 newly diagnosed MM patients that, comparing to normal BMPC counterparts, 59% had fully differentiated (CD19 - CD81 -) clones, 38% intermediate- differentiated (CD19 - CD81+) and 3% less- differentiated (CD19+ CD81+) clones. The latter patients had dismal outcome, and PC differentiation emerged as an independent prognostic marker for progression- free (HR: 1.7; P = 0.005) and overall survival (HR: 2.1; P = 0.006). Longitudinal comparison of diagnostic vs minimal- residual- disease samples (n = 40) unraveled that in 20% of patients, less- differentiated PCs subclones become enriched after therapy- induced pressure. We also revealed that CD81 expression is epigenetically regulated, that less- differentiated clonal PCs retain high expression of genes related to preceding B- cell stages (for example: PAX5), and show distinct mutation profile vs fully differentiated PC clones within individual patients. Together, we shed new light into PC plasticity and demonstrated that MM patients harbouring less- differentiated PCs have dismal survival, which might be related to higher chemoresistant potential plus different molecular and genomic profiles.
Autores: Saludas, L.; Pascual, Simón; prosper f; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 523  Nº 2  2017  págs. 454 - 475
Heart failure still represents the leading cause of death worldwide. Novel strategies using stem cells and growth factors have been investigated for effective cardiac tissue regeneration and heart function recovery. However, some major challenges limit their translation to the clinic. Recently, biomaterials have emerged as a promising approach to improve delivery and viability of therapeutic cells and proteins for the regeneration of the damaged heart. In particular, hydrogels are considered one of the most promising vehicles. They can be administered through minimally invasive techniques while maintaining all the desirable characteristics of drug delivery systems. This review discusses recent advances made in the field of hydrogels for cardiac tissue regeneration in detail, focusing on the type of hydrogel (conventional, injectable, smart or nano-and micro-gel), the biomaterials used for its manufacture (natural, synthetic or hybrid) and the therapeutic agent encapsulated (stem cells or proteins). We expect that these novel hydrogel-based approaches will open up new possibilities in drug delivery and cell therapies. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Apaolaza, Iñigo; San José, Edurne; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 8  Nº 1  2017  págs. 459
Synthetic lethality is a promising concept in cancer research, potentially opening new possibilities for the development of more effective and selective treatments. Here, we present a computational method to predict and exploit synthetic lethality in cancer metabolism. Our approach relies on the concept of genetic minimal cut sets and gene expression data, demonstrating a superior performance to previous approaches predicting metabolic vulnerabilities in cancer. Our genetic minimal cut set computational framework is applied to evaluate the lethality of ribonucleotide reductase catalytic subunit M1 (RRM1) inhibition in multiple myeloma. We present a computational and experimental study of the effect of RRM1 inhibition in four multiple myeloma cell lines. In addition, using publicly available genome-scale loss-of-function screens, a possible mechanism by which the inhibition of RRM1 is effective in cancer is established. Overall, our approach shows promising results and lays the foundation to build a novel family of algorithms to target metabolism in cancer.
Autores: Martínez, Nicolás; Alfonso, Ana; Rifón, José Juan; et al.
ISSN 0902-4441  Vol. 98  Nº 1  2017  págs. 38 - 43
This retrospective study evaluates the impact of rituximab on PTLD response and survival in a single-centre cohort. PTLD cases between 1984 and 2009, including heart, kidney, liver and lung transplant recipients, were included. Survival was analysed taking into account the type of PTLD (monomorphic vs. polymorphic), EBV infection status, IPI score, Ann Arbor stage and use of rituximab. Among 1335 transplanted patients, 24 developed PTLD. Median age was 54 yr (range 29-69), median time to diagnosis 50 months (range 0-100). PTLD type was predominantly late/monomorphic (79% and 75%), mostly diffuse large B-cell type. Overall response rate (ORR) was 62% (66% rituximab vs. 50% non-rituximab; P = 0.5). R-CHOP-like regimens were used most frequently (72% of patients treated with rituximab). Median overall survival was 64 months (CI 95% 31-96). OS was significantly increased in patients treated with rituximab (P = 0.01; CI 95% rituximab 58-79 months; non-rituximab 1-30 months). Post-transplant immunosuppression regimen had no effect on survival or time to PTLD, except for cyclosporine A (CyA), which associated with increased time to PTLD (P = 0.02). Rituximab was associated with increased survival in our single-centre series, and it should be considered as first-line therapy for PTLD patients. The possible protective effect of CyA for development of PTLD should be prospectively evaluated.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Ochoa, María del Carmen; et al.
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 7  2017 
Constraint-based modeling for genome-scale metabolic networks has emerged in the last years as a promising approach to elucidate drug targets in cancer. Beyond the canonical biosynthetic routes to produce biomass, it is of key importance to focus on metabolic routes that sustain the proliferative capacity through the regulation of other biological means in order to improve in-silico gene essentiality analyses. Polyamines are polycations with central roles in cancer cell proliferation, through the regulation of transcription and translation among other things, but are typically neglected in in silico cancer metabolic models. In this study, we analysed essential genes for the biosynthesis of polyamines. Our analysis corroborates the importance of previously known regulators of the pathway, such as Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) and uncovers novel enzymes predicted to be relevant for polyamine homeostasis. We focused on Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and demonstrated the detrimental consequence of APRT gene silencing on different leukaemia cell lines. Our results highlight the importance of revisiting the metabolic models used for in-silico gene essentiality analyses in order to maximize the potential for drug target identification in cancer.
Autores: Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto, (Autor de correspondencia); San José, Edurne; Zapata, Natalia María; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 12  Nº 12  2017  págs. e0190275
The combination of defined factors with small molecules targeting epigenetic factors is a strategy that has been shown to enhance optimal derivation of iPSCs and could be used for disease modelling, high throughput screenings and/or regenerative medicine applications. In this study, we showed that a new first-in-class reversible dual G9a/DNMT1 inhibitor compound (CM272) improves the efficiency of human cell reprogramming and iPSC generation from primary cells of healthy donors and patient samples, using both integrative and non-integrative methods. Moreover, CM272 facilitates the generation of human iPSC with only two factors allowing the removal of the most potent oncogenic factor cMYC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mechanistically, treatment with CM272 induces heterochromatin relaxation, facilitates the engagement of OCT4 and SOX2 transcription factors to OSKM refractory binding regions that are required for iPSC establishment, and enhances mesenchymal to epithelial transition during the early phase of cell reprogramming. Thus, the use of this new G9a/DNMT reversible dual inhibitor compound may represent an interesting alternative for improving cell reprogramming and human iPSC derivation for many different applications while providing interesting insights into reprogramming mechanism
Autores: D'Avola, Delia; Carmona, Francisco de Asís; et al.
ISSN 1931-5244  Vol. 188  2017  págs. 80-91.e2
The aim of this nonrandomized, open label, phase 1 clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of the treatment with autologous bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in decompensated liver cirrhosis. In addition, the changes in liver function and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and their relation with the characteristics of the cellular product were analyzed. Twelve patients with Child-Pugh ¿8 liver cirrhosis underwent bone marrow harvest for ex vivo differentiation of EPC. The final product was administered through the hepatic artery in a single administration. Patients underwent clinical and radiologic follow-up for 12 months. The phenotype and the ability to produce cytokines and growth factors of the final cellular suspension were analyzed. Eleven patients were treated (feasibility 91%). No treatment-related severe adverse events were observed as consequence of any study procedure or treatment. Model for end-stage liver disease score improved significantly (P 0.042) in the first 90 days after cells administration and 5 of the 9 patients alive at 90 days showed a decreased of HVPG. There was a direct correlation between the expression of acetylated-low density lipoprotein and von Willebrand factor in the cellular product and the improvement in liver function and HVPG. The treatment with EPCs in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis is safe and feasible and might have therapeutic potential. Patients receiving a higher amount
Autores: D'Avola, Delia; Fernández-Ruiz, Veronica; Carmona, Francisco de Asís; et al.
ISSN 1931-5244  Vol. 188  2017  págs. 80 - 91.e2
The aim of this nonrandomized, open label, phase 1 clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of the treatment with autologous bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in decompensated liver cirrhosis. In addition, the changes in liver function and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and their relation with the characteristics of the cellular product were analyzed. Twelve patients with Child-Pugh [greater than or equal to]8 liver cirrhosis underwent bone marrow harvest for ex vivo differentiation of EPC. The final product was administered through the hepatic artery in a single administration. Patients underwent clinical and radiologic follow-up for 12 months. The phenotype and the ability to produce cytokines and growth factors of the final cellular suspension were analyzed. Eleven patients were treated (feasibility 91%). No treatment-related severe adverse events were observed as consequence of any study procedure or treatment. Model for end-stage liver disease score improved significantly (P 0.042) in the first 90 days after cells administration and 5 of the 9 patients alive at 90 days showed a decreased of HVPG. There was a direct correlation between the expression of acetylated-low density lipoprotein and von Willebrand factor in the cellular product and the improvement in liver function and HVPG. The treatment with EPCs in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis is safe and feasible and might have therapeutic potential. Patients receiving a higher amount of functionally active EPC showed an improvement of liver function and portal hypertension suggesting that the potential usefulness of these cells for the treatment of liver cirrhosis deserves further evaluation.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 8  2017  págs. 15424
The indisputable role of epigenetics in cancer and the fact that epigenetic alterations can be reversed have favoured development of epigenetic drugs. In this study, we design and synthesize potent novel, selective and reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the G9a and DNMTs methyltransferase activity. In vitro treatment of haematological neoplasia (acute myeloid leukaemia-AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-ALL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-DLBCL) with the lead compound CM-272, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, inducing interferon-stimulated genes and immunogenic cell death. CM-272 significantly prolongs survival of AML, ALL and DLBCL xenogeneic models. Our results represent the discovery of first-in-class dual inhibitors of G9a/DNMTs and establish this chemical series as a promising therapeutic tool for unmet needs in haematological tumours.
Autores: Mishima, Y.; Lourenco, Bruno David; Shi, J. T.; et al.
ISSN 2211-1247  Vol. 19  Nº 1  2017  págs. 218 - 224
The development of sensitive and non-invasive "liquid biopsies'' presents new opportunities for longitudinal monitoring of tumor dissemination and clonal evolution. The number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is prognostic in multiple myeloma (MM), but there is little information on their genetic features. Here, we have analyzed the genomic landscape of CTCs from 29 MM patients, including eight cases with matched/paired bone marrow (BM) tumor cells. Our results show that 100% of clonal mutations in patient BM were detected in CTCs and that 99% of clonal mutations in CTCs were present in BM MM. These include typical driver mutations in MM such as in KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF. These data suggest that BM and CTC samples have similar clonal structures, as discordances between the two were restricted to subclonal mutations. Accordingly, our results pave the way for potentially less invasive mutation screening of MM patients through characterization of CTCs.
Autores: Collantes M; Pelacho, Beatriz; Garcia-Velloso, Maria Jose; et al.
ISSN 1479-5876  Vol. 15  Nº 1  2017  págs. 56
PET/CT imaging of 18F-FDG-labeled CSC allows quantifying biodistribution and acute retention of implanted cells in a clinically relevant pig model of chronic myocardial infarction. Similar levels of acute retention are achieved when cells are IM or IC administered. However, acute cell retention does not correlate with cell engraftment, which is improved by IM injection.
Autores: Seckinger A; Delgado, JA; Moser S; et al.
ISSN 1535-6108  Vol. 31  Nº 3  2017  págs. 396 - 410
We identified B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) as a potential therapeutic target in 778 newly diagnosed and relapsed myeloma patients. We constructed an IgG-based BCMA-T cell bispecific antibody (EM801) and showed that it increased CD3(+) T cell/myeloma cell crosslinking, followed by CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell activation, and secretion of interferon-gamma, granzyme B, and perforin. This effect is CD4 and CD8 T cell mediated. EM801 induced, at nanomolar concentrations, myeloma cell death by autologous T cells in 34 of 43 bone marrow aspirates, including those from high-risk patients and patients after multiple lines of treatment, tumor regression in six of nine mice in a myeloma xenograft model, and depletion of BCMA(+) cells in cynomolgus monkeys. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics indicate weekly intravenous/subcutaneous administration.
Autores: Andreu, Enrique José; García, María del Rosario; et al.
ISSN 0146-0404  Vol. 58  Nº 2  2017  págs. 745-754
We demonstrated that the combined activation of PI3K/Akt and Smad2 results in in vitro expansion of phenotypic and functional CEC. Expanded cells were able to contribute to restoration of corneal endothelium in a rabbit model. These findings may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating corneal endothelial diseases
Autores: Pascual, Simón; Simon-Yarza, T; Garbayo, Elisa; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 523  Nº 2  2017  págs. 531 - 533
Neuregulin (NRG1) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) are well known growth factors implicated in cardiomyocyte proliferation and survival, as well as in angiogenesis, the development of adult heart and the maintenance of cardiac function. NRG1 and FGF1 have become promising therapeutic agents to treat myocardial infarction (MI) disorder. Unfortunately, clinical trials performed so far reported negative efficacy results, because growth factors are rapidly degraded and eliminated from the biological tissues once administered. In order to increase their bioavailability and favour their therapeutic effects, they have been combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and polyethylene glycol microparticles (PLGA MPs and PEG-PLGA MPs). Here we compare both types of microparticles loaded with NRG1 or FGF1 in terms of efficacy in a rat MI model. Our results showed that intramyocardial injection of NRG1 or FGF1-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLGA MPs brought about similar improvements in the ejection fraction, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis after administration into the infarcted hearts. PEG coating did not add any effect regarding MP efficacy. Both PLGA and PEG-PLGA MPs were equally phagocyted in the heart. To our knowledge, this is the first study analysing the opsonisation process in heart tissue. The results allow us to conclude that the opsonisation process is different in heart tissue compared to blood. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Veiga, A.; Redondo, A.; Villaron, E.; et al.
ISSN 0268-3369  Vol. 52  Nº Supl. 1  2017  págs. S58 - S59
Autores: Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto; Garcia Barvo, M.; Zapata, Natalia María; et al.
ISSN 1525-0016  Vol. 25  Nº 5 Supl.1  2017  págs. 116
Autores: Martínez, Nicolás; Pascual, M.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 130  Nº Supl. 1  2017 
Autores: Bárcena, Sergio; Oyarzabal, Julen; Banales, J. M.; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 66  Nº 1  2017  págs. S76 - S77
Autores: Zabaleta, Nerea; Barberia, M.; Zapata, Natalia María; et al.
ISSN 1525-0016  Vol. 25  Nº 5 Supl.1  2017  págs. 79 - 80
Autores: Ordonez, R.; Kulis, M.; Russinol, N.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 102  Nº Supl. 2  2017  págs. 104 - 105
Autores: Carrasco, A.; Ezponda, Teresa; Meydan, C.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 102  Nº Supl. 4  2017  págs. 10
Autores: Kulis, M.; Russinol, N.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 102  Nº Supl. 4  2017  págs. 11 - 12
Autores: Ezponda, Teresa; Meydan, C.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 102  Nº Supl. 2  2017  págs. 502 - 502
Autores: Cuenca, I. ; Sanchez-Vega, B.; Lourenco, Bruno David; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 102  Nº Supl.2  2017  págs. 106
Autores: Fernández, Marta; Larráyoz, María José; Vázquez, Iria; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 102  Nº Supl. 2  2017  págs. 46 - 46
Autores: Zabaleta, Nerea; Rodriguez, S.; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 28  Nº 12  2017  págs. A11 - A12
Autores: Sanchez, M. ; Anitua, E.; Delgado, D.; et al.
ISSN 1471-2598  Vol. 16  Nº 5  2016  págs. 627 - 643
Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a mechanically induced, cytokine and enzyme-mediated disorder involving all the joint tissue of the knee. Rebuilding a physiological-homeostatic network at the tissue level following knee organ failure, such as in severe KOA, is a daunting task with therapeutic targets encompassing the articular cartilage, synovium and subchondral bone. Intraarticular infiltration of plasma rich in growth factors (PRP) has emerged as a promising symptomatic approach, although it is insufficient to reach the subchondral bone. Areas covered: This review addresses current molecular and cellular data in joint homeostasis and osteoarthritis pathophysiology. In particular, it focuses on changes that subchondral bone undergoes in knee osteoarthritis and evaluates recent observations on the crosstalk among articular cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial membrane. In addition, we review some mechanistic aspects that have been proposed and provide the rationale for using PRP intraosseously in KOA. Expert opinion: The knee joint is a paradigm of autonomy and connectedness of its anatomical structures and tissues from which it is made. We propose an innovative approach to the treatment of severe knee osteoarthritis consisting of a combination of intraarticular and intraosseous infiltrations of PRP, which might offer a new therapeutic tool in KOA therapy.
Autores: Garbayo, Elisa; Gavira, Juan José; García de Yébenes, Manuel; et al.
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 6  2016  págs. 25932
Cardiovascular protein therapeutics such as neuregulin (NRG1) and acidic-fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) requires new formulation strategies that allow for sustained bioavailability of the drug in the infarcted myocardium. However, there is no FDA-approved injectable protein delivery platform due to translational concerns about biomaterial administration through cardiac catheters. We therefore sought to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous intramyocardial injection of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles (MPs) loaded with NRG1 and FGF1 using the NOGA MYOSTAR injection catheter in a porcine model of ischemia-reperfusion. NRG1- and FGF1-loaded MPs were prepared using a multiple emulsion solvent-evaporation technique. Infarcted pigs were treated one week after ischemia-reperfusion with MPs containing NRG1, FGF1 or non-loaded MPs delivered via clinically-translatable percutaneous transendocardial-injection. Three months post-treatment, echocardiography indicated a significant improvement in systolic and diastolic cardiac function. Moreover, improvement in bipolar voltage and decrease in transmural infarct progression was demonstrated by electromechanical NOGA-mapping. Functional benefit was associated with an increase in myocardial vascularization and remodeling. These findings in a large animal model of ischemia-reperfusion demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of using MPs as a delivery system for growth factors and provide strong evidence to move forward with clinical studies using therapeutic proteins combined with catheter-compatible biomaterials.
Autores: Ripalda, Purificación; Lopez-Martinez, T. ; et al.
ISSN 1066-5099  Vol. 34  Nº 9  2016  págs. 2342 - 2353
Fracture nonunion is a major complication of bone fracture regeneration and repair. The molecular mechanisms that result in fracture nonunion appearance are not fully determined. We hypothesized that fracture nonunion results from the failure of hypoxia and hematoma, the primary signals in response to bone injury, to trigger Bmp2 expression by mesenchymal progenitor cells (MSCs). Using a model of nonstabilized fracture healing in transgenic 5'Bmp2BAC mice we determined that Bmp2 expression appears in close association with hypoxic tissue and hematoma during the early phases of fracture healing. In addition, BMP2 expression is induced when human periosteum explants are exposed to hypoxia ex vivo. Transient interference of hypoxia signaling in vivo with PX-12, a thioredoxin inhibitor, results in reduced Bmp2 expression, impaired fracture callus formation and atrophic-like nonunion by a HIF-1 alpha independent mechanism. In isolated human periosteum-derived MSCs, BMP2 expression could be induced with the addition of platelets concentrate lysate but not with hypoxia treatment, confirming HIF-1 alpha-independent BMP2 expression. Interestingly, in isolated human periosteum-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells, inhibition of BMP2 expression by PX-12 is accomplished only under hypoxic conditions seemingly through dis-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In conclusion, we provide evidence of a molecular mechanism of hypoxia-dependent BMP2 expression in MSCs where interference with ROS homeostasis specifies fracture nonunion-like appearance in vivo through inhibition of Bmp2 expression.
