Nuestros investigadores

María Iraburu Elizalde

Departamento
Bioquímica y Genética
Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Mecanismos reguladores de la fibrogénesis hepática
Índice H
15, (WoS, 30/11/2018)
15, (Scopus, 31/05/2018)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: López, María Jesús; Martinez-Irujo, Juan J; et al.
Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH
ISSN 0167-4889  Vol. 1866  Nº 4  2019  págs. 673 - 685
Liver damage induces hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation, characterised by a fibrogenic, proliferative and migratory phenotype. Activated HSC are mainly regulated by transforming growth factor ß 1 (TGFß1), which increases the production of extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen-I) promoting the progression of hepatic fibrosis. AGAP2 (ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2) is a GTPase/GTP-activating protein involved in the actin remodelling system and receptor recycling. In the present work the role of AGAP2 in human HSC in response to TGFß1 was investigated. LX-2 HSC were transfected with AGAP2 siRNA and treated with TGFß1. AGAP2 knockdown prevented to some extent the proliferative and migratory TGFß1-induced capacities of LX-2 cells. An array focused on human fibrosis revealed that AGAP2 knockdown partially prevented TGFß1-mediated gene expression of the fibrogenic genes ACTA2, COL1A2, EDN1, INHBE, LOX, PDGFB, TGF¿12, while favored the expression of CXCR4, IL1A, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP9 genes. Furthermore, TGFß1 induced AGAP2 promoter activation and its protein expression in LX-2. Moreover, AGAP2 protein levels were significantly increased in liver samples from rats with thioacetamide-induced fibrosis. In addition, AGAP2 silencing affected TGFß1-receptor 2 (TGFR2) trafficking in U2OS cells, blocking its effective recycling to the membrane. AGAP2 silencing in LX-2 cells prevented the TGFß1-induced increase of collagen-I protein levels, while its overexpression enhanced collagen-I protein expression in the presence or absence of the cytokine. AGAP2 overexpression also increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylated levels in LX-2 cells. FAK and MEK1 inhibitors prevented the increase of collagen-I expression caused by TGFß1 in LX-2 overexpressing AGAP2. In summary, the present work shows for the first time, that AGAP2 is a potential new target involved in TGFß1 signalling, contributing to the progression of hepatic fibrosis.
Autores: Caruso, S. ; Llerena, S. ; Alvarez-Sola, G. ; et al.
Revista: HEPATOLOGY
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 69  Nº 2  2019  págs. 587 - 603
Epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation functionally cooperate in fostering tumor growth, including that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pharmacological targeting of these mechanisms may open new therapeutic avenues. We aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of action of our dual G9a histone-methyltransferase and DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor in human HCC cells and their crosstalk with fibrogenic cells. The expression of G9a and DNMT1, along with that of their molecular adaptor ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains-1 (UHRF1), was measured in human HCCs (n = 268), peritumoral tissues (n = 154), and HCC cell lines (n = 32). We evaluated the effect of individual and combined inhibition of G9a and DNMT1 on HCC cell growth by pharmacological and genetic approaches. The activity of our lead compound, CM-272, was examined in HCC cells under normoxia and hypoxia, human hepatic stellate cells and LX2 cells, and xenograft tumors formed by HCC or combined HCC+LX2 cells. We found a significant and correlative overexpression of G9a, DNMT1, and UHRF1 in HCCs in association with poor prognosis. Independent G9a and DNMT1 pharmacological targeting synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth. CM-272 potently reduced HCC and LX2 cells proliferation and quelled tumor growth, particularly in HCC+LX2 xenografts. Mechanistically, CM-272 inhibited the metabolic adaptation of HCC cells to hypoxia and induced a differentiated phenotype in HCC and fibrogenic cells. The expression of the metabolic tumor suppressor gene fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), epigenetically repressed in HCC, was restored by CM-272. Conclusion: Combined targeting of G9a/DNMT1 with compounds such as CM-272 is a promising strategy for HCC treatment. Our findings also underscore the potential of differentiation therapy in HCC.
Autores: Colyn, L.; Alvarez-Sola, G.; Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 70  Nº Supl. 1  2019  págs. E27 - E28
Autores:  Garde, N.; et al.
