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Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Doroshow, D. B.; Hastings, K.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 25  Nº 15  2019  págs. 4592 - 4602
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), particularly inhibitors of the PD-1 axis, have altered the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) over the last 10 years. First demonstrated to improve outcomes in second-line or later therapy of advanced disease, ICIs were shown to improve overall survival compared with chemotherapy in first-line therapy for patients whose tumors express PD-L1 on at least 50% of cells. More recently, combining ICIs with chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival in patients with both squamous and nonsquamous NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 expression. However, PD-L1 and, more recently, tumor mutational burden have not proven to be straightforward indicative biomarkers. We describe the advances to date in utilizing these biomarkers, as well as novel markers of tumor inflammation, to ascertain which patients are most likely to benefit from ICIs. Ongoing translational work promises to improve the proportion of patients who benefit from these agents.
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro, (Autor de correspondencia); Ochoa, María del Carmen; et al.
ISSN 0007-0920  Vol. 120  Nº 1  2019  págs. 6 - 15
Cytokines are soluble proteins that mediate cell-to-cell communication. Based on the discovery of the potent anti-tumour activities of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in animal models, clinical research led to the approval of recombinant interferon-alpha and interleukin-2 for the treatment of several malignancies, even if efficacy was only modest. These early milestones in immunotherapy have been followed by the recent addition to clinical practice of antibodies that inhibit immune checkpoints, as well as chimeric antigen receptor T cells. A renewed interest in the anti-tumour properties of cytokines has led to an exponential increase in the number of clinical trials that explore the safety and efficacy of cytokine-based drugs, not only as single agents, but also in combination with other immunomodulatory drugs. These second-generation drugs under clinical development include known molecules with novel mechanisms of action, new targets, and fusion proteins that increase half-life and target cytokine activity to the tumour microenvironment or to the desired effector immune cells. In addition, the detrimental activity of immunosuppressive cytokines can be blocked by antagonistic antibodies, small molecules, cytokine traps or siRNAs. In this review, we provide an overview of the novel trends in the cytokine immunotherapy field that are yielding therapeutic agents for clinical trials.
Autores: Baraibar, Iosune; Melero, Ignacio Javier; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; et al.
ISSN 0114-5916  Vol. 42  Nº 2  2019  págs. 281 - 294
Immunotherapy has emerged in recent years and has revolutionized the treatment of cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) agents, are the first of this new generation of treatments. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents target immune cells by blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. This blockade leads to enhancement of the immune system and therefore restores the tumour-induced immune deficiency selectively in the tumour microenvironment. However, this shift in the balance of the immune system can also produce adverse effects that involve multiple organs. The pattern of toxicity is different from traditional chemotherapy agents or targeted therapy, and there is still little experience in recognizing and managing it. Thus, toxicity constitutes a real clinical management challenge and any new alteration should be suspected of being treatment-related. The most common toxicities occur in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and endocrine, musculoskeletal, renal, nervous, haematologic, cardiovascular and ocular systems. Immune-mediated toxic effects are usually manageable, but toxicities may sometimes lead to treatment withdrawal, and even fulminant and fatal events can occur. Oncologists need to collaborate with internists, clinical immunologists and other specialists to understand, manage and prevent toxicity derived from immunotherapy. This review focuses on the mechanisms of toxicity of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents, and its diagnosis and management.
Autores: Bol, K. F., (Autor de correspondencia); Schreibelt, G.; Rabold, K.; et al.
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 7  2019 
Dendritic cells (DCs) can initiate and direct adaptive immune responses. This ability is exploitable in DC vaccination strategies, in which DCs are educated ex vivo to present tumor antigens and are administered into the patient with the aim to induce a tumor-specific immune response. DC vaccination remains a promising approach with the potential to further improve cancer immunotherapy with little or no evidence of treatment-limiting toxicity. However, evidence for objective clinical antitumor activity of DC vaccination is currently limited, hampering the clinical implementation. One possible explanation for this is that the most commonly used monocyte-derived DCs may not be the best source for DC-based immunotherapy. The novel approach to use naturally circulating DCs may be an attractive alternative. In contrast to monocyte-derived DCs, naturally circulating DCs are relatively scarce but do not require extensive culture periods. Thereby, their functional capabilities are preserved, the reproducibility of clinical applications is increased, and the cells are not dysfunctional before injection. In human blood, at least three DC subsets can be distinguished, plasmacytoid DCs, CD141(+) and CD1c(+) myeloid/conventional DCs, each with distinct functional characteristics. In completed clinical trials, either CD1c(+) myeloid DCs or plasmacytoid DCs were administered and showed encouraging immunological and clinical outcomes. Currently, also the combination of CD1c(+) myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs as well as the intratumoral use of CD1c(+) myeloid DCs is under investigation in the clinic. Isolation and culture strategies for CD141(+) myeloid DCs are being developed. Here, we summarize and discuss recent clinical developments and future prospects of natural DC-based immunotherapy.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier, (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 1946-6234  Vol. 11  Nº 496  2019 
Autores: Marquez-Rodas, I. , (Autor de correspondencia); Aznar, María Ángela; Calles, A.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 25  Nº 4  2019  págs. 1127 - 1129
Intratumoral immunotherapy can potentially modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) and potentiate the effects of concomitant or sequential systemic immunotherapies. Intratumoral administration of different Toll-like receptor agonists, including TLR4, can potentiate these effects through innate and adaptive immunity connection.