Autores: Sanchez, M.; Delgado, D.; Sanchez, P. ; et al.
ISSN 2314-6133  Nº 4868613  2016 
The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach to treating severe knee osteoarthritis by targeting synovial membrane, superficial articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and subchondral bone by combining intra-articular injections and intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma. We explored a new strategy consisting of intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma into the subchondral bone in combination with the conventional intra-articular injection in order to tackle several knee joint tissues simultaneously. We assessed the clinical outcomes through osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the inflammatory response by quantifying mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid. There was a significant pain reduction in the KOOS from baseline (61.55 +/- 14.11) to week 24 (74.60 +/- 19.19), after treatment (p = 0.008), in the secondary outcomes (symptoms, p = 0.004; ADL, p = 0.022; sport/rec., p = 0.017; QOL, p = 0.012), as well as VAS score (p < 0.001) and Lequesne Index (p = 0.008). The presence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid and colony-forming cells one week after treatment decreased substantially from 7.98 +/- 8.21 MSC/mu L to 4.04 +/- 5.36 MSC/mu L (p = 0.019) and from 601.75 +/- 312.30 to 139.19 +/- 123.61 (p = 0.012), respectively. Intra-articular injections combined with intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma reduce pain and mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid, besides significantly improving knee joint function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This trial is registered on EudraCT with the number 2013-003982-32.
Autores: Lourenco, Bruno David; Mateos, MV.; Sanchez Abarca, LI.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 127  Nº 9  2016  págs. 1151 - 1162
There is significant interest in immunotherapy for the treatment of high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), but no available data on the immune status of this particular disease stage. Such information is important to understand the interplay between immunosurveillance and disease transformation, but also to define whether patients with high-risk SMM might benefit from immunotherapy. Here, we have characterized T lymphocytes (including CD4, CD8, T-cell receptor ¿¿, and regulatory T cells), natural killer (NK) cells, and dendritic cells from 31 high-risk SMM patients included in the treatment arm of the QUIREDEX trial, and with longitudinal peripheral blood samples at baseline and after 3 and 9 cycles of lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (LenDex). High-risk SMM patients showed at baseline decreased expression of activation-(CD25/CD28/CD54), type 1 T helper-(CD195/interferon-¿/tumor necrosis factor-¿/interleukin-2), and proliferation-related markers (CD119/CD120b) as compared with age-matched healthy individuals. However, LenDex was able to restore the normal expression levels for those markers and induced a marked shift in T-lymphocyte and NK-cell phenotype. Accordingly, high-risk SMM patients treated with LenDex showed higher numbers of functionally active T lymphocytes. Together, our results indicate that high-risk SMM patients have an impaired immune system that could be reactivated by the immunomodulatory effects of lenalidomide, even when combined with low-dos
Autores: Robles, Eloy Francisco; Barrio, L.; Merino-Cortés, S. V.; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 7  2016  págs. 11889
NKX2 homeobox family proteins have a role in cancer development. Here we show that NKX2-3 is overexpressed in tumour cells from a subset of patients with marginal-zone lymphomas, but not with other B-cell malignancies. While Nkx2-3-deficient mice exhibit the absence of marginal-zone B cells, transgenic mice with expression of NKX2-3 in B cells show marginal-zone expansion that leads to the development of tumours, faithfully recapitulating the principal clinical and biological features of human marginal-zone lymphomas. NKX2-3 induces B-cell receptor signalling by phosphorylating Lyn/Syk kinases, which in turn activate multiple integrins (LFA-1, VLA-4), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, MadCAM-1) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These molecules enhance migration, polarization and homing of B cells to splenic and extranodal tissues, eventually driving malignant transformation through triggering NF-¿B and PI3K-AKT pathways. This study implicates oncogenic NKX2-3 in lymphomagenesis, and provides a valid experimental mouse model for studying the biology and therapy of human marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas
Autores: Moschetta, M.; Mishima, Y.; Kawano, Y. ; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 30  Nº 5  2016  págs. 1103 - 1115
The role of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated vasculogenesis in hematological malignancies is not well explored. Here, we showed that EPCs are mobilized from the bone marrow (BM) to the peripheral blood at early stages of multiple myeloma (MM); and recruited to MM cell-colonized BM niches. Using EPC-defective ID1+/- ID3-/- mice, we found that MM tumor progression is dependent on EPC trafficking. By performing RNA-sequencing studies, we confirmed that endothelial cells can enhance proliferation and favor cell-cycle progression only in MM clones that are smoldering-like and have dependency on endothelial cells for tumor growth. We further confirmed that angiogenic dependency occurs early and not late during tumor progression in MM. By using a VEGFR2 antibody with anti-vasculogenic activity, we demonstrated that early targeting of EPCs delays tumor progression, while using the same agent at late stages of tumor progression is ineffective. Thus, although there is significant angiogenesis in myeloma, the dependency of the tumor cells on EPCs and vasculogenesis may actually precede this step. Manipulating vasculogenesis at an early stage of disease may be examined in clinical trials in patients with smoldering MM, and other hematological malignancies with precursor conditions.
Autores: Zapata, Natalia María; Rodríguez, Saray; Mazo, Manuel María; et al.
ISSN 1873-5061  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2016  págs. 20 - 23
In this work, mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSCs) were used for the generation of the human-induced pluripotent stem cell line G15.AO. Cell reprogramming was performed using retroviral vectors containing the Yamanaka factors, and the generated G15.AO hiPSC line showed normal karyotype, silencing of the exogenous reprogramming factors, induction of the typical pluripotency-associated markers, alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity, and in vivo and in vitro differentiation ability to the three germ layers.
Autores: Arellano-Viera, E.; et al.
ISSN 1873-5061  Vol. 16  Nº 3  2016  págs. 617 - 621
Mef2c Anterior Heart Field (AHF) enhancer is activated during embryonic heart development and it is expressed in multipotent cardiovascular progenitors (CVP) giving rise to endothelial and myocardial components of the outflow tract, right ventricle and ventricular septum. Here we have generated iPSC from transgenic Mef2c-AHF-Cre x Ai6(RCLZsGreen) mice. These iPSC will provide a novel tool to investigate the AHF-CVP and their cell progeny. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Autores: Dauwe, D.; Pelacho, Beatriz; Wibowo, A.; et al.
ISSN 2047-9980  Vol. 5  Nº 4  2016  págs. e002288
BOECs can be successfully culture-expanded from patients with ICMP. In contrast to impaired functionality of ICMP-derived bone marrow MNCs, BOECs retain a robust proangiogenic profile, both in vitro and in vivo, with therapeutic potential for targeting ischemic disease.
Autores: Kumar, A. ; Rodríguez, Saray; Atari, M. ; et al.
ISSN 0301-4681  Vol. 92  Nº 5  2016  págs. 249 - 256
Efficient induction of defined lineages in pluripotent stem cells constitutes the determinant step for the generation of therapeutically relevant replacement cells to potentially treat a wide range of diseases, including diabetes. Pancreatic differentiation has remained an important challenge in large part because of the need to differentiate uncommitted pluripotent stem cells into highly specialized hormone-secreting cells, which has been shown to require a developmentally informed step-by-step induction procedure. Here, in the framework of using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate pancreatic cells for pancreatic diseases, we have generated and characterized iPSCs from Pdxl-GFP transgenic mice. The use of a GFP reporter knocked into the endogenous Pdxl promoter allowed us to monitor pancreatic induction based on the expression of Pdxl, a pancreatic master transcription factor, and to isolate a pure Pdxl-GFP(+) population for downstream applications. Differentiated cultures timely expressed markers specific to each stage and end-stage progenies acquired a rather immature beta-cell phenotype, characterized by polyhormonal expression even among cells highly expressing the Pdxl-GFP reporter. Our findings highlight the utility of employing a fluorescent protein reporter under the control of a master developmental gene in order to devise novel differentiation protocols for relevant cell types for degenerative diseases such as pancreatic beta cells for diabetes. (C) 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: D'Avola, Delia; Carmona, Francisco de Asís; Miriam Méndez; et al.
ISSN 1931-5244  Vol. 188  Nº S1931-5244(16)00063-3  2016  págs. 80 - 91
The aim of this nonrandomized, open label, phase 1 clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of the treatment with autologous bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in decompensated liver cirrhosis. In addition, the changes in liver function and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and their relation with the characteristics of the cellular product were analyzed. Twelve patients with Child-Pugh ¿8 liver cirrhosis underwent bone marrow harvest for ex vivo differentiation of EPC. The final product was administered through the hepatic artery in a single administration. Patients underwent clinical and radiologic follow-up for 12 months. The phenotype and the ability to produce cytokines and growth factors of the final cellular suspension were analyzed. Eleven patients were treated (feasibility 91%). No treatment-related severe adverse events were observed as consequence of any study procedure or treatment. Model for end-stage liver disease score improved significantly (P 0.042) in the first 90 days after cells administration and 5 of the 9 patients alive at 90 days showed a decreased of HVPG. There was a direct correlation between the expression of acetylated-low density lipoprotein and von Willebrand factor in the cellular product and the improvement in liver function and HVPG. The treatment with EPCs in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis is safe and feasible and might have therapeutic potential. Patients receiving a higher amount
Autores: Mora, Gonzalo; Blanco JF; et al.
ISSN 1479-5876  Vol. 14  Nº 1  2016  págs. 246
The single intraarticular injection of in vitro expanded autologous BM-MSCs together with HA is a safe and feasible procedure that results in a clinical and functional improvement of knee OA, especially when 100 × 10(6) cells are administered. These results pave the way for a future phase III clinical trial.
Autores: Lourenco, Bruno David; Martinez-Lopez, J.; Corchete, L. A. ; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 127  Nº 24  2016  págs. 3035 - 3039
Immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis (AL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are 2 distinct monoclonal gammopathies that involve the same cellular compartment: clonal plasma cells (PCs). Despite the fact that knowledge about MM PC biology has significantly increased in the last decade, the same does not apply for AL. Here, we used an integrative phenotypic, molecular, and genomic approach to study clonal PCs from 24 newly diagnosed patients with AL. Through principal-component-analysis, we demonstrated highly overlapping phenotypic profiles between AL and both monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and MM PCs. However, in contrast to MM, highly purified fluorescence-activated cell-sorted clonal PCs from AL (n = 9) showed almost normal transcriptome, with only 38 deregulated genes vs normal PCs; these included a few tumor-suppressor (CDH1, RCAN) and proapoptotic (GLIPR1, FAS) genes. Notwithstanding, clonal PCs in AL (n=11) were genomically unstable, with a median of 9 copy number alterations (CNAs) per case, many of such CNAs being similar to those found in MM. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) performed in 5 AL patients revealed a median of 15 nonrecurrent mutations per case. Altogether, our results show that in the absence of a unifying mutation by WES, clonal PCs in AL display phenotypic and CNA profiles similar to MM, but their transcriptome is remarkably similar to that of normal PCs.
Autores: Zapata, Natalia María; Rodríguez, Saray; Salido, E.; et al.
ISSN 1873-5061  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2016  págs. 116 - 119
In this work we describe for the first time the generation and characterization of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and dermal fibroblasts of a Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PH1)-diagnosed patient with p.I244T mutation, which is highly prevalent in Canary Islands due to founder effect. Cell reprogramming was performed using non-integrative Sendai viruses containing the Yamanaka factors and the generated PH1-hiPSC lines (PH1-PBMCs-hiPSC4F1 and PH1-Fib-hiPSC4F1) showed normal karyotypes, silencing of the exogenous reprogramming factors, induction of the typical pluripotency-associated markers and in vivo differentiation ability to the three germ layers
Autores: Delgado, D.; Sanchez, P. ; et al.
ISSN 1687-966X  Nº 1247950  2016 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular (IA) or a combination of intra-articular and intraosseous (IO) infiltration of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) on the cellular content of synovial fluid (SF) of osteoarthritic patients. Thirty-one patients received a single infiltration of PRP either in the IA space (n=14) or in the IA space together with two IO infiltrations, one in the medial femoral condyle and one in the tibial plateau (n=17). SF was collected before and after one week of the infiltration. The presence in the SF of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), monocytes, and lymphocytes was determined and quantified by flow cytometry. The number and identity of the MSCs were further confirmed by colony-forming and differentiation assays. PRP infiltration into the subchondral bone (SB) and the IA space induced a reduction in the population of MSCs in the SF. This reduction in MSCs was further confirmed by colony-forming (CFU-F) assay. On the contrary, IA infiltration alone did not cause variations in any of the cellular populations by flow cytometry or CFU-F assay. The SF of osteoarthritic patients contains a population of MSCs that can be modulated by PRP infiltration of the SB compartment.
Autores: Mateos, M. V. ; Hernandez, M. T. ; Giraldo, P.; et al.
ISSN 1470-2045  Vol. 17  Nº 8  2016  págs. 1127 - 1136
Background The standard of care for smouldering multiple myeloma is observation. We did the QuiRedex study to compare early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone with observation in patients with high-risk smouldering multiple myeloma. Here we report the long-term follow-up results of the trial. Methods We did this open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 study at 19 centres in Spain and three centres in Portugal. Patients aged 18 years or older with high-risk smouldering multiple myeloma were randomly assigned (1: 1), via a computerised random number generator, to receive either early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone or observation, with dynamic balancing to maintain treatment balance within the two groups. Randomisation was stratified by time from diagnosis of smouldering multiple myeloma to study enrolment (<= 6 months vs >6 months). Patients in the treatment group received nine 4-week induction cycles (lenalidomide 25 mg per day on days 1-21, plus dexamethasone 20 mg per day on days-1-4 and days 12-15), followed by maintenance therapy (lenalidomide 10 mg per day on days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle) up to 2 years. Group allocation was not masked from study investigators or patients. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to progression to symptomatic myeloma. The primary analysis was based on the per-protocol population, restricted to patients who fulfilled the protocol in terms of eligibility. Safety assessments were based on the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with, number NCT00480363. Findings Between Nov 8, 2007, and June 9, 2010, 125 patients were enrolled and underwent randomisation. 119 patients comprised the per-protocol population and were randomly assigned to receive either lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (n=57) or observation (n=62). The cutoff date for this update was June 30, 2015. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 75 months (IQR 67-85). Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone continued to provide a benefit on time to progression compared with observation (median time to progression not reached [95% CI 47 months-not reached] vs 23 months [16-31]; hazard ratio [HR] 0.24 [95% CI 0.14-0.41]; p<0.0001). Progression to multiple myeloma occurred in 53 (86%) of 62 patients in the observation group compared with 22 (39%) of 57 patients in the treatment group. At data cutoff, ten (18%) patients had died in the treatment group and 22 (36%) patients had died in the observation group; median overall survival from the time of study entry had not been reached in either group (95% CI 65 months-not reached vs 53 months-not reached; HR 0.43 [95% CI 0.21-0.92], p=0.024). Survival in patients who had received subsequent treatments at the time of progression to active disease did not differ between groups (HR 1.34 [95% CI 0.54-3.30]; p=0.50). The most frequently reported grade 3 adverse events in patients given lenalidomide plus dexamethasone were infection (four [6%]), asthenia (four [6%]), neutropenia (three [5%]), and skin rash (two [3%]); these events all occurred during induction therapy. No grade 4 adverse events occurred, but one (2%) patient in the lenalidomide plus dexamethasone group died from a respiratory infection during induction therapy The frequency of second primary malignancies was higher in patients in the treatment group than in those in the observation group (six [10%] of 62 patients vs one [2%] of 63 patients), but the cumulative risk of development did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.070). Interpretation This study is, to our knowledge, the first randomised trial in which early treatment has been assessed in selected patients with high-risk smouldering multiple myeloma. Positive results from ongoing trials would support the use of early treatment for patients with high-risk disease in the near future.
Autores: Alignani, D.; Delgado, JA; et al.
ISSN 1749-4478  Vol. 41  Nº 5  2016  págs. 606-611
Autores: Ripalda, Purificación; Lopez-Martinez, T. ; et al.
ISSN 1063-4584  Vol. 24  Nº Supl  2016  págs. S144
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 1063-4584  Vol. 24  2016  págs. S162
Autores: Kulis, M. ; Ordonez, R. ; Russinol, N.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Baixauli, J; Núñez, Jorge María; Garcia-Olmo, D.; et al.
ISSN 1462-8910  Vol. 18  Nº Supl. 1  2016  págs. 24
Autores: Moreno, Laura; Delgado, JA; Seckinger, A.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 101  Nº Supl.4  2016  págs. 21
Autores: Mateos, M. V. ; Hernandez, M. T. ; Giraldo, P.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Seckinger, A.; Delgado, JA; Moreno, L.; et al.
ISSN 2296-5270  Vol. 39  Nº Supl.3  2016  págs. 207 - 208
Autores: Lopez-Onieva, L.; Montes, R. ; Lamolda, M.; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 27  Nº 11  2016  págs. A56
Autores: Zabaleta, N.; Barberia, M.; Zapata, Natalia María; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 27  Nº 11  2016  págs. A130
Autores: Moreno, L.; Zabaleta, Aintzane; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Sanoja-Flores, L.; Flores-Montero, J.; Paiva, B.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 101  Nº Supl.4  2016  págs. 22
Autores: Figueroa, Rocío; Marcos-Jubilar, María; García, Berta; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 101  Nº Supl. 1  2016  págs. 524
Autores: Lourenco, Bruno David; Puig, N. ; Cedena, M. T.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Moreno, L. ; Zabaleta, A.; Alignani, D.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Zabaleta, Nerea; Barberia, M.; Zapata, Natalia María; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 27  Nº 11  2016  págs. A139 - A140
Autores: Burgos, Leire; Garcés, Juan-José; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Bretones, G.; Lourenco, Bruno David; Valdes-Mas, R.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Veiga, A.; Redondo, A.; Villaron, E.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 101  Nº Supl.4  2016  págs. 63
Autores: Arana P.; Zabaleta, A.; Lasa, M. ; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Carrasco, A.; Ezponda, Teresa; Meydan, C.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 128  Nº 22  2016 
Autores: Pascual-Gil, S.; Garbayo, Elisa; Díaz, Paula; et al.