Revista: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
ISSN 0891-5849  Vol. 126  2018  págs. 15 - 26
NADPH oxidase (Nox) variants Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 are implicated in the progression of liver fibrosis. However, the role of Nox5 is not yet known, mainly due to the lack of this enzyme in rat and mouse genomes. Here we describe the expression and functional relevance of Nox5 in the human cell line of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) LX-2. Under basal conditions, three long (Nox5-L: Nox5 alpha, -beta, and -delta) and a short (Nox5-S or Nox5 epsilon) splice variants were detected, which were silenced with specific siRNAs for Nox5. The most abundant isoform was Nox5-S, accounting for more than 90% of Nox5 protein. Overexpression of Nox5 beta generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of calcium, as judged by the production of hydrogen peroxide, L-012 luminescence and cytochrome c reduction. Nox5 epsilon did not generated ROS under these conditions, and a reduced ROS production was observed when co-expressed with Nox5 beta. In contrast, dihydroethidium oxidation was increased by Nox5 beta or Nox5 epsilon, suggesting that Nox5 epsilon induced intracellular oxidative stress by an unknown mechanism. Functional studies showed that both Nox5 beta and Nox5 epsilon stimulated the proliferation of LX-2 cells and the collagen type I levels, while Nox5 siRNAs inhibited these effects. Interestingly, TGF-beta and angiotensin II upregulated Nox5 expression, which was reduced in cells pre-incubated with catalase. Further studies silencing Nox5 in TGF-beta-treated cells resulted in a reduction of collagen levels via p38 MAPK. Collectively, these results show for the first time that Nox5 can play a relevant role in the proliferation and fibrosis on human HSC.
Autores:  Garde, N. ; et al.
Revista: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
ISSN 0891-5849  Vol. 120  2018  págs. S86 - S86
NADPH oxidase (Nox) variants Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 have been implicated in the progression of liver fibrosis. However, the role of Nox5 is unknown, mainly due to the lack of this enzyme in rat and mouse genomes. Here we describe the expression and functional relevance of Nox5 in the human cell line of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), LX-2. Under basal conditions, these cells expressed a long (Nox5L) and a short (Nox5S) variant which were silenced with specific siRNAs for Nox5. Overexpression of Nox5L generated ROS in the presence of calcium, as judged by the production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide, L-012 luminescence and cytochrome c reduction, while Nox5S did not generated ROS under these conditions. In contrast, dihydroethidium oxidation was increased when either Nox5L or Nox5S were overexpressed. Functional studies revealed that both Nox5L and Nox5S stimulated the proliferation of LX-2 cells and the synthesis of type I collagen, while Nox5 siRNAs inhibited these effects. Interestingly, TGF-beta and angiotensin II induced Nox5, and silencing Nox5 reduced collagen production stimulated by TGF-beta. Collectively, these results suggest for the first time that Nox5 can play a relevant role in HSC proliferation and fibrogenesis.
Autores: Ansorena, Eduardo; Iraburu, María J.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 68  Nº S1  2018  págs. S404 - S405
Autores: Navarro, A.; Ansorena, Eduardo; et al.
Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH
ISSN 0167-4889  Vol. 1863  Nº 8  2016  págs. 2115 - 2123
Unfolded protein response (UPR) triggered as a consequence of ER stress has been shown to be involved in the development of different pathologies, including fibrotic disorders. In the present paper we explore the role played by UPR on a key fibrogenic parameter in the liver: collagen type I levels in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Using Brefeldin A (BFA) as an ER stress inducer we found that UPR correlated with enhanced mRNA and protein levels of collagen type I in a cell line of immortalized non-tumoral rat HSC. Analysis of the three branches of UPR revealed the activation of IRE1¿, PERK and ATF6 in response to BFA, although PERK activation was shown not to be involved in the fibrogenic action of BFA. BFA also activated p38 MAPK in an IRE1¿-dependent way and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 prevented the increase in collagen type I mRNA and protein levels caused by BFA, suggesting the involvement of this kinase on this effect. Analysis of Smad activation showed that phosphorylated nuclear levels of Smad2 and 3 were increased in response to BFA treatment. Inhibition of Smad3 phosphorylation by SIS3 prevented the enhancement of collagen type I levels caused by BFA. Pretreatment with IRE1¿ and p38 MAPK inhibitors also prevented the increased p-Smad3 accumulation in the nucleus, suggesting an IRE1¿-p38 MAPK-Smad pathway to be responsible for the fibrogenic action of BFA on HSC.
Autores: Andueza, A.; Ruiz de Galarreta, M.; et al.