Autores: Salas, Diego; Melero, Ignacio Javier; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano, (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 25  Nº 18  2019  págs. 5435 - 5437
No immunotherapy strategy is yet offering consistent results against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A randomized clinical trial testing repeated immunization with a Listeria monocytogenes-based vaccine encoding for mesothelin in combination with a GM-CSF-transfected allogeneic pancreatic cell vaccine reports no survival benefit for the vaccinated patients.
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Olivera, Irene; et al.
ISSN 2159-8274  Vol. 9  Nº 8  2019  págs. 1003 - 1005
About one third of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) show gain-of-function mutations of CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) that correlate with sparse intratumoral T-cell content, as observed previously in an ample spectrum of malignancies, and there is mounting preliminary evidence that such HCC cases are refractory to treatment with PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors. Elegant hepatocarcinogenesis experiments by in vivo gene transfer to mouse hepatocytes show that coexpression of active forms of beta-catenin result in poor T-cell infiltrates, faster progression in immunocompetent hosts, and unresponsiveness to immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors.
Autores: Elgendy, M.; Segura, Victoriano; et al.
ISSN 0020-7136  Vol. 145  Nº 7  2019  págs. 1991 - 2001
Sunitinib is one of the most widely used targeted therapeutics for renal cell-cancer (RCC) but acquired resistance against targeted therapies remains a major clinical challenge. To dissect mechanisms of acquired resistance and unravel reliable predictive biomarkers for sunitinib in renal cell-cancer (RCC), we sequenced the exons of 409 tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes in paired tumor samples from an RCC patient, obtained at baseline and following development of acquired resistance to sunitinib. From newly arising mutations, we selected, using in-silico prediction models, 6 predicted to be deleterious, located in G6PD, LRP1B, SETD2, TET2, SYNE1 and DCC. Consistently, immunoblotting analysis of lysates derived from sunitinib-desensitized RCC cells and their parental counterparts showed marked differences in the levels and expression pattern of the proteins encoded by these genes. Our further analysis demonstrates essential roles for these proteins in mediating sunitinib cytotoxicity and shows that their loss of function render tumor cells resistant to sunitinib in vitro and in vivo. Finally, sunitinib resistance induced by continuous exposure or by inhibition of the 6 proteins was overcome by treatment with cabozantinib or a low-dose combination of lenvatinib and everolimus. Collectively, our results unravel novel markers of acquired resistance to sunitinib and clinically relevant approaches for overcoming this resistance in RCC.
Autores: Wculek, S. K.; Amores-Iniesta, J.; Conde-Garrosa, R. ; et al.
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 7  2019 
Background: The manipulation of dendritic cells (DCs) for cancer vaccination has not reached its full potential, despite rile revolution in cancer immunotherapy. DCs are fundamental for CD8+ T cell activation, which relies on cross-presentation of exogenous antigen on MHC-I and can be fostered by immunogenic cancer cell death. Translational and clinical research has focused on in vitro-generated monocyte-derived DCs, while the vaccination efficacy of natural conventional type 1 DCs (cDC1s), which are associated with improved anti-tumor immunity and specialize on antigen cross-presentation, remains unknown. Methods: We isolated primary spleen mouse cDC1s and established a protocol for fast ex vivo activation and antigenloading with lysates of tumor cells that underwent immunogenic cell death by UV irradiation. Natural tumor antigen-loaded cDC1s were transferred and their potential for induction of endogenous CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in vivo, cancer prevention and therapy were assessed in three grafted cancer models. Further, we tested the efficacy of natural cDC1 vaccination in combination and comparison with anti-PD-1 treatment in two "wildtype" tumor models not expressing exogenous antigens. Results: Herein, we reveal that primary mouse cDC1s ex vivo loaded with dead tumor cell-derived antigen are activated and induce strong CD8+ T cell responses from the endogenous repertoire upon adoptive transfer in vivo through tumor antigen cross-presentation. Notably, cDC1-based vaccines enhance tumor infiltration by cancerreactive CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and halt progression of engrafted cancer models, including tumors that are refractory to anti-PD-1 treatment Moreover, combined tumor antigen-loaded primary cDC1 and anti-PD-1 therapy had strong synergistic effects in a PD-1 checkpoint inhibition susceptible cancer model. Conclusions: This preclinical proof-of-principle study is first to support the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapy with syngeneic dead tumor cell antigen-loaded mouse cDC1s, the equivalents of the human dendritic cell subset that correlates with beneficial prognosis of cancer patients. Our data pave the way for translation of cDC1-based cancer treatments into the clinic when isolation of natural human cDC1s becomes feasible.
Autores: Garasa, S.; Gato-Canas, M.; et al.
ISSN 2326-6066  Vol. 7  Nº 10  2019  págs. 1564 - 1569
T-cell functional behavior and performance are closely regulated by nutrient availability and the control of metabolism within the T cell. T cells have distinct energetic and anabolic needs when nascently activated, actively proliferating, in naivete, or in a resting, memory state. As a consequence, bioenergetics are key for T cells to mount adequate immune responses in health and disease. Solid tumors are particularly hostile metabolic environments, characterized by low glucose concentration, hypoxia, and low pH. These metabolic conditions in the tumor are known to hinder antitumor immune responses of T cells by limiting nutrient availability and energetic efficiency. In such immunosuppressive environments, artificial modulation of glycolysis, mitochondrial respiratory capabilities, and fatty acid b-oxidation are known to enhance antitumor performance. Reportedly, costimulatory molecules, such as CD28 and CD137, are important regulators of metabolic routes in T cells. In this sense, different costimulatory signals and cytokines induce diverse metabolic changes that critically involve mitochondrial mass and function. For instance, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) encompassing costimulatory domains, agonist antibodies to costimulatory receptors, and checkpoint inhibitors depends on the associated metabolic events in immune cells. Here, we review the metabolic changes that costimulatory receptors can promote in T cells and the potential consequences for cancer immunotherapy. Our focus is mostly on discoveries regarding the physiology and pharmacology of IL15, CD28, PD-1, and CD137 (4-1BB).