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 203  2015  págs. 23 - 38
Myocardial infarction causes almost 7.3 million deaths each year worldwide. However, current treatments are more palliative than curative. Presently, cell and protein therapies are considered the most promising alternative treatments. Clinical trials performed until now have demonstrated that these therapies are limited by protein short half¿life and by low transplanted cell survival rate, prompting the development of novel cell and protein delivery systems able to overcome such limitations. In this review we discuss the advances made in the last 10 years in the emerging field of cardiac repair using biomaterial¿based delivery systems with focus on the progress made on preclinical in vivo studies. Then, we focus in cardiac tissue engineering approaches, and how the incorporation of both cells and proteins together into biomaterials has opened new horizons in the myocardial infarction treatment. Finally, the ongoing challenges and the perspectives for future work in cardiac tissue engineering will also be discussed.
Autores: Gurruchaga, H.; Ciriza , J.; Saenz del Burgo, L.; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 485  Nº 1 - 2  2015  págs. 15 - 24
The ability to cryopreserve and store for long term the structure and function of therapeutic cells and tissues plays a pivotal role in clinical medicine. In fact, it is an essential pre-requisite for the commercial and clinical application of stem cells since preserves cells at low temperature and creates a reserve for future uses. This requisite may also affect the encapsulated stem cells. Several parameters should be considered on encapsulated cell cryopreservation such as the time and temperature during the cryopreservation process, or the cryoprotectant solutions used. In this study, we have compared the influence of penetrating and nonpenetrating cryoprotectants on the viability and functionality of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells genetically modified to secrete erythropoeitin. Several cryoprotectant solutions combining DMSO, glycerol and trehalose at different concentrations were studied. Although almost no differences among the studied cryoprotectant solutions were observed on the differentiation potential of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells, the penetrating cryoprotectant DMSO at a concentration of 10% displayed the best viability and erythropoietin secretion profile compared to the other cryoprotectant solutions. These results were confirmed after subcutaneous implantation of thawed encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells secreting erythropoeitin on Balb/c mice. The hematocrit levels of these animals increased to similar levels of those detected on animals transplanted with noncryopreserved encapsulated cells. Therefore, DMSO 10% represents the most suitable cryoprotectant solution among the solutions here studied, for encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells cryopreservation and its translation into the clinic. Similar studies should be performed for the encapsulation of other cell types before they can be translated into the clinic.
Autores: Garate, Z.; Quintana-Bustamante, O. ; Crane, A. M. ; et al.
ISSN 2213-6711  Vol. 5  Nº 6  2015  págs. 1053 - 1066
Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a rare erythroid metabolic disease caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. Erythrocytes from PKD patients show an energetic imbalance causing chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, as pyruvate kinase defects impair ATP production in erythrocytes. We generated PKD induced pluripotent stem cells (PKDiPSCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) of PKD patients by non-integrative Sendai viral vectors. PKDiPSCs were gene edited to integrate a partial codon-optimized R-type pyruvate kinase cDNA in the second intron of the PKLR gene by TALEN-mediated homologous recombination (HR). Notably, we found allele specificity of HR led by the presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism. High numbers of erythroid cells derived from gene-edited PKDiPSCs showed correction of the energetic imbalance, providing an approach to correct metabolic erythroid diseases and demonstrating the practicality of this approach to generate the large cell numbers required for comprehensive biochemical and metabolic erythroid analyses.
Autores: Kulis, M.; Merkel, A.; Heath, S.; et al.
ISSN 1061-4036  Vol. 47  Nº 7  2015  págs. 746 -56
We analyzed the DNA methylome of ten subpopulations spanning the entire B cell differentiation program by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density microarrays. We observed that non-CpG methylation disappeared upon B cell commitment, whereas CpG methylation changed extensively during B cell maturation, showing an accumulative pattern and affecting around 30% of all measured CpG sites. Early differentiation stages mainly displayed enhancer demethylation, which was associated with upregulation of key B cell transcription factors and affected multiple genes involved in B cell biology. Late differentiation stages, in contrast, showed extensive demethylation of heterochromatin and methylation gain at Polycomb-repressed areas, and genes with apparent functional impact in B cells were not affected. This signature, which has previously been linked to aging and cancer, was particularly widespread in mature cells with an extended lifespan. Comparing B cell neoplasms with their normal counterparts, we determined that they frequently acquire methylation changes in regions already undergoing dynamic methylation during normal B cell differentiation.
Autores: Anitua, E.; Pelacho, Beatriz; Prado, R. ; et al.
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 202  2015  págs. 31 - 39
PRGF is a platelet concentrate within a plasma suspension that forms an in situ-generated fibrin-matrix delivery system, releasing multiple growth factors and other bioactive molecules that play key roles in tissue regeneration. This study was aimed at exploring the angiogenic and myogenic effects of PRGF on in vitro endothelial cells (HUVEC) and skeletal myoblasts (hSkMb) as well as on in vivo mouse subcutaneously implanted matrigel and on limb muscles after a severe ischemia. Human PRGF was prepared and characterized. Both proliferative and anti-apoptotic responses to PRGF were assessed in vitro in HUVEC and hSkMb. In vivo murine matrigel plug assay was conducted to determine the angiogenic capacity of PRGF, whereas in vivo ischemic hind limb model was carried out to demonstrate PRGF-driven vascular and myogenic regeneration. Primary HUVEC and hSkMb incubated with PRGF showed a dose dependent proliferative and anti-apoptotic effect and the PRGF matrigel plugs triggered an early and significant sustained angiogenesis compared with the control group. Moreover, mice treated with PRGF intramuscular infiltrations displayed a substantial reperfusion enhancement at day 28 associated with a fibrotic tissue reduction. These findings suggest that PRGF-induced angiogenesis is functionally effective at expanding the perfusion capacity of the new vasculature and attenuating the endogenous tissue fibrosis after a severe-induced skeletal muscle ischemia. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Pascual, Simón; Simon-Yarza, T.; Garbayo, Elisa; et al.
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 220  2015  págs. 388 - 396
The growth factor neuregulin (NRG) is one of the most promising candidates in protein therapy as potential treatment for myocardial infarction (MI). In the last few years, biomaterial based delivery systems, such as polymeric microparticles (MPs) made of poly(lactic co glycolic acid) and polyethylene glycol (PLGA and PEG-PLGA MPs), have improved the efficacy of protein therapy in preclinical studies. However, no cardiac treatment based on MPs has yet been commercialized since this is a relatively new field and total characterization of polymeric MPs remains mandatory before they reach the clinical arena. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the in vivo release, bioactivity and biodegradation of PLGA and PEG-PLGA MPs loaded with biotinylated NRG in a rat model of MI. The effect of PEGylation in the clearance of the particles from the cardiac tissue was also evaluated. Interestingly, MPs were detected in the cardiac tissue for up to 12 weeks after administration. In vivo release analysis showed that bNRG was released in a controlled manner throughout the twelve week study. Moreover, the biological cardiomyocyte receptor (ErbB4) for NRG was detected in its activated form only in those animals treated with bNRG loaded MPs. On the other hand, the PEGylation strategy was effective in diminishing phagocytosis of these MPs compared to noncoated MPs in the long term(12 weeks after injection). Taking all this together, we report new evidence in favor of the use of polymeric PLGA and PEG-PLGA MPs as delivery systems for treating MI, which could be soon included in clinical trials. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Simon-Yarza, T; Rossi, A.; Heffels, K. H.; et al.
ISSN 1076-3279  Vol. 21  Nº 9-10  2015  págs. 1654 - 1661
Cardiovascular disease represents one of the major health challenges in modern times and is the number one cause of death globally. Thus, numerous studies are under way to identify effective cell- and/or growth factor-based therapies for repairing damaged cardiac tissue. In this regard, improving the engraftment or survival of regenerative cells and prolonging growth factor exposure have become fundamental goals in advancing these therapeutic approaches. Therefore, biomaterials have emerged as innovative scaffolds for the delivery of both cells and proteins in tissue engineering applications. In the present study, electrospinning was used to generate smooth homogenous polymeric fibers, which consisted of a PLGA/NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) polymer blend encapsulating the cardioactive growth factor, Neuregulin-1 (Nrg). We evaluated the biocompatibility and degradation of this Nrg-containing biomaterial in a rat model of myocardial ischemia. Following implantation, histological analysis revealed the presence of an initial acute inflammatory response, which was followed by a chronic inflammatory phase, characterized by the presence of giant cells. Notably, the scaffold remained in the heart after 3 months. Furthermore, increase in the M2:M1 macrophage ratio following implantation suggested the induction of constructive tissue remodeling. Taken together, the combination of Nrg-encapsulating scaffolds with cells capable of inducing cardiac regeneration could represent an ambitious and promising therapeutic strategy for repairing diseased or damaged myocardial tissue.
Autores: Ruiz-Villalba, A.; Pogontke, C. ; et al.
ISSN 0735-1097  Vol. 65  Nº 19  2015  págs. 2057 - 2066
BACKGROUND Although efforts continue to find new therapies to regenerate infarcted heart tissue, knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remains poor. OBJECTIVES This study sought to identify the origin of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in the infarcted heart to better understand the pathophysiology of ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS Permanent genetic tracing of epicardium-derived cell (EPDC) and bone marrow-derived blood cell (BMC) lineages was established using Cre/LoxP technology. In vivo gene and protein expression studies, as well as in vitro culture assays, were developed to characterize EPDC and BMC interaction and properties. RESULTS EPDCs, which colonize the cardiac interstitium during embryogenesis, massively differentiate into CFs MI. This response is disease-specific, because angiotensin II-induced pressure overload does not trigger significant fibroblastic differentiation. The expansion of epicardial-derived CFs follows BMC infiltration into the infarct site; the number of EPDCs equals that of BMCs 1 week post-infarction. BMC-EPDC interaction leads to cell polarization, massive collagen deposition, and scar formation. Moreover, epicardium-derived CFs display stromal properties with respect to BMCs, contributing to the sustained recruitment of circulating cells to the damaged zone and the cardiac persistence of hematopoietic progenitors/stem cells after MI. CONCLUSIONS EPDCs, but not BMCs, are the main origin of CFs in the ischemic heart. Adult resident EPDC contribution to the CF compartment is time-and disease-dependent. Our findings are relevant to the understanding of postventricular remodeling and may contribute to the development of new therapies to treat this disease. (C) 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Autores: Coppiello, Giulia; Collantes M; Sirerol-Piquer, M. S.; et al.
ISSN 0009-7322  Vol. 131  Nº 9  2015  págs. 815 - 826
Background-Microvascular endothelium in different organs is specialized to fulfill the particular needs of parenchymal cells. However, specific information about heart capillary endothelial cells (ECs) is lacking. Methods and Results-Using microarray profiling on freshly isolated ECs from heart, brain, and liver, we revealed a genetic signature for microvascular heart ECs and identified Meox2/Tcf15 heterodimers as novel transcriptional determinants. This signature was largely shared with skeletal muscle and adipose tissue endothelium and was enriched in genes encoding fatty acid (FA) transport-related proteins. Using gain-and loss-of-function approaches, we showed that Meox2/Tcf15 mediate FA uptake in heart ECs, in part, by driving endothelial CD36 and lipoprotein lipase expression and facilitate FA transport across heart ECs. Combined Meox2 and Tcf15 haplodeficiency impaired FA uptake in heart ECs and reduced FA transfer to cardiomyocytes. In the long term, this combined haplodeficiency resulted in impaired cardiac contractility. Conclusions-Our findings highlight a regulatory role for ECs in FA transfer to the heart parenchyma and unveil 2 of its intrinsic regulators. Our insights could be used to develop new strategies based on endothelial Meox2/Tcf15 targeting to modulate FA transfer to the heart and remedy cardiac dysfunction resulting from altered energy substrate usage.
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; Sancho, Ana; et al.
ISSN 1937-3341  Vol. 21  Nº 43017  2015  págs. 1633 - 1641
Substrate stiffness, biochemical composition, and matrix topography deeply influence cell behavior, guiding motility, proliferation, and differentiation responses. The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the stiffness and protein composition of the underlying substrate has on the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and the potential synergy with specific soluble cues. With that purpose, murine iPS-derived embryoid bodies (iPS-EBs) were seeded on fibronectin- or collagen I-coated polyacrylamide (pAA) gels of tunable stiffness (0.6, 14, and 50 kPa) in the presence of basal medium; tissue culture polystyrene plates were employed as control. Specification of iPS cells toward the three germ layers was analyzed, detecting an increase of tissue-specific gene markers in the pAA matrices. Interestingly, soft matrix (0.6 kPa) coated with fibronectin favored differentiation toward cardiac and neural lineages and, in the case of neural differentiation, the effect was potentiated by the addition of specific soluble factors. The generation of mature astrocytes, neural cells, and cardiomyocytes was further proven by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In summary, this work emphasizes the importance of using biomimetic matrices to accomplish a more specific and mature differentiation of stem cells for future therapeutic applications.
Autores: Baumgartner, S.; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto; et al.
ISSN 1547-3287  Vol. 24  Nº 4  2015  págs. 484 - 496
Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) are often electrophysiologically immature and heterogeneous, which represents a major barrier to their in vitro and in vivo application. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether Neuregulin-1 beta (NRG-1 beta) treatment could enhance in vitro generation of mature "working-type" CMs from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and assess the regenerative effects of these CMs on cardiac tissue after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). With that purpose, adult mouse fibroblast-derived iPS from alpha-MHC-GFP mice were derived and differentiated into CMs through NRG-1 beta and/or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. Cardiac specification and maturation of the iPS was analyzed by gene expression array, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and patch-clamp techniques. In vivo, the iPS-derived CMs or culture medium control were injected into the peri-infarct region of hearts after coronary artery ligation, and functional and histology changes were assessed from 1 to 8 weeks post-transplantation. On differentiation, the iPS displayed early and robust in vitro cardiogenesis, expressing cardiac-specific genes and proteins. More importantly, electrophysiological studies demonstrated that a more mature ventricular-like cardiac phenotype was achieved when cells were treated with NRG-1 beta and DMSO compared with DMSO alone. Furthermore, in vivo studies demonstrated that iPS-derived CMs were able to engraft and electromechanically couple to heart tissue, ultimately preserving cardiac function and inducing adequate heart tissue remodeling. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that combined treatment with NRG-1 beta and DMSO leads to efficient differentiation of iPS into ventricular-like cardiac cells with a higher degree of maturation, which are capable of preserving cardiac function and tissue viability when transplanted into a mouse model of AMI.
Autores: Agirre, X; Castellano, G.; Pascual, M.; et al.
ISSN 1088-9051  Vol. 25  Nº 4  2015  págs. 478 - 487
While analyzing the DNA methylome of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell neoplasm, by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density arrays, we observed a highly heterogeneous pattern globally characterized by regional DNA hypermethylation embedded in extensive hypomethylation. In contrast to the widely reported DNA hypermethylation of promoter-associated CpG islands (CGIs) in cancer, hypermethylated sites in MM, as opposed to normal plasma cells, were located outside CpG islands and were unexpectedly associated with intronic enhancer regions defined in normal B cells and plasma cells. Both RNA-seq and in vitro reporter assays indicated that enhancer hypermethylation is globally associated with down-regulation of its host genes. ChIP-seq and DNase-seq further revealed that DNA hypermethylation in these regions is related to enhancer decommissioning. Hypermethylated enhancer regions overlapped with binding sites of B cell-specific transcription factors (TFs) and the degree of enhancer methylation inversely correlated with expression levels of these TFs in MM. Furthermore, hypermethylated regions in MM were methylated in stem cells and gradually became demethylated during normal B-cell differentiation, suggesting that MM cells either reacquire epigenetic features of undifferentiated cells or maintain an epigenetic signature of a putative myeloma stem cell progenitor. Overall, we have identified DNA hypermethylation of developmentally regulated enhancers as a new type of epigenetic modification associated with the pathogenesis of MM.
Autores: Redondo, P. ; Núñez, Jorge María; et al.
ISSN 2168-6068  Vol. 151  Nº 8  2015  págs. 897 - 899
Autores: Lopez-Martinez, T.; Ripalda, Purificación; et al.
ISSN 1063-4584  Vol. 23  Nº Supl.2  2015  págs. A415 - A416
Autores: Lecumberri, Ramón; Sola, I. ; Corrales, Fernando José; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  Nº Supl 4  2015  págs. 99
Autores: Agirre, X; Castellano, G.; Heath, S.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  Nº Supl. 4  2015  págs. 41 - 42
Autores: Sanoja Flores, L.; Lourenco, Bruno David; Flores Montero, J. ; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  Nº Supl 1  2015  págs. 40 - 41
Autores: Mishima, Y. ; Lourenco, Bruno David; Shi, J.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 126  Nº 23  2015 
Autores: Primo, D.; Ballesteros, J. ; Jimenez, A.; et al.
ISSN 2152-2650  Vol. 15  Nº Supl 1  2015  págs. S240 - S241
Autores: Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 1937-3341  Vol. 21  Nº Supl.1  2015  págs. S95
Autores: Lourenco, Bruno David; Mateos, M. V. ; Sanchez-Abarca, L. I.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 126  Nº 23  2015 
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  2015  págs. 27
Autores: Agirre, X; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  Nº Supl 1  2015  págs. 338
Autores: De-Juan-Pardo, E. M. ; Lopez, T.; et al.
ISSN 1937-3341  Vol. 21  2015  págs. S218 - S219
Autores: Sanoja-Flores, L. ; Lourenco, Bruno David; Flores-Montero, J. A.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 126  Nº 23  2015 
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; Rabal, O.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  Nº Supl. 4  2015  págs. 60 - 61
Autores: D'Avola, Delia; Carmona, Francisco de Asís; Mendez, M.; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 62  Nº Supl. 2  2015  págs. S344 - S345
Autores: Fermín Sánchez-Guijo; Teresa Caballero-Velázquez; Olga López-Villar; et al.
ISSN 1083-8791  Vol. 20  Nº 10  2014  págs. 1580 - 1585
We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the administration of 4 sequential doses (intravenously administered on days 1, 4, 11, and 18) of cryopreserved bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) expanded with platelet lysate and obtained from third-party donors as a second-line treatment for steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host (aGVHD) disease in a series of 25 patients. All patients received at least 2 doses of MSC, whereas 21 received 3 doses and 18 received the initially planned 4 doses. Because of the achievement of partial response, 4 patients received additional doses of MSC. Median single cell dose administered was 1.1 × 10(6) MSC/kg of recipient body weight. There were no adverse events related to the MSC infusion in the 99 procedures performed, with the exception of a cardiac ischemic event that occurred twice in a patient with prior history of cardiac ischemia. Response to MSC at 60 days after the first dose was evaluable in 24 patients. Seventeen patients (71%) responded (11 complete and 6 partial responses), with a median time to response of 28 days after the first MSC dose, whereas 7 patients did not respond. In summary, we can conclude that sequential cryopreserved third-party MSC therapy administered on days 1, 4, 11, and 18 is a safe procedure for patients with steroid-refractory aGVHD. This strategy may provide a high rate of overall responses of aGVHD with a low toxicity profile.