Revista: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
ISSN 0891-5849  Vol. 87  2015  págs. 169 - 180
Apigenin, a natural flavone, is emerging as a promising compound for the treatment of several diseases. One of the hallmarks of apigenin is the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as judged by the oxidation of reduced dichlorofluorescein derivatives seen in many cell types. This study aimed to reveal some mechanisms by which apigenin can be oxidized and how apigenin-derived radicals affect the oxidation of 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichloroclihydrolluorescein (H2DCF), a probe usually employed to detect intracellular ROS. Apigenin induced a rapid oxidation of H2DCF in two different immortalized cell lines derived from rat and human hepatic stellate cells. However, apigenin did not generate ROS in these cells, as judged by dihydroethidium oxidation and extracellular hydrogen peroxide production. In cell -free experiments we found that oxidation of apigenin leads to the generation of a phenoxyl radical, which directly oxidizes H2DCF with catalytic amounts of hydrogen peroxide. The net balance of the reaction was the oxidation of the probe by molecular oxygen due to redox cycling of apigenin. This flavonoid was also able to deplete NADH and glutathione by a similar mechanism. InLeresLingly, H2DCF oxidation was significantly accelerated by apigenin in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and xarahine oxidase, but not with other enzymes showing peroxiclase-like activity, such as cylochrome c or calalase. We conclude that in cells treated with apigenin oxidation of reduced clichlorofluorescein derivatives does not measure intracellular ROS and that pro- and antioxidant effects of flavonoids deduced from these experiments are inconclusive and must be confirmed by other techniques.
Autores:  et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 0021-9541  Vol. 230  Nº 3  2015  págs. 546 - 553
The turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components can generate signals that regulate several cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. During liver injury, matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) production is enhanced and increased levels of peptides derived from extracellular matrix proteins can be generated. Synthetic peptides with sequences present in extracellular matrix proteins were previously found to induce both stimulating and apoptotic effects on several cell types including the inflammatory cells monocytes/macrophages. Therefore, in inflammatory liver diseases, locally accumulated peptides could be also important in regulating hepatic fibrosis by inducing apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the primary cellular source of extracellular matrix components. Here, we describe the apoptotic effect of fibronectin peptides on the cell line of human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 based on oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and -9 activation, Bcl-2 depletion, and accumulation of Bax protein. We also found that these peptides trigger the activation of Src kinase, which in turn mediated the increase of JNK and p38 activities. By the use of specific inhibitors we demonstrated the involvement of Src, JNK, and p38 in apoptosis induced by fibronectin peptides on HSC. Moreover, fibronectin peptides increased iNOS expression in human HSC, and specific inhibition of iNOS significantly reduced the sustained activity of JNK and the programmed
Autores: Arriazu, Elena; López, María Jesús; et al.
Revista: LABORATORY INVESTIGATION
ISSN 0023-6837  Vol. 93  Nº 3  2013  págs. 303-310
General control nonderepresible 2 (GCN2) is a highly conserved cytosolic kinase that modulates a complex response for coping with the stress owing to lack of amino acids. GCN2 has been recently shown to be involved in the regulation of metabolic balance and lipid degradation rate in the liver. We hypothesized that GCN2 could have a role in in hepatic fibrogenesis and in the response to acute or chronic liver injury. Activation of GCN2 in primary or immortalized human hepatic stellate cells by incubation with medium lacking the essential amino acid histidine correlated with decreased levels of collagen type I protein and mRNA, suggesting an antifibrogenic effect of GCN2. In vivo studies with Gcn2 knockout mice (Gcn2(-/-)) showed increased susceptibility to both acute or chronic liver damage induced by CCl4, as shown by higher alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, increased necrosis and higher inflammatory infiltrates compared with wild-type mice (WT). Chronic CCl4 treatment increased deposition of interstitial collagen type I more in Gcn2(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Col1a1 and col1a2 mRNA levels also increased in CCl4-treated Gcn2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. These results suggest that GCN2 is a key regulator of the fibrogenic response to liver injury. Laboratory Investigation (2013) 93, 303-310; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2012.173; published online 14 January 2013
Autores: Arriazu, Elena; Pérez de Obanos, María del Pilar; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 56  2012  págs. S135 - S136
47th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-the-Liver (EASL)
Autores:  et al.
Revista: FEBS JOURNAL
ISSN 1742-464X  Vol. 279  Nº Supl. 1  2012  págs. 317 - 318
Autores: Pérez de Obanos, María del Pilar; et al.
Revista: Biochemical Pharmacology
ISSN 0006-2952  Vol. 81  Nº 3  2011  págs. 451 - 458
Autores: Arriazu, Elena; Pérez de Obanos, María del Pilar; López, María Jesús; et al.
Revista: CELL PHYSIOL BIOCHEM
ISSN 1015-8987  Vol. 26  Nº 3  2010  págs. 281 - 290
Autores: Arriazu, Elena; Pérez de Obanos, María del Pilar; López, María Jesús; et al.
Revista: HEPATOLOGY
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 52  Nº 4  2010  págs. 1283A

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