Autores: Ballesteros-Briones, M. C. ; Martisová, Eva; et al.
ISSN 1525-0016  Vol. 27  Nº 11  2019  págs. 1892 - 1905
Immune checkpoint blockade has shown anti-cancer efficacy, but requires systemic administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), often leading to adverse effects. To avoid toxicity, mAbs could be expressed locally in tumors. We developed adeno-associated virus (AAV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors expressing anti-programmed death ligand 1 (aPDL1) mAb. When injected intratumorally in MC38 tumors, both viral vectors led to similar local mAb expression at 24 h, diminishing quickly in SFV-aPDL1-treated tumors. However, SFV-aPDL1 induced >40% complete regressions and was superior to AAV-aPDL1, as well as to aPDL1 mAb given systemically or locally. SFV-aPDL1 induced abscopal effects and was also efficacious against B16-ovalbumin (OVA). The higher SFV-aPDL1 antitumor activity could be related to local upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes because of SFV RNA replication. This was confirmed by combining local SFV-LacZ administration and systemic aPDL1 mAb, which provided higher antitumor effects than each separated agent. SFVaPDL1 promoted tumor-specific CD8 T cells infiltration in both tumor models. In MC38, SFV-aPDL1 upregulated co-stimulatory markers (CD137/OX40) in tumor CD8 T cells, and its combination with anti-CD137 mAb showed more pronounced antitumor effects than each single agent. These results indicate that local transient expression of immunomodulatory mAbs using non-propagative RNA vectors inducing type I interferon (IFN-I) responses represents a potent and safe approach for cancer treatment.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Perez-Ruiz, E.; Minute, L. ; et al.
ISSN 2162-402X  Vol. 8  Nº 7  2019  págs. 1599636
Daratumumab is an anti-CD38 fully human IgG1 mAb approved for multiple myeloma treatment. One of the proposed mechanisms of action is the induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by NK cells. NK cells acquire surface CD137 expression in the presence of solid-phase-attached daratumumab and when encountering a daratumumab-coated CD38(+) tumor cell line. In this setting, addition of the agonist anti-CD137 mAb urelumab enhances NK-cell activation increasing CD25 expression and IFN gamma production. However, in vitro ADCC is not increased by the addition of urelumab both in 4h or 24h lasting experiments. To study urelumab-increased daratumumab-mediated ADCC activity in vivo, we set up a mouse model based on the intravenous administration of a luciferase-transfected multiple myeloma cell line of human origin, human NK cells and daratumumab to immuno-deficient NSG mice. In this model, intravenous administration of urelumab 24h after daratumumab delayed tumor growth and prolonged mice survival.
Autores: Rodriguez, I.; et al.
ISSN 1535-7163  Vol. 18  Nº 3  2019  págs. 621 - 631
Radiotherapy can be synergistically combined with immunotherapy in mouse models, extending its efficacious effects outside of the irradiated field (abscopal effects). We previously reported that a regimen encompassing local radiotherapy in combination with anti-CD137 plus anti-PD-1 mAbs achieves potent abscopal effects against syngeneic transplanted murine tumors up to a certain tumor size. Knowing that TGF beta expression or activation increases in irradiated tissues, we tested whether TGF beta blockade may further enhance abscopal effects in conjunction with the anti-PD-1 plus anti-CD137 mAb combination. Indeed, TGF beta blockade with 1D11, a TGF beta-neutralizing mAb, markedly enhanced abscopal effects and overall treatment efficacy against subcutaneous tumors of either 4T1 breast cancer cells or large MC38 colorectal tumors. Increases in CD8 T cells infiltrating the nonirradiated lesion were documented upon combined treatment, which intensely expressed Granzyme-B as an indicator of cytotoxic effector capability. Interestingly, tumor tissue but not healthy tissue irradiation results in the presence of higher concentrations of TGF beta in the nonirradiated contralateral tumor that showed smad2/3 phosphorylation increases in infiltrating CD8 T cells. In conclusion, radiotherapy-induced TGF beta hampers abscopal efficacy even upon combination with a potent immunotherapy regimen. Therefore, TGF beta blockade in combination with radioimmunotherapy results in greater efficacy.
Autores: Aznar, María Ángela, (Autor de correspondencia); Planelles, L.; Perez-Olivares, M.; et al.
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 7  Nº 1  2019  págs. 116
Poly I:C is a powerful immune adjuvant as a result of its agonist activities on TLR-3, MDA5 and RIG-I. BO-112 is a nanoplexed formulation of Poly I:C complexed with polyethylenimine that causes tumor cell apoptosis showing immunogenic cell death features and which upon intratumoral release results in more prominent tumor infiltration by T lymphocytes. Intratumoral treatment with BO-112 of subcutaneous tumors derived from MC38, 4T1 and B16-F10 leads to remarkable local disease control dependent on type-1 interferon and gamma-interferon. Some degree of control of non-injected tumor lesions following BO-112 intratumoral treatment was found in mice bearing bilateral B16-OVA melanomas, an activity which was enhanced with co-treatment with systemic anti-CD137 and anti-PD-L1 mAbs. More abundant CD8(+) T lymphocytes were found in B16-OVA tumor-draining lymph nodes and in the tumor microenvironment following intratumoral BO-112 treatment, with enhanced numbers of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses of injected tumor lesions were consistent with a marked upregulation of the type-I interferon pathway. Inspired by these data, intratumorally delivered BO-112 is being tested in cancer patients (NCT02828098).