Autores: Araña, M; Gavira, Juan José; Pena, E. ; et al.
ISSN 0142-9612  Vol. 35  Nº 1  2014  págs. 143 - 151
Although transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in chronic myocardial infarction (MI) models is associated with functional improvement, its therapeutic value is limited due to poor long-term cell engraftment and survival. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether transplantation of collagen patches seeded with ADSC could enhance cell engraftment and improve cardiac function in models of chronic MI. With that purpose, chronically infarcted Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 58) were divided into four groups and transplanted with media, collagen scaffold (CS), rat ADSC, or CS seeded with rat ADSC (CS-rADSC). Cell engraftment, histological changes, and cardiac function were assessed 4 months after transplantation. In addition, Gottingen minipigs (n = 18) were subjected to MI and then transplanted 2 months later with CS or CS seeded with autologous minipig ADSC (CS-pADSC). Functional and histological assessments were performed 3 months post-transplantation. Transplantation of CS-rADSC was associated with increased cell engraftment, significant improvement in cardiac function, myocardial remodeling, and revascularization. Moreover, transplantation of CS-pADSC in the pre-clinical swine model improved cardiac function and was associated with decreased fibrosis and increased vasculogenesis. In summary, transplantation of CS-ADSC resulted in enhanced cell engraftment and was associated with a significant improvement in cardiac function and myocardial remodeling. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Guarnieri, A; Moreno, Javier; Alfonso, Belén; et al.
ISSN 2222-3959  Vol. 7  Nº 6  2014  págs. 988 - 995
AIM: To assess cultured limbal epithelial stem cell transplantation in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency by analyzing and quantifying corneal neovascularization. METHODS: This retrospective, interventional case series included eight eyes with total limbal stem cell deficiency. Ex vivo limbal epithelial stem cells were cultured on human amniotic membrane using an animal-free culture method. The clinical parameters of limbal stem cell deficiency, impression cytology, and quantification of corneal neovascularization were evaluated before and after cultured limbal stem cell transplantation. The area of corneal neovascularization, vessel caliber (VC), and invasive area (IA) were analyzed before and after stem cell transplantation by image analysis software. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), epithelial transparency, and impression cytology were also measured. RESULTS: One year after surgery, successful cases showed a reduction (improvement) of all three parameters of corneal neovascularization [neovascular area (NA), VC, IA], while failed cases did not. NA decreased a mean of 32.31% (P=0.035), invasion area 29.37% (P=0.018) and VC 14.29% (P=0.072). BCVA improved in all eyes (mean follow-up, 76±21mo). Epithelial transparency improved significantly from 2.00±0.93 to 0.88±1.25 (P=0.014). Impression cytology showed that three cases failed after limbal epithelial stem cell therapy before 1y of follow-up. CONCLUSION: This method of analyzing and monitoring surface vessels is useful for evaluating the epithelial status during follow-up, as successful cases showed a bigger reduction in corneal neovascularization parameters than failed cases. Using this method, successful cases could be differentiated from failed cases.
Autores: Castellano, D. ; Blanes, M. ; Marco, B.; et al.
ISSN 1547-3287  Vol. 23  Nº 13  2014  págs. 1479 - 1490
The development of biomaterials for myocardial tissue engineering requires a careful assessment of their performance with regards to functionality and biocompatibility, including the immune response. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), silk, poly-lactic acid (PLA), and polyamide (PA) scaffolds were generated by electrospinning, and cell compatibility in vitro, and immune response and cardiac function in vitro and in vivo were compared with a noncrosslinked collagen membrane (Col) control material. Results showed that cell adhesion and growth of mesenchymal stem cells, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts in vitro was dependent on the polymer substrate, with PHB and PCL polymers permitting the greatest adhesion/growth of cells. Additionally, polymer substrates triggered unique expression profiles of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Implantation of PCL, silk, PLA, and PA patches on the epicardial surface of healthy rats induced a classical foreign body reaction pattern, with encapsulation of polymer fibers and induction of the nonspecific immune response, whereas Col and PHB patches were progressively degraded. When implanted on infarcted rat heart, Col, PCL, and PHB reduced negative remodeling, but only PHB induced significant angiogenesis. Importantly, Col and PHB modified the inflammatory response to an M2 macrophage phenotype in cardiac tissue, indicating a more beneficial reparative process and remodeling. Collectively, these results identify PHB as a superior substrate for cardiac repair.
Autores: Bobadilla, Miriam; Sáinz, Neira; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 1547-3287  Vol. 23  Nº 12  2014  págs. 1417-1427
The CXCR4/SDF1 axis participates in various cellular processes, including cell migration, which is essential for skeletal muscle repair. Although increasing evidence has confirmed the role of CXCR4/SDF1 in embryonic muscle development, the function of this pathway during adult myogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. In addition, a role for CXCR4 signaling in muscle maintenance and repair has only recently emerged. Here, we have demonstrated that CXCR4 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) are up-regulated in injured muscle, suggesting their involvement in the repair process. In addition, we found that notexin-damaged muscles showed delayed muscle regeneration on treatment with CXCR4 agonist (AMD3100). Accordingly, small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of SDF1 or CXCR4 in injured muscles impaired muscle regeneration, whereas the addition of SDF1 ligand accelerated repair. Furthermore, we identified that CXCR4/SDF1-regulated muscle repair was dependent on matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) activity. Thus, our findings support a model in which MMP-10 activity modulates CXCR4/SDF1 signaling, which is essential for efficient skeletal muscle regeneration.
Autores: Bobadilla, Miriam; Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, José Antonio; et al.
Revista: STEM CELL
ISSN 1945-4570  Vol. 32  Nº 2  2014  págs. 447 - 461
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of endopeptidases that are involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components, have been implicated in skeletal muscle regeneration. Among the MMPs, MMP-2 and MMP-9 are upregulated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a fatal X-linked muscle disorder. However, inhibition or overexpression of specific MMPs in a mouse model of DMD (mdx) has yielded mixed results regarding disease progression, depending on the MMP studied. Here, we have examined the role of MMP-10 in muscle regeneration during injury and muscular dystrophy. We found that skeletal muscle increases MMP-10 protein expression in response to damage (notexin) or disease (mdx mice), suggesting its role in muscle regeneration. In addition, we found that MMP-10-deficient muscles displayed impaired recruitment of endothelial cells, reduced levels of extracellular matrix proteins, diminished collagen deposition, and decreased fiber size, which collectively contributed to delayed muscle regeneration after injury. Also, MMP-10 knockout in mdx mice led to a deteriorated dystrophic phenotype. Moreover, MMP-10 mRNA silencing in injured muscles (wild-type and mdx) reduced muscle regeneration, while addition of recombinant human MMP-10 accelerated muscle repair, suggesting that MMP-10 is required for efficient muscle regeneration. Furthermore, our data suggest that MMP-10-mediated muscle repair is associated with VEGF/Akt signaling. Thus, our findings indicate that MMP-10 is
Autores: Andreu, Ion; Luque, T.; Sancho, Ana; et al.
ISSN 1742-7061  Vol. 10  Nº 7  2014  págs. 3235 - 3242
Infarcted hearts are macroscopically stiffer than healthy organs. Nevertheless, although cell behavior is mediated by the physical features of the cell niche, the intrinsic micromechanical properties of healthy and infarcted heart extracellular matrix (ECM) remain poorly characterized. Using atomic force microscopy, we studied ECM micromechanics of different histological regions of the left ventricle wall of healthy and infarcted mice. Hearts excised from healthy (n = 8) and infarcted mice (n = 8) were decellularized with sodium dodecyl sulfate and cut into 12 gm thick slices. Healthy ventricular ECM revealed marked mechanical heterogeneity across histological regions of the ventricular wall with the effective Young's modulus ranging from 30.2 +/- 2.8 to 74.5 +/- 8.7 kPa in collagen- and elastin-rich regions of the myocardium, respectively. Infarcted ECM showed a predominant collagen composition and was 3-fold stiffer than collagen-rich regions of the healthy myocardium. ECM of both healthy and infarcted hearts exhibited a solid-like viscoelastic behavior that conforms to two power-law rheology. Knowledge of intrinsic micromechanical properties of the ECM at the length scale at which cells sense their environment will provide further insight into the cell-scaffold interplay in healthy and infarcted hearts.
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; Garbayo, Elisa; et al.
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 173  2014  págs. 132 - 139
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) are growth factors involved in cardiac development and regeneration. Microparticles (MPs) mediate cytokine sustained release, and can be utilized to overcome issues related to the limited therapeutic protein stability during systemic administration. We sought to examine whether the administration of microparticles (MPs) containing FGF1 and NRG1 could promote cardiac regeneration in a myocardial infarction (MI) rat model. We investigated the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to the beneficial effects of this therapy, especially those linked to endogenous regeneration. FGF1- and NRG1-loaded MPs were prepared using a multiple emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Seventy-three female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, and MPs were intramyocardially injected in the peri-infarcted zone four days later. Cardiac function, heart tissue remodeling, revascularization, apoptosis, cardiomyocyte proliferation, and stem cell homing were evaluated one week and three months after treatment. MPs were shown to efficiently encapsulate FGF1 and NRG1, releasing the bioactive proteins in a sustained manner. Three months after treatment, a statistically significant improvement in cardiac function was detected in rats treated with growth factor-loaded MPs (FGF1, NRG1, or FGF1/NRG1). The therapy led to inhibition of cardiac remodeling with smaller infarct size, a lower fibrosis degree and induction of tissue revascularization. Cardiomyocyte proliferation and progenitor cell recruitment were detected. Our data support the therapeutic benefit ofNRG1 and FGF1 when combined with protein delivery systems for cardiac regeneration. This approach could be scaled up for use in pre-clinical and clinical studies. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Guillaumet-Adkins, A.; Richter, J.; Odero, María Dolores; et al.
ISSN 1756-8722  Vol. 7  Nº 4  2014  págs. 1 - 11
Background: Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) is over-expressed in numerous cancers with respect to normal cells, and has either a tumor suppressor or oncogenic role depending on cellular context. This gene is associated with numerous alternatively spliced transcripts, which initiate from two different unique first exons within the WT1 and the alternative (A) WT1 promoter intervals. Within the hematological system, WT1 expression is restricted to CD34+/ CD38- cells and is undetectable after differentiation. Detectable expression of this gene is an excellent marker for minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the underlying epigenetic alterations are unknown. Methods: To determine the changes in the underlying epigenetic landscape responsible for this expression, we characterized expression, DNA methylation and histone modification profiles in 28 hematological cancer cell lines and confirmed the methylation signature in 356 cytogenetically well-characterized primary hematological malignancies. Results: Despite high expression of WT1 and AWT1 transcripts in AML-derived cell lines, we observe robust hypermethylation of the AWT1 promoter and an epigenetic switch from a permissive to repressive chromatin structure between normal cells and AML cell lines. Subsequent methylation analysis in our primary leukemia and lymphoma cohort revealed that the epigenetic signature identified in cell lines is specific to myeloid-lineage malignancies, irrespective of underlying mutational status or translocation. In addition to being a highly specific marker for AML diagnosis (positive predictive value 100%; sensitivity 86.1%; negative predictive value 89.4%), we show that AWT1 hypermethylation also discriminates patients that relapse from those achieving complete remission after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with similar efficiency to WT1 expression profiling. Conclusions: We describe a methylation signature of the AWT1 promoter CpG island that is a promising marker for classifying myeloid-derived leukemias. In addition AWT1 hypermethylation is ideally suited to monitor the recurrence of disease during remission in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transfer.
Autores: Ripalda, Purificación; et al.
ISSN 1063-4584  Vol. 22  Nº Supl  2014  págs. S138 - S139
Autores: D'Avola, Delia; Carmona, Francisco de Asís; Mendez, M.; et al.
ISSN 1525-0016  Vol. 22  Nº Supl.1  2014  págs. S273 - S274
Autores: D'Avola, Delia; Carmona, Francisco de Asís; Mendez, M.; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 25  Nº 11  2014  págs. A45 - A46
Autores: Agirre, X; Castellano, G.; Health, S.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 124  Nº 21  2014 
Autores: Perez-Pomares, J. M.; Ruiz-Villalba, A.; et al.
ISSN 0008-6363  Vol. 103  Nº Supl. 1  2014  págs. S63
Myocardial infarction is a prevalent cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms of repair in the post-infarcted heart include a progressive fibrosis that severely affects cardiac performance, eventually leading to cardiac failure. Cardiac fibrosis in the context of ventricular remodeling after infarction depends on fibroblasts of the cardiac interstitium (cardiac fibroblasts), a heterogeneous population of cells which, upon interaction with other interstitial cell types, initiates a massive deposition of extracellular matrix promoting the formation of a characteristic scar. In this work we have studied the cellular components of the cardiac interstitium from the embryo to the adult. Our results show that Wilms tumor supresor (Wt1) positive epicardial-derived mesenchymal cells pioneer the formation of the cardiac interstitium along embryogenesis, followed by the peri- and post-natal incorporation of bone-marrow derived cells. Adult epicardial-derived cells robustly differentiate into cardiac fibroblasts under normal and pathologic conditions, and become the predominant fibroblast type in the post-infarction scar. Furthermore, epicardial-derived cardiac fibroblasts are shown to display stromal properties respect to bone marrow-derived cells, critically contributing to the homing and persistence of circulating cells after infarction.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; Roa, Sergio; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 124  Nº 21  2014 
Autores: Mateos, M. V.; Hernandez, M. T. ; Giraldo, P.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 124  Nº 21  2014 
Autores: Kulis, M.; Heath, S.; Castellano, G.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 124  Nº 21  2014 
Autores: Lourenco, Bruno David; Mateos, M. V. ; Lopez-Corral, L.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 99  Nº Supl 1  2014  págs. 95
Autores: Primo, D. ; Ballesteros, J.; Jimenez, A.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 124  Nº 21  2014 
Autores: Guarnieri, A; Espana, E. M. ; et al.
ISSN 1746-0751  Vol. 8  Nº 2  2013  págs. 183 - 195
Penetrating keratoplasty has previously been the only surgical treatment for patients with corneal endothelial disorders. Recently, posterior lamellar keratoplasty has become a viable and less aggressive alternative technique. However, both transplantation techniques have disadvantages, such as non-immunologic graft failure, allograft endothelial rejection or a global shortage of donor corneas. Over the past few years, several groups have established methods for the isolation, preservation, in vitro cultivation, transplantation, and in vivo stimulation of human corneal endothelial cells in animal models. It is hoped that these new strategies will allow the treatment of more than one patient with one donor cornea, performing autologous corneal endothelium transplantation from a surgical biopsy sample, or stimulating the growth of corneal endothelial cells in vivo. However, several aspects need to be addressed before commencing clinical trials.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; Rodriguez, Paula; et al.
ISSN 1750-1911  Vol. 5  Nº 5  2013  págs. 525 - 538
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous cancer that is characterized by rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of immature B- or T-lymphoid precursors. Although ALL has been regarded as a genetic disease for many years, the crucial importance of epigenetic alterations in leukemogenesis has become increasingly evident. Epigenetic mechanisms, which include DNA methylation and histone modifications, are critical for gene regulation during many key biological processes. Here, we review the cell signaling pathways that are regulated by DNA methylation or histone modifications in ALL. Recent studies have highlighted the fundamental role of these modifications in ALL development, and suggested that future investigation into the specific genes and pathways that are altered by epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to the development of novel drug-based therapies for ALL.
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; prosper f;
ISSN 0022-2828  Vol. 62  2013  págs. 43 - 50
The possibility to induce pluripotency in somatic cells or, even further, to induce cell transdifferentiation through the forced expression of reprogramming factors has offered new, attractive options for cardiovascular regenerative medicine. In fact, recent discoveries have demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes, suggesting that iPS cells have the potential to significantly advance future cardiac regenerative therapies. Herein, we provide an overview of the characteristics and differentiation potential associated with iPS cells. In addition, we discuss current methods for inducing their specification towards a cardiovascular phenotype as well as in vivo evidence supporting the therapeutic benefit of iPS-derived cardiac cells. Finally, we describe recent findings regarding the use of iPS-derived cells for modeling several genetic cardiac disorders, which have indicated that these pluripotent cells represent an ideal tool for drug testing and might contribute to the development of future personalized regenerative cell therapies. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Gonzalez-Andrades, M.; Garzon, I.; Alaminos, M.; et al.
ISSN 2157-9083  Vol. 3  Nº 3  2013  págs. 245 - 260
Tissue engineering applies the principles of engineering, medicine and life sciences to the generation of biological substitutes (artificial tissues, bioengineered tissues or tissue constructs) with the aim of restoring, maintaining, or improving tissue function. A complex regulatory frame controls the clinical application and commercialization of bioengineered tissues. In this review, we highlight the state of the art and recent advances on the three main components that are used to build artificial tissues, including cells-especially adult stem cells-, extracellular matrices and morphogens or molecular signals. In particular, we discuss the limitations and challenges of the field and the different causes that may justify this limited situation.
Autores: Zapata, Natalia María; Guruceaga, Elisabet; Agirre, X; et al.
ISSN 1567-133X  Vol. 13  Nº 1-2  2013  págs. 12-20
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that fine-tune gene expression, play multiple roles in the cell, including cell fate specification. We have analyzed the differential expression of miRNAs during fibroblast reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and endoderm induction from iPSCs upon treatment with high concentrations of Activin-A. The reprogrammed iPSCs assumed an embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like miRNA signature, marked by the induction of pluripotency clusters miR-290-295 and miR-302/367 and conversely the downregulation of the let-7 family. On the other hand, endoderm induction in iPSCs resulted in the upregulation of 13 miRNAs. Given that the liver and the pancreas are common derivatives of the endoderm, analysis of the expression of these 13 upregulated miRNAs in hepatocytes and pancreatic islets revealed a tendency for these miRNAs to be expressed more in pancreatic islets than in hepatocytes. These observations provide insights into how differentiation may be guided more efficiently towards the endoderm and further into the liver or pancreas. Moreover, we also report novel miRNAs enriched for each of the cell types analyzed.
Autores: Rio-Machin, A.; Ferreira, B. I.; Henry, T.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 27  Nº 4  2013  págs. 925 - 931
Currently, multiple myeloma (MM) patients are broadly grouped into a non-hyperdiploid (nh-MM) group, highly enriched for IgH translocations, or into a hyperdiploid (h-MM) group, which is typically characterized by trisomies of some odd-numbered chromosomes. We compared the micro RNA (miRNA) expression profiles of these two groups and we identified 16 miRNAs that were downregulated in the h-MM group, relative to the nh-MM group. We found that target genes of the most differentially expressed miRNAs are directly involved in the pathogenesis of MM; specifically, the inhibition of hsa-miR-425, hsa-miR-152 and hsa-miR-24, which are all downregulated in h-MM, leads to the overexpression of CCND1, TACC3, MAFB, FGFR3 and MYC, which are the also the oncogenes upregulated by the most frequent IgH chromosomal translocations occurring in nh-MM. Importantly, we showed that the downregulation of these specific miRNAs and the upregulation of their targets also occur simultaneously in primary cases of h-MM. These data provide further evidence on the unifying role of cyclin D pathways deregulation as the key mechanism involved in the development of both groups of MM. Finally, they establish the importance of miRNA deregulation in the context of MM, thereby opening up the potential for future therapeutic approaches based on this molecular mechanism.
Autores: Simon-Yarza, T; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 440  Nº 1  2013  págs. 13 - 18
The potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles as carriers for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been demonstrated in a previous study by our group, where we found improved angiogenesis and heart remodeling in a rat myocardial infarction model (Formiga et al., 2010). However, the observed accumulation of macrophages around the injection site suggested that the efficacy of treatment could be reduced due to particle phagocytosis. The aim of the present study was to decrease particle phagocytosis and consequently improve protein delivery using stealth technology. PEGylated microparticles were prepared by the double emulsion solvent evaporation method using TROMS (Total Recirculation One Machine System). Before the uptake studies in monocyte-macrophage cells lines (J774 and Raw 264.7), the characterization of the microparticles developed was carried out in terms of particle size, encapsulation efficiency, protein stability, residual poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and in vitro release. Microparticles of suitable size for intramyocardial injection (5 mu m) were obtained by TROMS by varying the composition of the formulation and TROMS conditions with high encapsulation efficiency (70-90%) and minimal residual PVA content (0.5%). Importantly, the bioactivity of the protein was fully preserved. Moreover, PEGylated microparticles released in phosphate buffer 50% of the entrapped protein within 4 h, reaching a plateau within the first day of the in vitro study. Finally, the use of PLGA microparticles coated with PEG resulted in significantly decreased uptake of the carriers by macrophages, compared with non PEGylated microparticles, as shown by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. On the basis of these results, we concluded that PEGylated microparticles loaded with VEGF could be used for delivering growth factors in the myocardium. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Mateos, M. V.; Hernandez, M. T.; Giraldo, P.; et al.
ISSN 0028-4793  Vol. 369  Nº 5  2013  págs. 438 - 447
Background For patients with smoldering multiple myeloma, the standard of care is observation until symptoms develop. However, this approach does not identify high-risk patients who may benefit from early intervention. Methods In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 119 patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma to treatment or observation. Patients in the treatment group received an induction regimen (lenalidomide at a dose of 25 mg per day on days 1 to 21, plus dexamethasone at a dose of 20 mg per day on days 1 to 4 and days 12 to 15, at 4-week intervals for nine cycles), followed by a maintenance regimen (lenalidomide at a dose of 10 mg per day on days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle for 2 years). The primary end point was time to progression to symptomatic disease. Secondary end points were response rate, overall survival, and safety. Results After a median follow-up of 40 months, the median time to progression was significantly longer in the treatment group than in the observation group (median not reached vs. 21 months; hazard ratio for progression, 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.32; P<0.001). The 3-year survival rate was also higher in the treatment group (94% vs. 80%; hazard ratio for death, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.91; P=0.03). A partial response or better was achieved in 79% of patients in the treatment group after the induction phase and in 90% during the maintenance phase. Toxic effects were mainly grade 2 or lower. Conclusions Early treatment for patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma delays progression to active disease and increases overall survival.
Autores: Perez, C.; Martín-Subero, J. I.; Bellosillo, B.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 98  Nº 9  2013  págs. 1414 - 1420
Most DNA methylation studies in classic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms have been performed on a gene-by-gene basis. Therefore, a more comprehensive methylation profiling is needed to study the implications of this epigenetic marker in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Here, we have analyzed 71 chronic (24 polycythemia vera, 23 essential thrombocythemia and 24 primary myelofibrosis) and 13 transformed myeloproliferative neoplasms using genome-wide DNA methylation arrays. The three types of chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms showed a similar aberrant DNA methylation pattern when compared to control samples. Differentially methylated regions were enriched in a gene network centered on the NF-¿B pathway, indicating that they may be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In the case of transformed myeloproliferative neoplasms, we detected an increased number of differentially methylated regions with respect to chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Interestingly, these genes were enriched in a list of differentially methylated regions in primary acute myeloid leukemia and in a gene network centered around the IFN pathway. Our results suggest that alterations in the DNA methylation landscape play an important role in the pathogenesis and leukemic transformation of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The therapeutic modulation of epigenetically-deregulated pathways may allow us to design targeted therapies for these patients.
Autores: Díaz, Paula; Garbayo, Elisa; Simon-Yarza, T; et al.
ISSN 0939-6411  Vol. 85  Nº 1  2013  págs. 143 - 150
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and extensive research has therefore been performed to find a cure. Neuregulin-1 (NRG) is a growth factor involved in cardiac repair after MI. We previously described how biocompatible and biodegradable microparticles, which are able to release NRG in a sustained manner, represent a valuable approach to avoid problems related to the short half-life after systemic administration of proteins. The effectiveness of this strategy could be improved by combining NRG with several cytokines involved in cardiac regeneration. The present study investigates the potential feasibility of using NRG-releasing particle scaffold combined with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) as a multiple growth factor delivery-based tissue engineering strategy for implantation in the infarcted myocardium. NRG-releasing particle scaffolds with a suitable size for intramyocardial implantation were prepared by TROMS. Next, ADSC were adhered to particle scaffolds and their potential for heart administration was assessed in a MI rat model. NRG was successfully encapsulated reaching encapsulation efficiencies of 92.58±3.84%. NRG maintained its biological activity after the microencapsulation process. ADSCs adhered efficiently to particle scaffolds within a few hours. The ADSC-cytokine delivery system developed proved to be compatible with intramyocardial administration in terms of injectability through a 23-gauge needle and tissue response. Interestingly, ADSC-scaffolds were present in the peri-infarted tissue 2weeks after implantation. This proof of concept study provides important evidence required for future effectiveness studies and for the translation of this approach.
Autores: López, Xabier; Agirre, X; Beerens, M.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 122  Nº 24  2013  págs. 3982 - 3992
Endothelial cells (ECs) lining arteries and veins have distinct molecular/functional signatures. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we established a specific fingerprint of freshly isolated arterial and venous ECs from human umbilical cord comprising 64 arterial and 12 venous genes, representing distinct functions/pathways. Among the arterial genes were 8 transcription factors (TFs), including Notch target HEY2, the current "gold standard" determinant for arterial EC (aEC) specification. Culture abrogated differential gene expression in part due to gradual loss of canonical Notch activity and HEY2 expression. Notably, restoring HEY2 expression or Delta-like4-induced Notch signaling in cultured ECs only partially reinstated the aEC gene signature, whereas combined overexpression of the 8 TFs restored this fingerprint more robustly. Whereas some TFs stimulated few genes, others boosted a large proportion of arterial genes. Although there was some overlap and crossregulation, the TFs largely complemented each other in regulating the aEC gene profile. Finally, overexpression of the 8 TFs in human umbilical vein ECs conveyed an arterial-like behavior upon their implantation in a Matrigel plug in vivo. Thus, our study shows that Notch signaling determines only part of the aEC signature and identifies additional novel and complementary transcriptional players in the complex regulation of human arteriovenous EC identity. (Blood. 2013;122(24):3982-3992)
Autores: Kumar, A.; Lo Nigro, A. ; Gysemans, C.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 8  Nº 5  2013  págs. e63491
beta-cell replacement may efficiently cure type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients whose insulin-secreting beta-cells have been selectively destroyed by autoantigen-reactive T cells. To generate insulin-secreting cells we used two cell sources: rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPC) and the highly similar rat extra-embryonic endoderm precursor (rXEN-P) cells isolated under rMAPC conditions from blastocysts (rHypoSC). rMAPC/rHypoSC were sequentially committed to definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm, and beta-cell like cells. On day 21, 20% of rMAPC/rHypoSC progeny expressed Pdx1 and C-peptide. rMAPCr/HypoSC progeny secreted C-peptide under the stimulus of insulin agonist carbachol, and was inhibited by the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker nifedipine. When rMAPC or rHypoSC differentiated d21 progeny were grafted under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice, hyperglycemia reversed after 4 weeks in 6/10 rMAPC-and 5/10 rHypoSC-transplanted mice. Hyperglycemia recurred within 24 hours of graft removal and the histological analysis of the retrieved grafts revealed presence of Pdx1-, Nkx6.1- and C-peptide-positive cells. The ability of both rMAPC and HypoSC to differentiate to functional beta-cell like cells may serve to gain insight into signals that govern beta-cell differentiation and aid in developing culture systems to commit other (pluripotent) stem cells to clinically useful beta-cells for cell therapy of T1D.
Autores: Araña, M; Pena, E.; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 1742-7061  Vol. 9  Nº 4  2013  págs. 6075 - 6083
The use of scaffolds composed of natural biodegradable matrices represents an attractive strategy to circumvent the lack of cell engraftment, a major limitation of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases. Bovine-derived non-porous collagen scaffolds with different degrees of cross-linking (C0, C2, C5 and C10) were produced and tested for their mechanical behavior, in vitro biocompatibility with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and tissue adhesion and inflammatory reaction. Uniaxial tensile tests revealed an anisotropic behavior of collagen scaffolds (2 x 0.5 cm) and statistically significant differences in the mechanical behavior between cross-linked and non-cross-linked scaffolds (n = 5). In vitro, ADSCs adhered homogenously and showed a similar degree of proliferation on all four types of scaffolds (cells x 10(3) cm(-2) at day 7: C0: 94.7 +/- 37.1; C2: 91.7 +/- 25.6; C5: 88.2 +/- 6.8; C10: 72.8 +/- 10.7; P = n.s.; n = 3). In order to test the in vivo biocompatibility, a chronic myocardial infarction model was performed in rats and 1.2 x 1.2 cm size collagen scaffolds implanted onto the heart I month post-infarction. Six animals per group were killed 2, 7 and 30 days after transplant. Complete and long-lasting adhesion to the heart was only observed with the non-cross-linked scaffolds with almost total degradation 1 month post-transplantation. After 7 and 30 days post-implantation, the degree of inflammation was significantly lower in the hearts treated with non-cross-linked scaffolds (day 7: C0: 10.2 +/- 2.1%; C2: 163 +/- 2.9%; C5: 15.9 +/- 4.8%; C10: 17.4 +/- 4.1%; P < 0.05 vs. C0; day 30: C0: 1.3 +/- 1.3%; C2: 9.4 +/- 3.0%; C5: 7.0 +/- 2.1%; C10: 9.8 +/- 2.5%; P < 0.01 vs. C0). In view of the results, the non-cross-linked scaffold (C0) was chosen as an ADSC-carrier sheet and tested in vivo. One week post-implantation, 25.3 +/- 7.0% of the cells transplanted were detected in those animals receiving the cell-carrier sheet whereas no cells were found in animals receiving cells alone (n = 3 animals/group). We conclude that the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of the non-cross-linked collagen scaffolds make them a useful cell carrier that greatly favors tissue cell engraftment and may be exploited for cell transplantation in models of cardiac disease. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Puchades Carrasco, L.; Lecumberri, Ramón; Martinez Lopez, J.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 19  Nº 17  2013  págs. 4770 - 4779
Purpose: Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. New approaches to develop better tools for improving patient prognostication and monitoring treatment efficacy are very much needed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of metabolomics by H-1-NMR to provide information on metabolic profiles that could be useful in the management of multiple myeloma. Experimental Design: Serum samples were collected from multiple myeloma patients at the time of diagnosis and after achieving complete remission. A matched control set of samples was also included in the study. The H-1-NMR measurements used to obtain the metabolic profile for each patient were followed by the application of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses to determine significant differences. Results: Metabolic profiles of multiple myeloma patients at diagnosis exhibited higher levels of isoleucine, arginine, acetate, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, and decreased levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, lysine, glutamine, and some lipids compared with the control set. A similar analysis conducted in multiple myeloma patients after achieving complete remission indicated that some of the metabolic changes (i.e., glutamine, cholesterol, lysine) observed at diagnosis displayed a variation in the opposite direction upon responding to treatment, thus contributing to multiple myeloma patients having a closer metabolic profile to those of healthy individuals after the disappearance of major disease manifestations. Conclusions: The results highlight the potential of metabolic profiles obtained by H-1-NMR in identifying multiple myeloma biomarkers that may be useful to objectively discriminate individuals with and without multiple myeloma, and monitor response to treatment. (C)2013 AACR.
Autores: Agirre, X; prosper f; et al.
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 14  Nº 8  2013  págs. 15386 - 15422
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies
Autores: Fernandez Mercado, M. ; Burns, A. ; Pellagatti, A.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 98  Nº 12  2013  págs. 1856 - 1864
Interstitial deletion of chromosome 5q is the most common chromosomal abnormality in myelodysplastic syndromes. The catalogue of genes involved in the molecular pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes is rapidly expanding and next-generation sequencing technology allows detection of these mutations at great depth. Here we describe the design, validation and application of a targeted next-generation sequencing approach to simultaneously screen 25 genes mutated in myeloid malignancies. We used this method alongside single nucleotide polymorphism-array technology to characterize the mutational and cytogenetic profile of 43 cases of early or advanced del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes. A total of 29 mutations were detected in our cohort. Overall, 45% of early and 66.7% of advanced cases had at least one mutation. Genes with the highest mutation frequency among advanced cases were TP53 and ASXL1 (25% of patients each). These showed a lower mutation frequency in cases of 5q-syndrome (4.5% and 13.6%, respectively), suggesting a role in disease progression in del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes. Fifty-two percent of mutations identified were in genes involved in epigenetic regulation (ASXL1, TET2, DNMT3A and JAK2). Six mutations had allele frequencies <20%, likely below the detection limit of traditional sequencing methods. Genomic array data showed that cases of advanced del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome had a complex background of cytogenetic aberrations, often encompassing genes involved in myeloid disorders. Our study is the first to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of early and advanced del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes using next-generation sequencing technology on a large panel of genes frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies, further illuminating the molecular landscape of del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes.
Autores: Davies, C.; Yip, B. H. ; Fernandez Mercado, M. ; et al.
ISSN 0007-1048  Vol. 160  Nº 6  2013  págs. 842 - 850
The ASXL1 gene encodes a chromatin-binding protein involved in epigenetic regulation in haematopoietic cells. Loss-of-function ASXL1 mutations occur in patients with a range of myeloid malignancies and are associated with adverse outcome. We have used lentiviral-based shRNA technology to investigate the effects of ASXL1 silencing on cell proliferation, apoptosis, myeloid differentiation and global gene expression in human CD34+ cells differentiated along the myeloid lineage in vitro. ASXL1-deficient cells showed a significant decrease in the generation of CD11b+ and CD15+ cells, implicating impaired granulomonocytic differentiation. Furthermore, colony-forming assays showed a significant increase in the number of multipotent mixed lineage colony-forming unit (CFU-GEMM) colonies and a significant decrease in the numbers of granulocyte-macrophage CFU (CFU-GM) and granulocyte CFU (CFU-G) colonies in ASXL1-deficient cells. Our data suggests that ASXL1 knockdown perturbs human granulomonocytic differentiation. Gene expression profiling identified many deregulated genes in the ASXL1-deficient cells differentiated along the granulomonocytic lineage, and pathway analysis showed that the most significantly deregulated pathway was the LXR/RXR activation pathway. ASXL1 may play a key role in recruiting the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) to specific loci, and we found over-representation of PRC2 targets among the deregulated genes in ASXL1-deficient cells. These findings shed light on the functional role of ASXL1 in human myeloid differentiation.
Autores: Simon-Yarza, T; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 454  Nº 2  2013  págs. 784 -790
Autores: Garbayo, Elisa; Díaz, Paula; et al.
ISSN 0939-6411  Vol. 85  Nº 3  2013  págs. 665 - 672
Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microparticles emerged as one of the most promising strategies to achieve site-specific drug delivery. Although these microparticles have been demonstrated to be effective in several wound healing models, their potential in cardiac regeneration has not yet been fully assessed. The present work sought to explore PLGA microparticles as cardiac drug delivery systems. PLGA microparticles were prepared by Total Recirculation One-Machine System (TROMS) after the formation of a multiple emulsion. Microparticles of different size were prepared and characterized to select the most suitable size for intramyocardial administration. Next, the potential of PLGA microparticles for administration in the heart was assessed in a MI rat model. Particle biodegradation over time and myocardial tissue reaction were studied by routine staining and confocal microscopy. Results showed that microparticles with a diameter of 5¿m were the most compatible with intramyocardial administration in terms of injectability through a 29-gauge needle and tissue response. Particles were present in the heart tissue for up to 3months post-implantation and no particle migration toward other solid organs was observed, demonstrating good myocardial retention. CD68 immunolabeling revealed 31%, 47% and below 4% microparticle uptake by macrophages 1week, 1month, and 3months after injection, respectively (P<0.001). Taken together, these findings support the feasibility of the developed PLGA microparticles as vehicles for delivering growth factors in the infarcted myocardium.
Autores: Jaques, F.; Rodriguez, S.; et al.
ISSN 0012-186X  Vol. 56  Nº 4  2013  págs. 838 - 846
Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1) is a recently described cytokine originally isolated from the heart where it has been shown to play an important role in apoptotic protection of cardiomyocytes and heart hypertrophy. Its beneficial properties have also been described in other organs such as liver and neuromuscular tissue. In the present study, we investigated whether CT-1 can confer protection against pro-apoptotic stimuli in pancreatic beta cells, and its role in insulin secretion and diabetes development. The effects of CT-1 on apoptosis and function were studied using MIN6B1 cells and freshly isolated murine pancreatic islets. The impact on the development of diabetes was evaluated in Ct1-null (Ct1 (-/-)) mice (the gene Ct1 is also known as Ctf1) using two streptozotocin (STZ)-induced models of diabetes. CT-1 has a protective effect in MIN6B1 cells and murine islets under the pro-apoptotic stimulus of serum deprivation, which correlates with the expression of B cell lymphoma-extra large, or following exposure to a mixture of cytokines. In addition, CT-1 enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6B1 cells and this was repressed by inhibitors of phospholipase C. Furthermore, Ct1 (-/-) mice were more prone to develop diabetes, and their glucose tolerance test showed impaired plasma glucose clearance which correlated with decreased pancreatic insulin secretion. The results obtained from both in vitro and in vivo experiments show that CT-1 improves beta cell function and survival, and protects mice against STZ-induced diabetes.
Autores: prosper f;
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 24  Nº 12  2013  págs. A22 - A23
Autores: Garate, Z.; Quintana-Bustamante, O.; Crane, A. M. ; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 24  Nº 12  2013  págs. A52
Autores: Garcia-Gomez, M.; Garate, Z.; Navarro, S.; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 24  Nº 12  2013  págs. A21 - A22
Autores: Puchades-Carrasco, L. ; Lecumberri, Ramón; Martinez-Lopez, J; et al.