Autores: Datar, I.; Wang, J.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 25  Nº 15  2019  págs. 4663 - 4673
Purpose: To determine the tumor tissue/cell distribution, functional associations, and clinical significance of PD-1, LAG3, and TIM-3 protein expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Experimental Design: Using multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence, we performed localized measurements of CD3, PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 protein in > 800 clinically annotated NSCLCs from three independent cohorts represented in tissue microarrays. Associations between the marker's expression and major genomic alterations were studied in The Cancer Genome Atlas NSCLC dataset. Using mass cytometry (CyTOF) analysis of leukocytes collected from 20 resected NSCLCs, we determined the levels, coexpression, and functional profile of PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 expressing immune cells. Finally, we measured the markers in baseline samples from 90 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1 axis blockers and known response to treatment. Results: PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 were detected in tumorinfiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from 55%, 41.5%, and 25.3% of NSCLC cases, respectively. These markers showed a prominent association with each other and limited association with major clinicopathologic variables and survival in patients not receiv-ing immunotherapy. Expression of the markers was lower in EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas and displayed limited association with tumor mutational burden. In single-cell CyTOF analysis, PD-1 and LAG-3 were predominantly localized on T-cell subsets/NKT cells, whereas TIM-3 expression was higher in NK cells and macrophages. Coexpression of PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 was associated with prominent T-cell activation (CD69/CD137), effector function (Granzyme-B), and proliferation (Ki-67), but also with elevated levels of proapoptotic markers (FAS/BIM). LAG-3 and TIM-3 were present in TIL subsets lacking PD-1 expression and showed a distinct functional profile. In baseline samples from 90 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1 axis blockers, elevated LAG-3 was significantly associated with shorter progressionfree survival. Conclusions: PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 have distinct tissue/cell distribution, functional implications, and genomic correlates in human NSCLC. Expression of these immune inhibitory receptors in TILs is associated with prominent activation, but also with a proapoptotic T-cell phenotype. Elevated LAG-3 expression is associated with insensitivity to PD-1 axis blockade, suggesting independence of these immune evasion pathways.
Autores: Wang, R.; Gao, C.; Raymond, M.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 25  Nº 22  2019  págs. 6709 - 6720
Purpose: The success of checkpoint blockade has led to a significant increase in the development of a broad range of immunomodulatory molecules for the treatment of cancer, including agonists against T-cell costimulatory receptors, such as OX40. Unlike checkpoint blockade, where complete and sustained receptor saturation may be required for maximal activity, the optimal dosing regimen and receptor occupancy for agonist agents is less well understood and requires further study. Experimental Design: We integrated both preclinical and clinical biomarker data sets centered on dose, exposure, receptor occupancy, receptor engagement, and downstream pharmacodynamic changes to model the optimal dose and schedule for the OX40 agonist antibody BMS-986178 alone and in combination with checkpoint blockade. Results: Administration of the ligand-blocking anti-mouse surrogate antibody OX40.23 or BMS-986178 as monotherapy or in combination with checkpoint blockade led to increased peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation in tumor-bearing mice and patients with solid tumors, respectively. OX40 receptor occupancy between 20% and 50% both in vitro and in vivo was associated with maximal enhancement of T-cell effector function by anti-OX40 treatment, whereas a receptor occupancy > 40% led to a profound loss in OX40 receptor expression, with clear implications for availability for repeat dosing. Conclusions: Our results highlight the value of an integrated translational approach applied during early clinical development to aggregate preclinical and clinical data in an effort to define the optimal dose and schedule for T-cell agonists in the clinic.
Autores: Schalper, K. A. ; Rodriguez-Ruiz, M. E.; Diez Valle, Ricardo; et al.
ISSN 1078-8956  Vol. 25  Nº 3  2019  págs. 470 - 476
Glioblastoma is the most common primary central nervous system malignancy and has a poor prognosis. Standard first-line treatment, which includes surgery followed by adjuvant radio-chemotherapy, produces only modest benefits to survival1,2. Here, to explore the feasibility, safety and immunobiological effects of PD-1 blockade in patients undergoing surgery for glioblastoma, we conducted a single-arm phase II clinical trial (NCT02550249) in which we tested a presurgical dose of nivolumab followed by postsurgical nivolumab until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity in 30 patients (27 salvage surgeries for recurrent cases and 3¿cases of primary surgery for newly diagnosed patients). Availability of tumor tissue pre- and post-nivolumab dosing and from additional patients who did not receive nivolumab allowed the evaluation of changes in the tumor immune microenvironment using multiple molecular and cellular analyses. Neoadjuvant nivolumab resulted in enhanced expression of chemokine transcripts, higher immune cell infiltration and augmented TCR clonal diversity among tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes, supporting a local immunomodulatory effect of treatment. Although no obvious clinical benefit was substantiated following salvage surgery, two of the three patients treated with nivolumab before and after primary surgery remain alive 33 and 28 months later.
Autores: Wang, J.; Sanmamed, M. F.; Datar, I.; et al.
Revista: CELL
ISSN 0092-8674  Vol. 176  Nº 1 - 2  2019  págs. 334 - 347
Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) is an immune inhibitory receptor, with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) as a canonical ligand. However, it remains controversial whether MHC-II is solely responsible for the inhibitory function of LAG-3. Here, we demonstrate that fibrinogen-like protein 1 (FGL1), a liver-secreted protein, is a major LAG-3 functional ligand independent from MHC-II. FGL1 inhibits antigen-specific T cell activation, and ablation of FGL1 in mice promotes T cell immunity. Blockade of the FGL1-LAG-3 interaction by monoclonal antibodies stimulates tumor immunity and is therapeutic against established mouse tumors in a receptor-ligand inter-dependent manner. FGL1 is highly produced by human cancer cells, and elevated FGL1 in the plasma of cancer patients is associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to anti-PD-1/B7-H1 therapy. Our findings reveal an immune evasion mechanism and have implications for the design of cancer immunotherapy.
Autores:  Perez-Ruiz, E.; et al.
Revista: NATURE
ISSN 0028-0836  Vol. 569  Nº 7756  2019  págs. 428 - 432
Combined PD-1 and CTLA-4-targeted immunotherapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab is effective against melanoma, renal cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer1-3. However, this comes at the cost of frequent, serious immune-related adverse events, necessitating a reduction in the recommended dose of ipilimumab that is given to patients4. In mice, co-treatment with surrogate anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies is effective in transplantable cancer models, but also exacerbates autoimmune colitis. Here we show that treating mice with clinically available TNF inhibitors concomitantly with combined CTLA-4 and PD-1 immunotherapy ameliorates colitis and, in addition, improves anti-tumour efficacy. Notably, TNF is upregulated in the intestine of patients suffering from colitis after dual ipilimumab and nivolumab treatment. We created a model in which Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- mice were adoptively transferred with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, causing graft-versus-host disease that was further exacerbated by ipilimumab and nivolumab treatment. When human colon cancer cells were xenografted into these mice, prophylactic blockade of human TNF improved colitis and hepatitis in xenografted mice, and moreover, immunotherapeutic control of xenografted tumours was retained. Our results provide clinically feasible strategies to dissociate efficacy and toxicity in the use of combined immune checkpoint blockade for cancer immunotherapy.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Neely, J. ; Sangro, Bruno; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 30  2019 
Autores: Pérez, José Luis; Pita, G.; Segura, V. ; et al.
ISSN 0732-183X  Vol. 37  Nº 15  2019 
Autores: de Andrea, CE; Abengozar, Marta; Garcia-Ros, D; et al.
ISSN 0023-6837  Vol. 99  Nº Supl. 1  2019 
Autores: Ballesteros-Briones, M. C.; Martisová, Eva; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 30  Nº 11  2019  págs. A16 - A16
Autores: Sangro, Bruno; Hsu, C. ; Kang, Y. K. ; et al.
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 70  2019  págs. 131A - 132A
Autores: Yau, T.; Kang, Y. K. ; Kim, T. Y.; et al.
ISSN 0732-183X  Vol. 37  Nº 15 Supl.  2019 
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Neely, J.; Sangro, Bruno; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 79  Nº 13  2019 
Autores: Kudo, M.; Matilla, A.; Santoro, A.; et al.
ISSN 0732-183X  Vol. 37  Nº 4  2019 
Autores: Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 79  Nº 13  2019 
Autores: Nagineni, V. V.; Schalper, K.; Desai, S.; et al.
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 7  2019 
Autores: Iñarrairaegui, Mercedes; Melero, Ignacio Javier; Sangro, Bruno, (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 24  Nº 7  2018  págs. 1518 - 1524
Treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the advanced stage remains a great challenge, with very few drugs approved. After decades of failure of immune therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as potentially effective treatments for patients with HCC in the advanced stage. Immune checkpoints, including human cancer, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4), and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), are surface proteins expressed in a variety of immune cells and mostly provide immunosuppressive signals. Monoclonal antibodies able to block these molecules have shown antitumor activity against a wide spectrum of human cancers. Clinical experience with checkpoint inhibitors in HCC includes early trials with the anti-CTLA-4 agent tremelimumab and a large phase II trial with the anti-PD-1 agent nivolumab. The latter has shown strong activity particularly as second-line therapy, both in terms of tumor response and patient survival. At least three topics should be the focus of future research: (i) the search for activity in patients at less-advanced stages, including the adjuvant treatment of patients with resectable or ablatable tumors; (ii) the enhanced efficacy of combination therapies, including particularly the combination with those targeted and locoregional therapies that may have a synergistic effect or act upon mechanisms of primary or acquired resistance to checkpoint inhibitors; and (iii) the identification of clinical features and serumor tissue biomarkers that would allow a better patient selection for individual treatments. Hopefully, ongoing trials will help to design better treatments in the future. (C) 2017 AACR.
Autores: Chester, C., (Autor de correspondencia); Sanmamed, M. F.; Wang, J.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 131  Nº 1  2018  págs. 49 - 57
4-1BB (CD137, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 9) is an inducible costimulatory receptor expressed on activated T and natural killer (NK) cells. 4-1BB ligation on T cells triggers a signaling cascade that results in upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules, cytokine secretion, and enhanced effector function. In dysfunctional T cells that have a decreased cytotoxic capacity, 4-1BB ligation demonstrates a potent ability to restore effector functions. On NK cells, 4-1BB signaling can increase antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies targeting 4-1BB have been developed to harness 4-1BB signaling for cancer immunotherapy. Preclinical results in a variety of induced and spontaneous tumor models suggest that targeting 4-1BB with agonist antibodies can lead to tumor clearance and durable antitumor immunity. Clinical trials of 2 agonist antibodies, urelumab and utomilumab, are ongoing. Despite initial signs of efficacy, clinical development of urelumab has been hampered by inflammatory liver toxicity at doses > 1 mg/kg. Utomilumab has a superior safety profile, but is a less potent 4-1BB agonist relative to urelumab. Both antibodies have demonstrated promising results in patients with lymphoma and are being tested in combination therapy trials with other immunomodulatory agents. In an effort to optimally leverage 4-1BB-mediated immune activation, the next generation of 4-1BB targeting strategies attempts to decouple the observed antitumor efficacy from the on-target liver toxicity. Multiple therapeutics that attempt to restrict 4-1BB agonism to the tumor microenvironment and minimize systemic exposure have emerged. 4-1BB is a compelling target for cancer immunotherapy and future agents show great promise for achieving potent immune activation while avoiding limiting immune-related adverse events.