ISSN 0959-8049  Vol. 49  Nº Supl 4  2013  págs. S14
Autores: Granero-Moltó, Froilán; Ripalda, Purificación; et al.
ISSN 1063-4584  Vol. 21  2013  págs. S116
Autores: Mazo, Manuel María; Araña, M; Pelacho, Beatriz; et al.
ISSN 1687-966X  2012  págs. UNSP 175979
In recent years, the incredible boost in stem cell research has kindled the expectations of both patients and physicians. Mesenchymal progenitors, owing to their availability, ease of manipulation, and therapeutic potential, have become one of the most attractive options for the treatment of a wide range of diseases, from cartilage defects to cardiac disorders. Moreover, their immunomodulatory capacity has opened up their allogenic use, consequently broadening the possibilities for their application. In this review, we will focus on their use in the therapy of myocardial infarction, looking at their characteristics, in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action, as well as clinical trials.
Autores: Simon-Yarza, T; et al.
ISSN 1838-7640  Vol. 2  Nº 6  2012  págs. 541 - 552
Since the discovery of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its leading role in the angiogenic process, this has been seen as a promising molecule for promoting neovascularization in the infarcted heart. However, even though several clinical trials were initiated, no therapeutic effects were observed, due in part to the short half life of this factor when administered directly to the tissue. In this context, drug delivery systems appear to offer a promising strategy to overcome limitations in clinical trials of VEGF.The aim of this paper is to review the principal drug delivery systems that have been developed to administer VEGF in cardiovascular disease. Studies published in the last 5 years are reviewed and the main features of these systems are explained. The tissue engineering concept is introduced as a therapeutic alternative that holds promise for the near future.
Autores: Simon-Yarza, T; et al.
ISSN 1382-4147  Vol. 17  Nº 3  2012  págs. 449 - 473
Cardiovascular diseases remain the first cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries and are a major problem not only in the western nations but also in developing countries. Current standard approaches for treating patients with ischemic heart disease include angioplasty or bypass surgery. However, a large number of patients cannot be treated using these procedures. Novel curative approaches under investigation include gene, cell, and protein therapy. This review focuses on potential growth factors for cardiac repair. The role of these growth factors in the angiogenic process and the therapeutic implications are reviewed. Issues including aspects of growth factor delivery are presented in relation to protein stability, dosage, routes, and safety matters. Finally, different approaches for controlled growth factor delivery are discussed as novel protein delivery platforms for cardiac regeneration.
Autores: Mazo, Manuel María; Gavira, Juan José; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 0963-6897  Vol. 21  Nº 12  2012  págs. 2723 - 2733
The aim of the study was to determine the long-term effect of transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) in a preclinical model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). I/R was induced in 28 Goettingen minipigs by 120 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Nine days later, surviving animals were allocated to receive transendocardial injection of a mean of 213.6 ± 41.78 million green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ADSCs (n = 7) or culture medium as control (n = 9). Heart function, cell engraftment, and histological analysis were performed 3 months after transplantation. Transplantation of ADSCs induced a statistically significant long-lasting (3 months) improvement in cardiac function and geometry in comparison with control animals. Functional improvement was associated with an increase in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis and a positive effect on heart remodeling with a decrease in fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy in animals treated with ADSCs. Despite the lack of cell engraftment after 3 months, ADSC transplantation induced changes in the ratio between MMP/TIMP. Our results indicate that transplantation of ADSCs, despite the lack of long-term significant cell engraftment, increases vessel density and prevents adverse remodeling in a clinically relevant model of myocardial infarction, strongly suggesting a paracrine-mediated effect. ADSCs thus constitute an attractive candidate for the treatment of myocardial infarction.
Autores: Atari, M; Gil-Recio, C; Fabregat, M; et al.
ISSN 0021-9533  Vol. 15  Nº 125, Pt 14  2012  págs. 3343 - 3356
Dental pulp is particularly interesting in regenerative medicine because of the accessibility and differentiation potential of the tissue. Dental pulp has an early developmental origin with multi-lineage differentiation potential as a result of its development during childhood and adolescence. However, no study has previously identified the presence of stem cell populations with embryonic-like phenotypes in human dental pulp from the third molar. In the present work, we describe a new population of dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSCs) that were isolated by culture in medium containing LIF, EGF and PDGF. These cells are SSEA4(+), OCT3/4(+), NANOG(+), SOX2(+), LIN28(+), CD13(+), CD105(+), CD34(-), CD45(-), CD90(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), STRO1(+) and CD146(-), and they show genetic stability in vitro based on genomic analysis with a newly described CGH technique. Interestingly, DPPSCs were able to form both embryoid-body-like structures (EBs) in vitro and teratoma-like structures that contained tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers when injected in nude mice. We examined the capacity of DPPSCs to differentiate in vitro into tissues that have similar characteristics to mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm layers in both 2D and 3D cultures. We performed a comparative RT-PCR analysis of GATA4, GATA6, MIXL1, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX1 and SOX2 to determine the degree of similarity between DPPSCs, EBs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs). Our analysis revealed that DPPSCs, hIPSC and EBs have the same gene expression profile. Because DPPSCs can be derived from healthy human molars from patients of different sexes and ages, they represent an easily accessible source of stem cells, which opens a range of new possibilities for regenerative medicine.
Autores: Robles, Eloy Francisco; Parker, A.; Martínez-Useros, J.; et al.
ISSN 0007-1048  Vol. 158  Nº 6  2012  págs. 712 - 726
Using high-resolution genomic microarray analysis, a distinct genomic profile was defined in 114 samples from patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL). Deletion or uniparental disomy of chromosome 7q were detected in 42 of 114 (37%) SMZLs but in only nine of 170 (5%) mature B-cell lymphomas (P < 0·00001). The presence of unmutated IGHV, genomic complexity, 17p13-TP53 deletion and 8q-MYC gain, but not 7q deletion, correlated with shorter overall survival of SMZL patients. Mapping studies narrowed down a commonly deleted region of 2·7 Mb in 7q32.1-q32.2 spanning a region between the SND1 and COPG2 genes. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the 7q32-deleted segment did not identify biallelic deletions/insertions or clear pathogenic gene mutations, but detected six nucleotide changes in IRF5 (n = 2), TMEM209 (n = 2), CALU (n = 1) and ZC3HC1 (n = 1) not found in healthy individuals. Comparative expression analysis found a fourfold down-regulation of IRF5 gene in lymphomas with 7q32 deletion versus non-deleted tumours (P = 0·032). Ectopic expression of IRF5 in marginal-zone lymphoma cells decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in vitro, and impaired lymphoma development in vivo. These results show that cryptic deletions, insertions and/or point mutations inactivating genes within 7q32 are not common in SMZL, and suggest that IRF5 may be a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor in this lymphoma entity.
Autores: Costa, C.; Santos, M.; Segrelles, C; et al.
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 2  Nº 828  2012 
The specific ablation of Rb1 gene in stratified epithelia (Rb-F/F; K14cre) promotes proliferation and altered differentiation but is insufficient to produce spontaneous tumors. The pRb relative, p107, compensates some of the functions of pRb in these tissues; however, Rb-F/F; K14cre; p107(-/-) mice die postnatally. Here we show, using an inducible mouse model (Rb-F/F; K14creER (TM)), that p107 exerts specific tumor suppressor functions in the absence of pRb in stratified epithelia. The simultaneous absence of pRb and p107 produces impaired p53 transcriptional functions and reduction of Pten expression, allowing spontaneous squamous carcinoma development. These tumors display significant overlap with human squamous carcinomas, supporting that Rb-F/F; K14creER (TM); p107(-/-) mice might constitute a new model for these malignancies. Remarkably tumor development in vivo is partially alleviated by mTOR inhibition. These data demonstrate the existence of a previously unreported functional connection between pRb, Pten and p53 tumor suppressors, through p107, of a particular relevance in squamous tumor development.
Autores: Vicente-Duenas, C.; Fontan, L. ; Gonzalez-Herrero, I. ; et al.
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 109  Nº 26  2012  págs. 10534 - 10539
Chromosomal translocations involving the MALT1 gene are hallmarks of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. To date, targeting these translocations to mouse B cells has failed to reproduce human disease. Here, we induced MALT1 expression in mouse Sca1(+)Lin(-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which showed NF-kappa B activation and early lymphoid priming, being selectively skewed toward B-cell differentiation. These cells accumulated in extranodal tissues and gave rise to clonal tumors recapitulating the principal clinical, biological, and molecular genetic features of MALT lymphoma. Deletion of p53 gene accelerated tumor onset and induced transformation of MALT lymphoma to activated B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Treatment of MALT1-induced lymphomas with a specific inhibitor of MALT1 proteolytic activity decreased cell viability, indicating that endogenous Malt1 signaling was required for tumor cell survival. Our study shows that human-like lymphomas can be modeled in mice by targeting MALT1 expression to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the oncogenic role of MALT1 in lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, this work establishes a molecular link between MALT lymphoma and ABC-DLBCL, and provides mouse models to test MALT1 inhibitors. Finally, our results suggest that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of human mature B-cell lymphomas.
Autores: Rio, P.; Agirre, X; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 119  Nº 13  2012  págs. 3042 - 3049
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited genetic disorder associated with BM failure and cancer predisposition. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the hematopoietic defects observed in FA patients. Initial studies showed that 3 miRNAs, hsa-miR-133a, hsa-miR-135b, and hsa-miR181c, were significantly down-regulated in lymphoblastoid cell lines and fresh peripheral blood cells from FA patients. In vitro studies with cells expressing the luciferase reporter fused to the TNF alpha 3'-untranslated region confirmed in silico predictions suggesting an interaction between hsa-miR-181c and TNF alpha mRNA. These observations were consistent with the down-regulated expression of TNF alpha mediated by hsa-miR-181c in cells from healthy donors and cells from FA patients. Because of the relevance of TNF alpha in the hematopoietic defects of FA patients, in the present study, we transfected BM cells from FA patients with hsa-miR-181c to evaluate the impact of this miRNA on their clonogenic potential. hsa-miR-181c markedly increased the number and size of the myeloid and erythroid colonies generated by BM cells from FA patients. Our results offer new clues toward understanding the biologic basis of BM failure in FA patients and open new possibilities for the treatment of the hematologic dysfunction in FA patients based on miRNA regulation. (Blood. 2012;119(13):3042-3049)
Autores: Pérez, C.; Martínez, Nicolás; Martín Subero, J. I.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 7  Nº 2  2012  págs. e31605
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) has recently been associated with a high incidence of diverse mutations in genes such as TET2 or EZH2 that are implicated in epigenetic mechanisms. We have performed genome-wide DNA methylation arrays and mutational analysis of TET2, IDH1, IDH2, EZH2 and JAK2 in a group of 24 patients with CMML. 249 genes were differentially methylated between CMML patients and controls. Using Ingenuity pathway analysis, we identified enrichment in a gene network centered around PLC, JNK and ERK suggesting that these pathways, whose deregulation has beenrecently described in CMML, are affected by epigenetic mechanisms. Mutations of TET2, JAK2 and EZH2 were found in 15 patients (65%), 4 patients (17%) and 1 patient (4%) respectively while no mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes were identified. Interestingly, patients with wild type TET2 clustered separately from patients with TET2 mutations, showed a higher degree of hypermethylation and were associated with higher risk karyotypes. Our results demonstrate the presence of aberrant DNA methylation in CMML and identifies TET2 mutant CMML as a biologically distinct disease subtype with a different epigenetic profile.
Autores: Agirre, X; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 26  Nº 7  2012  págs. 1517 - 1526
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been identified as therapeutic targets due to their regulatory function in chromatin structure and organization. Here, we analyzed the therapeutic effect of LBH589, a class I - II HDAC inhibitor, in acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL). In vitro, LBH589 induced dose-dependent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects, which were associated with increased H3 and H4 histone acetylation. Intravenous administration of LBH589 in immunodeficient BALB/c-RAG2(-/-)gamma c(-/-) mice in which human-derived T and B-ALL cell lines were injected induced a significant reduction in tumor growth. Using primary ALL cells, a xenograft model of human leukemia in BALB/c-RAG2(-/-)gamma c(-/-) mice was established, allowing continuous passages of transplanted cells to several mouse generations. Treatment of mice engrafted with T or B-ALL cells with LBH589 induced an in vivo increase in the acetylation of H3 and H4, which was accompanied with prolonged survival of LBH589-treated mice in comparison with those receiving vincristine and dexamethasone. Notably, the therapeutic efficacy of LBH589 was significantly enhanced in combination with vincristine and dexamethasone. Our results show the therapeutic activity of LBH589 in combination with standard chemotherapy in pre-clinical models of ALL and suggest that this combination may be of clinical value in the treatment of patients with ALL.
Autores: Iñigo Izal; Pablo Aranda; Patricia Sanz-Ramos; et al.
ISSN 0942-2056  2012 
Biocompatible PLLA scaffolds have been developed that can be efficiently loaded with MSCs. The scaffold supports chondrogenic differentiation and ECM deposition that improves the mechanics of the scaffold. Although this improvement does not met the expectations of a hyaline-like cartilage ECM, in part due to the lack of a mechanical stimulation, their potential use in the treatment of cartilage pathologies encourages to improve the mechanical component.
Autores: Fernández, Marta; Yip, B. H.; Pellagatti, A.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 7  Nº 8  2012  págs. e42334
Acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics (CN-AML) account for almost half of AML cases. We aimed to study the frequency and relationship of a wide range of genes previously reported as mutated in AML (ASXL1, NPM1, FLT3, TET2, IDH1/2, RUNX1, DNMT3A, NRAS, JAK2, WT1, CBL, SF3B1, TP53, KRAS and MPL) in a series of 84 CN-AML cases. The most frequently mutated genes in primary cases were NPM1 (60.8%) and FLT3 (50.0%), and in secondary cases ASXL1 (48.5%) and TET2 (30.3%). We showed that 85% of CN-AML patients have mutations in at least one of ASXL1, NPM1, FLT3, TET2, IDH1/2 and/or RUNX1. Serial samples from 19 MDS/CMML cases that progressed to AML were analyzed for ASXL1/TET2/IDH1/2 mutations; seventeen cases presented mutations of at least one of these genes. However, there was no consistent pattern in mutation acquisition during disease progression. This report concerns the analysis of the largest number of gene mutations in CN-AML studied to date, and provides insight into the mutational profile of CN-AML.
Autores: Nogales-Cadenas, R.; Vazquez, M.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 7  Nº 2  2012  págs. e30766
miRNAs are small RNA molecules (' 22nt) that interact with their corresponding target mRNAs inhibiting the translation of the mRNA into proteins and cleaving the target mRNA. This second effect diminishes the overall expression of the target mRNA. Several miRNA-mRNA relationship databases have been deployed, most of them based on sequence complementarities. However, the number of false positives in these databases is large and they do not overlap completely. Recently, it has been proposed to combine expression measurement from both miRNA and mRNA and sequence based predictions to achieve more accurate relationships. In our work, we use LASSO regression with non-positive constraints to integrate both sources of information. LASSO enforces the sparseness of the solution and the non-positive constraints restrict the search of miRNA targets to those with down-regulation effects on the mRNA expression. We named this method TaLasso (miRNA-Target LASSO). We used TaLasso on two public datasets that have paired expression levels of human miRNAs and mRNAs. The top ranked interactions recovered by TaLasso are especially enriched (more than using any other algorithm) in experimentally validated targets. The functions of the genes with mRNA transcripts in the top-ranked interactions are meaningful. This is not the case using other algorithms. TaLasso is available as Matlab or R code. There is also a web-based tool for human miRNAs at
Autores: Valleron, W; Laprevotte, E; Gautier, EF; et al.
Revista: Leukemia
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 26  Nº 9  2012  págs. 2052-2060
Autores: Agirre, X; Martínez, José Ángel; Odero, María Dolores; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 26  Nº 3  2012  págs. 395-403
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that can negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA expression patterns are regulated during development and differentiation of the hematopoietic system and have an important role in cell processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation or even in tumorigenesis of human tumors and in particular of hematological malignancies such as acute leukemias. Various miRNAs and their functions have been intensively studied in acute leukemias but the mechanisms that control their expression are largely unknown for the majority of aberrantly expressed miRNAs. miRNA expression can be regulated by the same genetic mechanism that modulate protein coding genes such as mutation, deletion, amplification, loss of heterozygosity and translocations. In this review we focus on the regulation of miRNAs in acute leukemias mediated by alterations in epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone code, describing the role of these alterations in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis of acute leukemias and their possible use as new therapeutic targets and biomarkers.
Autores: Corbacho, D.; Pelacho, Beatriz; Albiasu, E.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 7  Nº 7  2012  págs. e41691
Background: The aim of this article is to present an optimized acquisition and analysis protocol for the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricle (LV) remodeling in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). Methodology: 13 female DBA/2J mice underwent permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery leading to MI. Mice echocardiography was performed using a Vevo 770 (Visualsonics, Canada) before infarction, and 7, 14, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after LAD ligation. LV systolic function was evaluated using different parameters, including the fractional area change (FAC%) computed in four high-temporal resolution B-mode short axis images taken at different ventricular levels, and in one parasternal long axis. Pulsed wave and tissue Doppler modes were used to evaluate the diastolic function and Tei Index for global cardiac function. The echocardiographic measurements of infarct size were validated histologically using collagen deposition labeled by Sirius red staining. All data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk and Student's t-tests. Principal Findings: Our results reveal LV dilation resulting in marked remodeling an severe systolic dysfunction, starting seven days after MI (LV internal apical diameter, basal = 2.82 +/- 0.24, 7d = 3.49 +/- 0.42; p < 0.001. End-diastolic area, basal = 18.98 +/- 1.81, 7d = 22.04 +/- 2.11; p < 0.001). A strong statistically significant negative correlation exists between the infarct size and long-axis FAC% (r = -0.946; R-2 = 0.90; p < 0.05). Moreover, the measured Tei Index values confirmed significant post-infarction impairment of the global cardiac function (basal = 0.46 +/- 0.07, 7d = 0.55 +/- 0.08, 14 d = 0.57 +/- 0.06, 30 d = 0.54 +/- 0.06, 60 d = 0.54 +/- 0.07, 90 d = 0.57 +/- 0.08; p < 0.01). Conclusions/Significance: In summary, we have performed a complete characterization of LV post-infarction remodeling in a DBA/2J mouse model of MI, using parameters adapted to the particular characteristics of the model In the future, this well characterized model will be used in both investigative and pharmacological studies that require accurate quantitative monitoring of cardiac recovery after myocardial infarction.
Autores: Fernandez, A. F.; Assenov, Y.; Martin-Subero, J. I. ; et al.
ISSN 1088-9051  Vol. 22  Nº 2  2012  págs. 407 - 419
Most of the studies characterizing DNA methylation patterns have been restricted to particular genomic loci in a limited number of human samples and pathological conditions. Herein, we present a compromise between an extremely comprehensive study of a human sample population with an intermediate level of resolution of CpGs at the genomic level. We obtained a DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples in which we interrogated 1505 CpG sites. The DNA methylation patterns revealed show this epigenetic mark to be critical in tissue-type definition and sternness, particularly around transcription start sites that are not within a CpG island. For disease, the generated DNA methylation fingerprints show that, during tumorigenesis, human cancer cells underwent a progressive gain of promoter CpG-island hypermethylation and a loss of CpG methylation in non-CpG-island promoters. Although transformed cells are those in which DNA methylation disruption is more obvious, we observed that other common human diseases, such as neurological and autoimmune disorders, had their own distinct DNA methylation profiles. Most importantly, we provide proof of principle that the DNA methylation fingerprints obtained might be useful for translational purposes by showing that we are able to identify the tumor type origin of cancers of unknown primary origin (cups). Thus, the DNA methylation patterns identified across the largest spectrum of samples, tissues, and diseases reported to date constitute a baseline for developing higher-resolution DNA methylation maps and provide important clues concerning the contribution of CpG methylation to tissue identity and its changes in the most prevalent human diseases.
Autores: Mazo, Manuel María; Gavira, Juan José; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 0963-6897  Vol. 21  Nº 5  2012  págs. 1023 - 1037
Fresh adipose-derived cells have been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but their role in the chronic setting is unknown. We sought to determine the long-term effect of the adipose derived-stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell transplantation in a rat model of chronic MI. MI was induced in 82 rats by permanent coronary artery ligation and 5 weeks later rats were allocated to receive an intramyocardial injection of 10(7) GFP-expressing fresh SVF cells or culture media as control. Heart function and tissue metabolism were determined by echocardiography and F-18-FDG-microPET, respectively, and histological studies were performed for up to 3 months after transplantation. SVF induced a statistically significant long-lasting (3 months) improvement in cardiac function and tissue metabolism that was associated with increased revascularization and positive heart remodeling, with a significantly smaller infarct size, thicker infarct wall, lower scar fibrosis, and lower cardiac hypertrophy. Importantly, injected cells engrafted and were detected in the treated hearts for at least 3 months, directly contributing to the vasculature and myofibroblasts and at negligible levels to cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, SVF release of angiogenic (VEGF and HGF) and proinflammatory (MCP-1) cytokines, as well as TIMP1 and TIMP4, was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, strongly suggesting that they have a trophic effect. These results show the potential of SVF to contribute to the regeneration of ischemic tissue and to provide a long-term functional benefit in a rat model of chronic MI, by both direct and indirect mechanisms.
Autores: Kumar, A; Declerq, J; Eggermont, K; et al.
ISSN 1674-2788  Vol. 4  Nº 4  2012  págs. 252-55
Autores: Nigro, A.; Geraerts, M. ; Notelaers, T. ; et al.
ISSN 1674-2788  Vol. 4  Nº 6  2012  págs. 423 - 426
Autores: Beltrán E; Richter, José Ángel; et al.
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 108  Nº 30  2011  págs. 12461 - 12466
The chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) leading to cyclin-D1 overexpression plays an essential role in the development of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive tumor that remains incurable with current treatment strategies. Cyclin-D1 has been postulated as an effective therapeutic target, but the evaluation of this target has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of its oncogenic functions and by the lack of valid MCL murine models. To address these issues, we generated a cyclin-D1-driven mouse model in which cyclin-D1 expression can be regulated externally. These mice developed cyclin-D1-expressing lymphomas capable of recapitulating features of human MCL. We found that cyclin-D1 inactivation was not sufficient to induce lymphoma regression in vivo; however, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified a novel prosurvival cyclin-D1 function in MCL cells. Specifically, we found that cyclin-D1, besides increasing cell proliferation through deregulation of the cell cycle at the G(1)-S transition, sequestrates the proapoptotic protein BAX in the cytoplasm, thereby favoring BCL2's antiapoptotic function. Accordingly, cyclin-D1 inhibition sensitized the lymphoma cells to apoptosis through BAX release. Thus, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of cyclin-D1 combined with a proapoptotic BH3 mimetic synergistically killed the cyclin-D1-expressing murine lymphomas, human MCL cell lines, and primary lymphoma cells. Our study identifies a role of cyclin-D1 in deregulating apoptosis in MCL cells, and highlights the potential benefit of simultaneously targeting cyclin-D1 and survival pathways in patients with MCL. This effective combination therapy also might be exploited in other cyclin-D1-expressing tumors.
Autores: Rodriguez, Paula; Román-Gómez, J.; et al.
ISSN 0007-1048  Vol. 155  Nº 1  2011  págs. 73 - 83
The role of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) with a tumour-suppressor function in human neoplasms has recently been established. Several miRNAs have been found to be inappropriately regulated by DNA methylation in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We analysed the methylation status of the three members of the MIR9 family (MIR9-1, MIR9-2 and MIR9-3) in a uniformly treated cohort of 200 newly diagnosed ALLs. MIR9 was methylated in 54% of the patients and was associated with downregulation of MIR9 (P < 0.01). Hypermethylation of MIR9 was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival, overall survival and event-free survival in a multivariate analysis (P < 0 01). Epigenetic downregulation of MIR9 induced upregulation of its targets, FGFR1 and CDK6, while treatment of ALL cells with FGFR1 (PD-173074) and CDK6 (PD-0332991) inhibitors induced a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis of ALL cells. Our results indicate that the MIR9 family is involved in the pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of ALL and provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of ALL, targeting the epigenetic regulation of miRNAs and/or the FGFR1 or CDK6-RB pathway directly
Autores: Javierre, B. M.; Rodríguez-Ubreba, J.; Al-Shahrour, F.; et al.
ISSN 1541-7786  Vol. 9  Nº 8  2011  págs. 1139 - 1151
Transcription factors are common targets of epigenetic inactivation in human cancer. Promoter hypermethylation and subsequent silencing of transcription factors can lead to further deregulation of their targets. In this study, we explored the potential epigenetic deregulation in cancer of Ikaros family genes, which code for essential transcription factors in cell differentiation and exhibit genetic defects in hematologic neoplasias. Unexpectedly, our analysis revealed that Ikaros undergoes very specific promoter hypermethylation in colorectal cancer, including in all the cell lines studied and around 64% of primary colorectal adenocarcinomas, with increasing proportions in advanced Duke's stages. Ikaros hypermethylation occurred in the context of a novel long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES) region. Reintroduction of Ikaros in colorectal cancer cells, ChIP-chip analysis, and validation in primary samples led us to identify a number of direct targets that are possibly related with colorectal cancer progression. Our results not only provide the first evidence that LRES can have functional specific effects in cancer but also identify several deregulated Ikaros targets that may contribute to progression in colorectal adenocarcinoma.
Autores: López, Xabier; Pelacho, Beatriz; Peñuelas, Iván; et al.
ISSN 0963-6897  Vol. 20  Nº 2  2011  págs. 259 - 269
There is a need for comparative studies to determine which cell types are better candidates to remedy ischemia. Here, we compared human AC133(+) cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPC) in a mouse model reminiscent of critical limb ischemia. hMAPC or hAC133(+) cell transplantation induced a significant improvement in tissue perfusion (measured by microPET) 15 days posttransplantation compared to controls. This improvement persisted for 30 days in hMAPC-treated but not in hAC133(+)-injected animals. While transplantation of hAC133(+) cells promoted capillary growth, hMAPC transplantation also induced collateral expansion, decreased muscle necrosis/fibrosis, and improved muscle regeneration. Incorporation of differentiated MC 133(+) or hMAPC progeny into new vessels was limited; however, a paracrine angio/arteriogenic effect was demonstrated in animals treated with hMAPC. Accordingly, hMAPC-conditioned, but not hAC133(+)-conditioned, media stimulated vascular cell proliferation and prevented myoblast, endothelial, and smooth muscle cell apoptosis in vitro. Our study suggests that although hAC133(+) cell and hMAPC transplantation both contribute to vascular regeneration in ischemic limbs, hMAPC exert a more robust effect through trophic mechanisms, which translated into collateral and muscle fiber regeneration. This, in turn, conferred tissue protection and regeneration with longer term functional improvement.
Autores: Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Ander; Campanero, MA; et al.
ISSN 1570-0232  Vol. 879  Nº 30  2011  págs. 3490-6
An ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the quantitation of LBH589, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), in mouse plasma and tissues (liver, spleen, kidney and lung). Tobramycin was employed as the internal standard. Separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC¿ BEH column, with a mobile phase consisting of 10% water (with 0.1% of trifluoroacetic acid) and 90% methanol (with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid). LBH589 and tobramycin were determined using an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. Detection was performed on electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry by multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions of LBH589 at m/z 349.42¿157.95 and of tobramycin at 468.2¿163. Calibration curves for the UHPLC method (0.0025-1 ¿g/mL for plasma and tissue homogenates, equivalent to 0.0357-14.2857 ¿g/g for tissue samples) showed a linear range of detector responses (r>0.998). Intra-batch and inter-batch precision expressed as coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.92 to 8.40%. Accuracy expressed as bias, ranged from -2.41 to 2.62%. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.0025 ¿g/mL for both plasma and tissue homogenate samples, equivalent to 0.0357 ¿g/g tissue. This method was successfully applied to quantify LBH589 in plasma and tissue samples obtained after the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of 20 mg/kg of LBH589 in BALB/c mice.
Autores: Redondo, P. ; Giménez de Azcárate Trívez, A.; Marqués Martín, L.; et al.
Revista: Dermatology Research and Practice
ISSN 1687-6105  Vol. Article ID 532139, 6 pages  2011  págs. 532139-
Patients were followed for up to 6 months using clinical assessment of achromic lesions. Treated areas ranged between 4¿cm(2) and 210.6¿cm(2). Response to treatment was excellent in all patients with 90-95% repigmentation success rate.
Autores: Agirre, X; Martín-Palanco, V.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 2  2011  págs. e17012
Aberrant DNA methylation is one of the most frequent alterations in patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Using methylation bead arrays we analyzed the methylation status of 807 genes implicated in cancer in a group of ALL samples at diagnosis (n¿=¿48). We found that 154 genes were methylated in more than 10% of ALL samples. Interestingly, the expression of 13 genes implicated in the TP53 pathway was downregulated by hypermethylation. Direct or indirect activation of TP53 pathway with 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine, Curcumin or Nutlin-3 induced an increase in apoptosis of ALL cells. The results obtained with the initial group of 48 patients was validated retrospectively in a second cohort of 200 newly diagnosed ALL patients. Methylation of at least 1 of the 13 genes implicated in the TP53 pathway was observed in 78% of the patients, which significantly correlated with a higher relapse (p¿=¿0.001) and mortality (p<0.001) rate being an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (p¿=¿0.006) and overall survival (OS) (p¿=¿0.005) in the multivariate analysis. All these findings indicate that TP53 pathway is altered by epigenetic mechanisms in the majority of ALL patients and correlates with prognosis. Treatments with compounds that may reverse the epigenetic abnormalities or activate directly the p53 pathway represent a new therapeutic alternative for patients with ALL.
Autores: Vegliante, M. C.; Royo, C.; Palomero, J.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 6  2011  págs. e21382
Recent studies have shown aberrant expression of SOX11 in various types of aggressive B-cell neoplasms. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to such deregulation, we performed a comprehensive SOX11 gene expression and epigenetic study in stem cells, normal hematopoietic cells and different lymphoid neoplasms. We observed that SOX11 expression is associated with unmethylated DNA and presence of activating histone marks (H3K9/14Ac and H3K4me3) in embryonic stem cells and some aggressive B-cell neoplasms. In contrast, adult stem cells, normal hematopoietic cells and other lymphoid neoplasms do not express SOX11. Such repression was associated with silencing histone marks H3K9me2 and H3K27me3. The SOX11 promoter of non-malignant cells was consistently unmethylated whereas lymphoid neoplasms with silenced SOX11 tended to acquire DNA hypermethylation. SOX11 silencing in cell lines was reversed by the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA but not by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor AZA. These data indicate that, although DNA hypermethylation of SOX11 is frequent in lymphoid neoplasms, it seems to be functionally inert, as SOX11 is already silenced in the hematopoietic system. In contrast, the pathogenic role of SOX11 is associated with its de novo expression in some aggressive lymphoid malignancies, which is mediated by a shift from inactivating to activating histone modifications.
Autores: Vázquez, Iria; Cervera, J.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 96  Nº 10  2011  págs. 1448 - 1456
Our results identify EVI1 over-expression as a poor prognostic marker in a large, independent cohort of acute myeloid leukemia patients less than 65 years old, and show that the total absence of EVI1 expression has a prognostic impact on the outcome of such patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that an aberrant epigenetic pattern involving DNA methylation, H3 and H4 acetylation, and trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 and histone H3 lysine 27 might play a role in the transcriptional regulation of EVI1 in acute myeloid leukemia. This study opens new avenues for a better understanding of the regulation of EVI1 expression at a transcriptional level.
Autores: Peña, E.; Andreu, Enrique José; Pérez-Ilzarbe, M.; et al.
ISSN 1549-3296  Vol. 96  Nº 2  2011  págs. 341 - 348
A better cell adhesion rate was observed in the cross-linked meshes. An increase in the mechanical properties after cell seeding was observed with a direct relation with the degree of cross-linking. All meshes analyzed showed a marked anisotropy that should be taken into account during the surgical procedure. The cross-linking treatment increased cell adhesion and the mechanical properties of the collagen meshes after seeding. These results suggest that the mechanical properties of this type of collagen mesh could be useful as scaffolds for repair of pelvic organ prolapse.
Autores: Mora , S; Sirerol, MS; et al.
ISSN 1078-7852  Vol. 8  Nº 1  2011  págs. 28
Our results provide an exhaustive analysis of the histopathological changes (inflammation, necrosis, tissue remodeling, scarring...) that occur after stroke in the ischemic boundary zone, which are of key importance for the final stroke outcome. This analysis would allow evaluating how different therapies would affect wound and regeneration. Moreover, this stroke model in RAG 2-/- ¿C -/- allows cell transplant from different species, even human, to be analyzed.
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; Mazo, Manuel María; Gavira, Juan José; et al.
ISSN 1937-5387  Vol. 4  Nº 2  2011  págs. 154 - 160
Cardiovascular diseases constitute the first cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Alternative treatments like transplantation of (stem) cell populations derived from several adult tissue sources, like the bone marrow, skeletal muscle, or even adipose tissue, have been already employed in diverse clinical trials. Results from these studies and previous animal studies have reached to the conclusion that stem cells induce a benefit in the treated hearts, which is exerted mainly through paracrine mechanisms and not through direct differentiation as it was initially expected. However, a strong technical limitation for the stem cell therapy, which is the low level of cell survival and engraftment, diminishes their potential. Thus, new strategies like combination of the cells with bioengineering techniques have been developed and are being subject of intense research, suggesting that new strategies may improve the efficacy of these therapies. In this review, we will discuss the different therapeutic approaches, drawbacks, and future expectations of new regenerative therapies for cardiovascular diseases.
Autores: Mazo, Manuel María; Gavira, Juan José; Pelacho, Beatriz; et al.
ISSN 1937-5387  Vol. 4  Nº 2  2011  págs. 145 - 153
In recent years, stem cell treatment of myocardial infarction has elicited great enthusiasm upon scientists and physicians alike, thus making the finding of a suitable cell a compulsory subject for modern medicine. Due to its potential, accessibility and efficiency of harvesting, adipose tissue has become one of the most attractive sources of stem cells for regenerative therapies. The differentiation capacity and the paracrine activity of these cells has made them an optimal candidate for the treatment of a diverse range of diseases from immunological disorders as graft versus host disease to cardiovascular pathologies like peripheral ischemia. In this review, we will focus on the use of stem cells derived from adipose tissue for treatment of myocardial infarction, with special attention to their putative in vivo mechanisms of action.
Autores: Dejean, E.; Renalier, M. H. ; Foisseau, M.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 25  Nº 12  2011  págs. 1882 - 1890
The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), tyrosine kinase oncogene is implicated in a wide variety of cancers. In this study we used conditional onco-ALK (NPM-ALK and TPM3-ALK) mouse MEF cell lines (ALK+ fibroblasts) and transgenic models (ALK+ B-lymphoma) to investigate the involvement and regulation of angiogenesis in ALK tumor development. First, we observed that ALK expression leads to downregulation of miR-16 and increased Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels. Second, we found that modification of miR-16 levels in TPM3-ALK MEF cells greatly affected VEGF levels. Third, we demonstrated that miR-16 directly interacts with VEGF mRNA at the 3'-untranslated region and that the regulation of VEGF by miR-16 occurs at the translational level. Fourth, we showed that expression of both the ALK oncogene and hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha (HIF1 alpha) is a prerequisite for miR-16 downregulation. Fifth, in vivo, miR-16 gain resulted in reduced angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, we highlighted an inverse correlation between the levels of miR-16 and VEGF in human NPM-ALK+ Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCL). Altogether, our results demonstrate, for the first time, the involvement of angiogenesis in ALK+ ALCL and strongly suggest an important role for hypoxia-miR-16 in regulating VEGF translation. Leukemia (2011) 25, 1882-1890; doi:10.1038/leu.2011.168; published online 22 July 2011
Autores: Malumbres, Raquel; Román-Gómez, J.; Bobadilla, Miriam; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 96  Nº 7  2011  págs. 980 - 986
LMO2 is highly expressed at the most immature stages of lymphopoiesis. In T-lymphocytes, aberrant LMO2 expression beyond those stages leads to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while in B cells LMO2 is also expressed in germinal center lymphocytes and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, where it predicts better clinical outcome. The implication of LMO2 in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia must still be explored. Design and Methods We measured LMO2 expression by real time RT-PCR in 247 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient samples with cytogenetic data (144 of them also with survival and immunophenotypical data) and in normal hematopoietic and lymphoid cells. Results B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases expressed variable levels of LMO2 depending on immunophenotypical and cytogenetic features. Thus, the most immature subtype, pro-B cells, displayed three-fold higher LMO2 expression than pre-B cells, common-CD10+ or mature sub-types. Additionally, cases with TEL-AML1 or MLL rearrangements exhibited two-fold higher LMO2 expression compared to cases with BCR-ABL rearrangements or hyperdyploid karyotype. Clinically, high LMO2 expression correlated with better overall survival in adult patients (5-year survival rate 64.8% (42.5%-87.1%) vs. 25.8% (10.9%-40.7%), P = 0.001) and constituted a favorable independent prognostic factor in B-ALL with normal karyotype: 5-year survival rate 80.3% (66.4%-94.2%) vs. 63.0% (46.1%-79.9%) (P = 0.043). Conclusions Our data indicate that LMO2 expression depends on the molecular features and the differentiation stage of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Furthermore, assessment of LMO2 expression in adult patients with a normal karyotype, a group which lacks molecular prognostic factors, could be of clinical relevance.