Autores:  Vanpouille-Box, C.; Melero, Ignacio Javier; et al.
ISSN 1471-4906  Vol. 39  Nº 8  2018  págs. 644 - 655
Radiotherapy has been used for more than a hundred years as a local tumor treatment. The occurrence of systemic antitumor effects manifesting as regression of tumors outside of the irradiated field (abscopal effect) was occasionally observed but deemed too rare and unpredictable to be a therapeutic goal. This has changed with the advent of immunotherapy. Remarkable systemic effects have been observed in patients receiving radiotherapy to control tumors that were progressing during immune checkpoint blockade, stimulating interest in using radiation to overcome primary and acquired cancer resistance to immunotherapy. Here, we review the immunological mechanisms that are responsible for the ability of focal radiation to promote antitumor T cell responses that mediate tumor rejection and, in some cases, result in systemic effects.
Autores: Ascierto, P. A., (Autor de correspondencia); Brugarolas, J. ; Buonaguro, L.; et al.
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 6  2018  págs. 69
Immunotherapy represents the third important wave in the history of the systemic treatment of cancer after chemotherapy and targeted therapy and is now established as a potent and effective treatment option across several cancer types. The clinical success of anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4, first, and anti-programmed death (PD)-1/PD-ligand (L)1 agents in melanoma and other cancers a few years later, has encouraged increasing focus on the development of other immunotherapies (e.g. monoclonal antibodies with other immune targets, adoptive cell transfer, and vaccines), with over 3000 immuno-oncology trials ongoing, involving hundreds of research institutes across the globe. The potential use of these different immunotherapeutic options in various combinations with one another and with other treatment modalities is an area of particular promise. The third Immunotherapy Bridge meeting (29-30 November, 2017, Naples, Italy) focused on recent advances in immunotherapy across various cancer types and is summarised in this report.
Autores: Pastor, Fernando; Berraondo, Pedro; Frederick, J.; et al.
ISSN 1474-1776  Vol. 17  Nº 10  2018  págs. 751 - 767
Cancer immunotherapy has revolutionized oncology practice. However, current protein and cell therapy tools used in cancer immunotherapy are far from perfect, and there is room for improvement regarding their efficacy and safety. RNA-based structures have diverse functions, ranging from gene expression and gene regulation to pro-inflammatory effects and the ability to specifically bind different molecules. These functions make them versatile tools that may advance cancer vaccines and immunomodulation, surpassing existing approaches. These technologies should not be considered as competitors of current immunotherapies but as partners in synergistic combinations and as a clear opportunity to reach more efficient and personalized results. RNA and RNA derivatives can be exploited therapeutically as a platform to encode protein sequences, provide innate pro-inflammatory signals to the immune system (such as those denoting viral infection), control the expression of other RNAs (including key immunosuppressive factors) post-transcriptionally and conform structural scaffoldings binding proteins that control immune cells by modifying their function. Nascent RNA immunotherapeutics include RNA vaccines encoding cancer neoantigens, mRNAs encoding immunomodulatory factors, viral RNA analogues, interference RNAs and protein-binding RNA aptamers. These approaches are already in early clinical development with promising safety and efficacy results.
Autores: Montuenga, Luis; Berraondo, Pedro; et al.
ISSN 2159-8274  Vol. 8  Nº 7  2018  págs. 794 - 796
Cancer genetic alterations and epigenetics control the malignant phenotype of tumor cells and the stroma. Synergistic oncogenic alterations may cooperatively dictate immunogenicity, level of infiltration by immune system cells, and response to immunotherapy in an epistatic fashion. The work of Skoulidis and colleagues shows that concomitant RAS and STK11/LKB1 mutations in non-small cell lung adenocarcinomas result in primary resistance to PD-1-based immunotherapy and poor T-cell infi ltration. (c) 2018 AACR.
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Melero, Ignacio Javier, (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 24  Nº 12  2018  págs. 2716 - 2718
IL12 antitumor activities are mediated by the activation of T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes to produce IFNg. Systemically, recombinant IL12 has a narrow therapeutic window that favors local delivery, for instance, by gene therapy approaches. IL12 is a powerful partner in immunotherapy combinations with checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T-cell transfer. (C) 2018 AACR.
Autores: Martínez, Nicolás, (Autor de correspondencia); Rodriguez, Paula; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 103  Nº 7  2018  págs. E318 - E321
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Sznol, M.; Tessmer, M. S., (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 24  Nº 8  2018  págs. 1773 - 1774
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro, (Autor de correspondencia); Aznar, María Ángela; Perez-Ruiz, E.; et al.
ISSN 0340-7004  Vol. 67  Nº 11  2018  págs. 1809 - 1813
Autores: Pérez, José Luis, (Autor de correspondencia); Melero, Ignacio Javier;
ISSN 2218-6751  Vol. 7  Nº Supl. 4  2018  págs. S356 - S357
Autores: de Andrea, CE; Schalper, K. A. ; et al.
ISSN 1535-6108  Vol. 34  Nº 6  2018  págs. 876 - 878
Van den Eynde et al. publish in this issue of Cancer Cell that metastatic colorectal cancer shows marked heterogeneity in T cell infiltration among different lesions and patients. Measurements of T cell infiltration in metastases by immunoscore offer some prognostic information and support immune editing by coevolving adaptive immune responses.
Autores: Pérez, José Luis; Rodríguez, I.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 29  Nº 5  2018  págs. 1312 - 1319
Background: Combination immunotherapy has the potential to achieve additive or synergistic effects. Combined local injections of dsRNA analogues (mimicking viral RNA) and repeated vaccinations with tumor-lysate loaded dendritic cells shows efficacy against colon cancer mouse models. In the context of immunotherapy, radiotherapy can exert beneficial abscopal effects. Patients and methods: In this two-cohort pilot phase I study, 15 advanced cancer patients received two 4-week cycles of four intradermal daily doses of monocyte-derived dendritic cells preloaded with autologous tumor lysate and matured for 24 h with poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha. On days +8 and +10 of each cycle, patients received intratumoral image-guided 0.25mg injections of the dsRNA-analogue Hiltonol. Cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) was administered 1 week before. Six patients received stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) on selected tumor lesions, including those injected with Hiltonol. Expression of 25 immune-relevant genes was sequentially monitored by RT-PCR on circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs) and serum concentrations of a cytokine panel were sequentially determined before and during treatment. Pre-and posttreatment PBMC from patients achieving durable stable disease (SD) were studied by IFNc ELISPOT-assays responding to tumor-lysate loaded DC and by TCR beta sequencing. Results: Combined treatment was, safe and well tolerated. One heavily pretreated castration-resistant prostate cancer patient experienced a remarkable mixed abscopal response to SABR+ immunotherapy. No objective responses were observed, while nine patients presented SD (five of them in the six-patient radiotherapy cohort). Intratumoral Hiltonol increased IFN-beta and IFN-alpha mRNA in circulating PBMC. DC vaccination increased serum IL-12 and IL-1 beta concentrations, especially in patients presenting SD. IFNc-ELISPOT reactivity to tumor lysates was observed in two patients experiencing durable SD. Conclusions: This radio-immunotherapy combination strategy, aimed at resembling viral infection in tumor tissue in combination with a dendritic-cell vaccine and SABR, is safe and shows immune-associated activity and signs of preliminary clinical efficacy.
Autores: Azpilicueta, Arantza; Lang, V. ; et al.
ISSN 2162-402X  Vol. 7  Nº 1  2018  págs. e1368605
TRAF2 dependent K63-polyubiquitinations have been recently shown to connect CD137 (4-1BB) stimulation to NF kappa B activation. In a search of deubiquitinase enzymes (DUBs) that could regulate such a signaling route, A20 and CYLD were found to coimmunoprecipitate with CD137 and TRAF2 complexes. Indeed, overexpression of A20 or CYLD downregulated CD137-elicited ubiquitination of TRAF2 and TAK1 upon stimulation with agonist monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, overexpression of A20 or CYLD downregulated CD137-induced NF kappa B activation in cultured cells and in gene-transferred hepatocytes in vivo, while silencing these deubiquitinases enhanced CD137 costimulation of primary human CD8 T cells. Therefore A20 and CYLD directly downregulate the signaling from a T and NK-cell costimulatory receptor under exploitation for cancer immunotherapy in clinical trials.
Autores: Rodríguez, Javier; Castañón, Eduardo; Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 6  2018  págs. 96
Surgically resectable synchronic and metachronic liver metastases of colon cancer have high risk of relapse in spite of standard-of-care neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. Dendritic cell vaccines loaded with autologous tumor lysates were tested for their potential to avoid or delay disease relapses (NCT01348256). Patients with surgically amenable liver metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma (n = 19) were included and underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Fifteen patients with disease-free resection margins were randomized 1: 1 to receive two courses of four daily doses of dendritic cell intradermal vaccinations versus observation. The trial had been originally designed to include 56 patients but was curtailed due to budgetary restrictions. Follow-up of the patients indicates a clear tendency to fewer and later relapses in the vaccine arm (median disease free survival -DFS-) 25.26 months, 95% CI 8. 74-n.r) versus observation arm (median DFS 9.53 months, 95% CI 5.32-18.88).
Autores: Garasa, S.; et al.
ISSN 1664-3224  Vol. 9  2018  págs. 2084
The quantity of T-lymphocytes reaching the draining lymph nodes from tumors is likely important to mount effective distant responses and for the establishment of long term systemic memory. Looking into mechanisms behind lymphocyte egress, we directed our attention to leukocyte adhesion mechanisms inside tumors. Here we demonstrate that activated T-cells form intra-tumor aggregates in a LFA-1-ICAM-1-dependent fashion in mouse models of melanoma and breast cancer. We also provide evidence of the presence of T-cell clusters in primary human melanoma. Disruption of LFA-1-ICAM-1 interactions, and thereby T-cell clustering, enhances the arrival of activated CD8+ T-cells to tumor draining lymph nodes in both transplanted and spontaneous cancer models. Interestingly, upon ICAM-1 blockade, the expression of the chemotactic receptor CCR7 augments in tumor in filtrating lymphocytes and in in-vitro de-clustered T cells, as well as their ability to transmigrate across lymphatic endothelial cells. We propose that ICAM-1-mediated homotypic T-lymphocyte aggregation may serve as a tumor-mediated immune retention mechanism entrapping activated CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Modulation of T-cell adhesion may be of use to improve the transit of activated lymphocytes toward the lymph nodes and their subsequent recirculation.