Autores: Robles, Eloy Francisco; Akasaka, T.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 118  Nº 21  2011  págs. 119 - 120
Autores: Martínez, José Ángel; Richter, José Ángel; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 22  Nº Supl 4  2011  págs. 127
Autores: Paiva, B.; Mateos, M. V. ; Lopez-Corral, L.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 118  Nº 21  2011  págs. 1686
Autores: Agirre, X; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 118  Nº 21  2011  págs. 660
Autores: Martínez, José Ángel; Gascoyne, R. D.; Siebert, R.; et al.
Revista: Haematologica
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 95  Nº 2  2010  págs. 293 - 302
While leukemia-originating stem cells are critical in the initiation and maintenance of leukemias, the existence of similar cell populations that may generate B-cell lymphoma upon mutation remains uncertain. Here we propose that committed lymphoid progenitor/precursor cells with an active V-D-J recombination program are the initiating cells of follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma when targeted by immunoglobulin (IG)- gene translocations in the bone marrow. However, these pre-malignant lymphoma-initiating cells cannot drive complete malignant transformation, requiring additional cooperating mutations in specific stem-cell programs to be converted into the lymphoma-originating cells able to generate and sustain lymphoma development. Conversely, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma derive from B lymphocytes that acquire translocations through IG-hyper-mutation or class-switching errors within the germinal center. Although secondary reprogramming mutations are generally required, some cells such as centroblasts or memory B cells that have certain stem cell-like features, or lymphocytes with MYC rearrangements that deregulate self-renewal pathways, may bypass this need and directly function as the lymphoma-originating cells. An alternative model supports an aberrant epigenetic modification of gene sets as the first occurring hit, which either leads to retaining stem-cell features in hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells, or reprograms stemness into more committed lymphocytes, followed by secondary chromosomal translocations that eventually drive lymphoma development. Isolation and characterization of the cells that are at the origin of the different B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas will provide critical insights into the disease pathogenesis and will represent a step towards the development of more effective therapies.
Autores: Garnaud, I.; Carrere, B.; prosper f; et al.
ISSN 1268-6034  Vol. 15  Nº 83  2010  págs. 24 - 26
In order to respond to the fear of falling or falling again expressed by a large majority of its patients, the department for follow-up care and rehabilitation in Bazas hospital (Gironde) has set up a "balance" workshop in 2004. An account of this prevention strategy.
Autores: Mazo, Manuel María; Pelacho, Beatriz; prosper f;
ISSN 1937-5387  Vol. 3  Nº 2  2010  págs. 79 - 88
Although recent advances for the treatment of myocardial infarction have dramatically increased the rate of survival after the ischemic event, this has also led to a rise in the number of chronic patients, making the finding of a suitable therapy a compulsory subject for modern medicine. Over the last decade, stem cells have been a promise for the cure of several diseases not only due to their plasticity but also to their capacity to act in a paracrine manner and influence the affected tissue, prompting the launching of several clinical trials. In spite of the knowledge already acquired, stem cell application to chronically infarcted hearts has been much less approached than its acute counterpart. Through this review, we will focus in stem cell therapy in animal models of chronic myocardial infarction: cell types employed, functional results, mechanisms analyzed, and questions raised.
Autores: García-Sanz, R; Alegre, A; Capote, FJ; et al.
ISSN 0025-7753  Vol. 134  Nº 6  2010  págs. 268-78
Autores: Gavira, Juan José; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 0195-668X  Vol. 31  Nº 8  2010  págs. 1013 - 1021
Aims Although transplantation of skeletal myoblast (SkM) in models of chronic myocardial infarction (MI) induces an improvement in cardiac function, the limited engraftment remains a major limitation. We analyse in a pre-clinical model whether the sequential transplantation of autologous SkM by percutaneous delivery was associated with increased cell engraftment and functional benefit. Methods and results Chronically infarcted Goettingen minipigs (n = 20) were divided in four groups that received either media control or one, two, or three doses of SkM (mean of 329.6 x 10(6) cells per dose) at intervals of 6 weeks and were followed for a total of 7 months. At the time of sacrifice, cardiac function was significantly better in animals treated with SkM in comparison with the control group. A significantly greater increase in the Delta LVEF was detected in animals that received three doses vs. a single dose of SkM. A correlation between the total number of transplanted cells and the improvement in LVEF and Delta LVEF was found (P < 0.05). Skeletal myoblast transplant was associated with an increase in tissue vasculogenesis and decreased fibrosis (collagen vascular fraction) and these effects were greater in animals receiving three doses of cells. Conclusion Repeated injection of SkM in a model of chronic MI is feasible and safe and induces a significant improvement in cardiac function.
Autores: Mazo, Manuel María; Gavira, Juan José; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
ISSN 0963-6897  Vol. 19  Nº 3  2010  págs. 313 - 328
The aim of this study is to assess the long-term effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation in a rat model of chronic myocardial infarction (MI) in comparison with the effect of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) transplant. Five weeks after induction of MI, rats were allocated to receive intramyocardial injection of 10(6) GFP-expressing cells (BM-MNC or MSC) or medium as control. Heart function (echocardiography and (18)F-FDG-microPET) and histological studies were performed 3 months after transplantation and cell fate was analyzed along the experiment (1 and 2 weeks and 1 and 3 months). The main findings of this study were that both BM-derived populations, BM-MNC and MSC, induced a long-lasting (3 months) improvement in LVEF (BM-MNC: 26.61 +/- 2.01% to 46.61 +/- 3.7%, p <0.05; MSC: 27.5 +/- 1.28% to 38.8 +/- 3.2%, p < 0.05) but remarkably, only MSC improved tissue metabolism quantified by (18)F-FDG uptake (71.15 +/- 1.27 to 76.31 +/- 1.11, p<0.01), which was thereby associated with a smaller infarct size and scar collagen content and also with a higher revascularization degree. Altogether, results show that MSC provides a long-term superior benefit than whole BM-MNC transplantation in a rat model of chronic MI.
Autores: Alvarez, S.; Suela, J.; Valencia, A.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 5  Nº 8  2010  págs. e12197
Background: Aberrant promoter DNA methylation has been shown to play a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathophysiology. However, further studies to discuss the prognostic value and the relationship of the epigenetic signatures with defined genomic rearrangements in acute myeloid leukemia are required. Methodology/Principal Findings: We carried out high-throughput methylation profiling on 116 de novo AML cases and we validated the significant biomarkers in an independent cohort of 244 AML cases. Methylation signatures were associated with the presence of a specific cytogenetic status. In normal karyotype cases, aberrant methylation of the promoter of DBC1 was validated as a predictor of the disease-free and overall survival. Furthermore, DBC1 expression was significantly silenced in the aberrantly methylated samples. Patients with chromosome rearrangements showed distinct methylation signatures. To establish the role of fusion proteins in the epigenetic profiles, 20 additional samples of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) transduced with common fusion genes were studied and compared with patient samples carrying the same rearrangements. The presence of MLL rearrangements in HSPC induced the methylation profile observed in the MLL-positive primary samples. In contrast, fusion genes such as AML1/ETO or CBFB/MYH11 failed to reproduce the epigenetic signature observed in the patients. Conclusions/Significance: Our study provides a comprehensive epigenetic profiling of AML, identifies new clinical markers for cases with a normal karyotype, and reveals relevant biological information related to the role of fusion proteins on the methylation signature.
Autores: Richter, José Ángel; Robles, Eloy Francisco; Beltrán E; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 116  Nº 14  2010  págs. 2531 - 2542
In Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL), achievement of complete remission with first-line chemotherapy remains a challenging issue, as most patients who respond remain disease-free, whereas those refractory have few options of being rescued with salvage therapies. The mechanisms underlying BL chemoresistance and how it can be circumvented remain undetermined. We previously reported the frequent inactivation of the proapoptotic BIM gene in B-cell lymphomas. Here we show that BIM epigenetic silencing by concurrent promoter hypermethylation and deacetylation occurs frequently in primary BL samples and BL-derived cell lines. Remarkably, patients with BL with hypermethylated BIM presented lower complete remission rate (24% vs 79%; P = .002) and shorter overall survival (P = .007) than those with BIM-expressing lymphomas, indicating that BIM transcriptional repression may mediate tumor chemoresistance. Accordingly, by combining in vitro and in vivo studies of human BL-xenografts grown in immuno-deficient RAG2(-/-)gamma c(-/-) mice and of murine B220(+)IgM(+) B-cell lymphomas generated in E(mu)-MYC and E(mu)-MYC-BIM(+/-) transgenes, we demonstrate that lymphoma chemoresistance is dictated by BIM gene dosage and is reversible on BIM reactivation by genetic manipulation or after treatment with histone-deacetylase inhibitors. We suggest that the combination of histone-deacetylase inhibitors and high-dose chemotherapy may overcome chemoresistance, achieve durable remission, and improve survival of patients with BL.
Autores: Valeri, A.; Alonso-Ferrero, M. E.; Río, P.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 5  Nº 12  2010  págs. e15525
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clonal disorder of the hematopoietic system caused by the expression of the BCR/ABL fusion oncogene. Although it is well known that CML cells are genetically unstable, the mechanisms accounting for this genomic instability are still poorly understood. Because the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is believed to control several mechanisms of DNA repair, we investigated whether this pathway was disrupted in CML cells. Our data show that CML cells have a defective capacity to generate FANCD2 nuclear foci, either in dividing cells or after DNA damage. Similarly, human cord blood CD34(+) cells transduced with BCR/ABL retroviral vectors showed impaired FANCD2 foci formation, whereas FANCD2 monoubiquitination in these cells was unaffected. Soon after the transduction of CD34+ cells with BCR/ABL retroviral vectors a high proportion of cells with supernumerary centrosomes was observed. Similarly, BCR/ABL induced a high proportion of chromosomal abnormalities, while mediated a cell survival advantage after exposure to DNA cross-linking agents. Significantly, both the impaired formation of FANCD2 nuclear foci, and also the predisposition of BCR/ABL cells to develop centrosomal and chromosomal aberrations were reverted by the ectopic expression of BRCA1. Taken together, our data show for the first time a disruption of the FA/BRCA pathway in BCR/ABL cells, suggesting that this defective pathway should play an important role in the genomic instability of CML by the co-occurrence of centrosomal amplification and DNA repair deficiencies.
Autores: Mateos, M. V. ; Cibeira, M. T.; Richardson, P. G.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 16  Nº 12  2010  págs. 3260 - 3269
Purpose: This trial evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of the marine-derived cyclodepsipeptide plitidepsin in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Experimental Design: This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase II trial with plitidepsin at 5 mg/m(2) as a 3-hour i.v. infusion every two weeks. The protocol was amended to allow patients with suboptimal response to single-agent plitidepsin to add 20 mg/day on days 1 to 4 of oral dexamethasone every two weeks. Results: Fifty-one patients started treatment with plitidepsin and 47 were evaluable for efficacy. The overall response rate ( complete response plus partial response plus minimal response) was 13% with plitidepsin alone and 22% in the cohort of patients with the addition of dexamethasone ( n = 19, 18 evaluable). Both plitidepsin alone and with dexamethasone were feasible and well tolerated. Anemia ( 29%) and thrombocytopenia ( 18%) were the most frequent grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities. Fatigue ( 16%), muscular toxicity ( 6%), and transient alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ( 27%) and creatine phosphokinase ( 23%) increases were the most relevant nonhematologic side effects. A prolonged plasma half-life was observed in responding patients as compared with nonresponding patients ( P = 0.009). Conclusions: Single-agent plitidepsin has limited but reproducible activity in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients. Activity observed after dexamethasone addition merits further study. Both regimens were well tolerated in this heavily pretreated population. Clin Cancer Res; 16( 12); 3260-9. (C)2010 AACR.
Autores: Rice, C. M.; Clavel, C.; Mazo, Manuel María; et al.
Revista: British Journal of Haematology
ISSN 0007-1048  Vol. 148  Nº 3  2010  págs. 441 - 444
This report describes the isolation of rodent multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) and proliferation of these cells in both standard medium and medium without exogenous serum or growth factors conditioned by the rat cell line B104. MAPCs have exacting requirements for their proliferation in vitro but once established proliferate rapidly at low seeding density, requiring almost daily passage and media exchange. Previously published methods for growth of MAPCs in vitro all used media supplemented with serum and growth factors, which adds considerable expense.
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; Garbayo, Elisa; et al.
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 147  Nº 1  2010  págs. 30 - 37
The use of pro-angiogenic growth factors in ischemia models has been associated with limited success in the clinical setting, in part owing to the short lived effect of the injected cytokine. The use of a microparticle system could allow localized and sustained cytokine release and consequently a prolonged biological effect with induction of tissue revascularization. To assess the potential of VEGF(165) administered as continuous release in ischemic disease, we compared the effect of delivery of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MP) loaded with VEGF(165) with free-VEGF or control empty microparticles in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion. VEGF165 loaded microparticles could be detected in the myocardium of the infarcted animals for more than a month after transplant and provided sustained delivery of active protein in vitro and in vivo. One month after treatment, an increase in angiogenesis (small caliber caveolin-1 positive vessels) and arteriogenesis (alpha-SMA-positive vessels) was observed in animals treated with VEGF microparticles (p < 0.05), but not in the empty microparticles or free-VEGF groups. Correlating with this data, a positive remodeling of the heart was also detected in the VEGF-microparticle group with a significantly greater LV wall thickness (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PICA microparticle is a feasible and promising cytokine delivery system for treatment of myocardial ischemia. This strategy could be scaled up and explored in pre-clinical and clinical studies. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Albero, MP; Vaquer, JM; Andreu, Enrique José; et al.
Revista: Oncogene
ISSN 0950-9232  Vol. 29  Nº 22  2010  págs. 3276 - 3286
Autores: Vázquez, Iria; Marcotegui, Nerea; et al.
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 107  Nº 44  2010  págs. E167 - E168
Autores: Beltrán E; Richter, José Ángel; Sagardoy, A.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 116  Nº 21  2010  págs. 338
Autores: Valeri, A.; Alonso-Ferrero, M. E.; Rio, P; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 21  Nº 10  2010  págs. 1365
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; Pérez, Ana Isabel; prosper f;
Libro:  Platelet rich plasma in orthopaedics and sports medicine
2018  págs. 83 - 97
Autores: Carvajal-Vergara, Xonia; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto; Pelacho, Beatriz; et al.
Libro:  Cell therapy: current status and future directions
2017  págs. 173 - 196
The field of regenerative medicine has made great progress with the development of cell reprogramming and gene editing techniques. The option to derive pluripotent cells from somatic cells by overexpression of pluripotent factors or specific molecules, and even more the possibility to reprogram one somatic cell type to another somatic cell type in vitro and in vivo, has offered many new options for future therapies. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the studies performed to understand the mechanisms and to develop the techniques for cell reprogramming, focusing specially in their application in cardiac regeneration and rare disease modeling. First, we discuss the plasticity of cells and methods for their reprogramming. Also, a description of the different studies for differentiation of pluripotent cells toward cardiovascular cells and direct cell reprogramming is provided. Finally, the use of reprogrammed cells as a model for human pathologies, mainly rare diseases, the different aspects that should be bear in mind for optimal model development, the use of gene editing for creating novel and improved disease models, and the therapeutic applications of iPSC-based models have been thoroughly described in this chapter.
Autores: Garbayo, Elisa; Gil-Pascual S; prosper f; et al.
Libro:  Bioresorbable polymers for biomedical applications : from fundamentals to translational medicine
Vol. 120  2017  págs. 445-467
However, although cardiac tissue engineering approaches have been shown to improve heart recovery after MI, there is still no approved treatment available on the market. More research is needed on cardiac tissue engineering strategies to optimize these promising treatments.
Autores: Díaz, Paula; Pascual, Simón; Garbayo, Elisa; et al.
Libro:  Drug delivery: An integrated Clinical and Engineering Approach
2016  págs. 437 - 478
Emphasizing an integrated clinical and engineering approach, this book explores the FDA regulatory and bioethical challenges involved in advancing drug delivery. It examines special clinical states requiring innovative drug delivery modifications, such as hypercoagulability often seen in pregnancy, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. It discusses methods for improved drug delivery in clinical settings using clinical end points, clinical trials, simulations, and other venues. It also describes the latest drug delivery advances involving nanomaterials, NEMS and MEMS devices, hydrogels, microencapsulation, lipids, stem cells, patches, ultrasound, and more.
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; prosper f;
Libro:  Biología celular biomédica
2015  págs. 397
Autores: Zapata, Natalia María; Garbayo, Elisa; Blanco, María José; et al.
Libro:  Biointerfaces: where material meets biology
2015  págs. 74 - 104
Autores: Mazo, Manuel María; Araña, M; Pelacho, Beatriz; et al.
Libro:  Adult and pluripotent stem cells
2014  págs. 1-19
In recent years, the incredible boost in stem cell research has kindled the expectations of both patients and physicians. Mesenchymal progenitors, owing to their availability, ease of manipulation and therapeutic potential, have become one of the most attractive options for the treatment of a wide range of diseases, from cartilage defects to cardiac disorders. Moreover, their immunomodulatory capacity has opened up their allogenic use, consequently broadening the possibilities for their application. In this review, we will focus on their use in the therapy of animal preclinical models of myocardial infarction, with special focus on their characteristics and their in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action.
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; prosper f;
Libro:  Técnicas en histología y biología celular
2014  págs. 303 - 327
Autores: Pelacho, Beatriz; Mazo, Manuel María; et al.
Libro:  Regenerative medicine and cell therapy
Vol. 316  2013  págs. 65 - 112
Autores: Araña, M; Mazo, Manuel María; Aranda, Pablo; et al.
Libro:  Cellular cardiomyoplasty: methods and protocols, methods in molecular biology
Vol. 1036  2013  págs. 47 - 61
Over the last decade, cell therapy has emerged as a potentially new approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Among the wide range of cell types and sources, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have shown promise, mainly due to its plasticity and remarkable paracrine-secretion capacity, largely demonstrated at the in vitro and in vivo levels. Furthermore, its accessibility and abundance, the low morbidity of the surgical procedure, its easy isolation, culture, and long-term passaging capacity added to its immunomodulatory properties that could allow its allogeneic transplantation, making it one of the most attractive candidates for clinical application. In this chapter, we will focus on the methodology for the isolation, expansion, phenotypical characterization, differentiation, and storage of the adipose-derived stem cells.
Autores: Araña, M; Mazo, Manuel María; Aranda, Pablo; et al.
Libro:  Cellular cardiomyoplasty: methods and protocols
Vol. 1036  2013  págs. 47 - 61
Autores: Simon-Yarza, T; Garbayo, Elisa; et al.
Libro:  Nanostructured biomaterials for overcoming biological barriers
2012  págs. 501 - 526
Autores: prosper f; Verfaille, C.M.;
Libro:  Celulas madre, lo que sabemos. Presente y futuro.
2010  págs. 27-34