Autores: Marabelle, A., (Autor de correspondencia); Andtbacka, R.; Harrington, K.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 29  Nº 11  2018  págs. 2163 - 2174
A European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)-sponsored expert meeting was held in Paris on 8 March 2018 which comprised 11 experts from academia, 11 experts from the pharmaceutical industry and 2 clinicians who were representatives of ESMO. The focus of the meeting was exclusively on the intratumoral injection/delivery of immunostimulatory agents with the aim of harmonizing the standard terms and methodologies used in the reporting of human intratumoral immunotherapy (HIT-IT) clinical trials to ensure quality assurance and avoid a blurring of the data reported from different studies. The goal was to provide a reference document, endorsed by the panel members that could provide guidance to clinical investigators, pharmaceutical companies, ethics committees, independent review boards, patient advocates and the regulatory authorities and promote an increase in the number and quality of HIT-IT clinical trials in the future. Particular emphasis was placed not only on the development of precise definitions to facilitate a better understanding between investigators but also on the importance of systematic serial biopsies as a driver for translational research and the need for the recording and reporting of data, to facilitate a better understanding of the key processes involved.
Autores: Walle, T.; Martínez-Monge, Rafael; Cerwenka, A.; et al.
ISSN 1758-8340  Vol. 10  2018 
Radiotherapy (RT) is currently used in more than 50% of cancer patients during the course of their disease in the curative, adjuvant or palliative setting. RT achieves good local control of tumor growth, conferring DNA damage and impacting tumor vasculature and the immune system. Formerly regarded as a merely immunosuppressive treatment, pre- and clinical observations indicate that the therapeutic effect of RT is partially immune mediated. In some instances, RT synergizes with immunotherapy (IT), through different mechanisms promoting an effective antitumor immune response. Cell death induced by RT is thought to be immunogenic and results in modulation of lymphocyte effector function in the tumor microenvironment promoting local control. Moreover, a systemic immune response can be elicited or modulated to exert effects outside the irradiation field (so called abscopal effects). In this review, we discuss the body of evidence related to RT and its immunogenic potential for the future design of novel combination therapies.
Autores: Pita, G.; Pajares, María Josefa; et al.
ISSN 2045-7634  Vol. 7  Nº 7  2018  págs. 3474 - 3483
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may modulate individual susceptibility to carcinogens. We designed a genome-wide association study to characterize individuals presenting extreme phenotypes of high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and we validated our results. We hypothesized that this strategy would enrich the frequencies of the alleles that contribute to the observed traits. We genotyped 2.37 million SNPs in 95 extreme phenotype individuals, that is: heavy smokers that either developed NSCLC at an early age (extreme cases); or did not present NSCLC at an advanced age (extreme controls), selected from a discovery set (n=3631). We validated significant SNPs in 133 additional subjects with extreme phenotypes selected from databases including >39,000 individuals. Two SNPs were validated: rs12660420 (p(combined)=5.66x10(-5); ORcombined=2.80), mapping to a noncoding transcript exon of PDE10A; and rs6835978 (p(combined)=1.02x10(-4); ORcombined=2.57), an intronic variant in ATP10D. We assessed the relevance of both proteins in early-stage NSCLC. PDE10A and ATP10D mRNA expressions correlated with survival in 821 stage I-II NSCLC patients (p=0.01 and p<0.0001). PDE10A protein expression correlated with survival in 149 patients with stage I-II NSCLC (p=0.002). In conclusion, we validated two variants associated with extreme phenotypes of high and low risk of developing tobacco-induced NSCLC. Our findings may allow to identify individuals presenting high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced NSCLC and to characterize molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and resistance to develop NSCLC.
Autores: Aznar, María Ángela; Diaz-Lagares, A.; Molina, María Carmen; et al.
ISSN 2326-6066  Vol. 6  Nº 1  2018  págs. 69 - 78
CD137 (4-1BB) costimulation imprints long-term changes that instruct the ultimate behavior of T cells that have previously experienced CD137 ligation. Epigenetic changes could provide a suitable mechanism for these long-term consequences. Genome-wide DNA methylation arrays were carried out on human peripheral blood CD8(+) T lymphocytes stimulated with agonist monoclonal antibody to CD137, including urelumab, which is in phase I/II clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy. Several genes showed consistent methylation patterns in response to CD137 costimulation, which were confirmed by pyrosequencing in a series of healthy donors. CD96, HHLA2, CCR5, CXCR5, and CCL5 were among the immune-related genes regulated by differential DNA methylation, leading to changes in mRNA and protein expression. These genes are also differentially methylated in naive versus antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells. The transcription factor TCF1 and the microRNA miR-21 were regulated by DNA methylation upon CD137 costimulation. Such gene-expression regulatory factors can, in turn, broaden the effects of DNA methylation by controlling expression of their target genes. Overall, chromatin remodeling is postulated to leave CD137-costimulated T lymphocytes poised to differentially respond upon subsequent antigen recognition. Accordingly, CD137 connects costimulation during priming to genome-wide DNA methylation and chromatin reprogramming. (C) 2017 AACR.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; López, A; Pérez-Ruiz, E.; et al.
ISSN 2162-402X  Vol. 7  Nº 2  2018  págs. e1393597
Enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of tumor-targeted monoclonal antibodies. Increasing the numbers and antitumor activity of NK cells is a promising strategy to maximize the ADCC of standard-of-care tumor-targeted antibodies. For this purpose, we have preclinically tested a recombinant chimeric protein encompassing the sushi domain of the IL15R alpha, IL-15, and apolipoprotein A-I (Sushi-IL15-Apo) as produced in CHO cells. The size-exclusion purified monomeric fraction of this chimeric protein was stable and retained the IL-15 and the sushi domain bioactivity as measured by CTLL-2 and Mo-7e cell proliferation and STAT5 phosphorylation in freshly isolated human NK and CD8(+) T cells. On cell cultures, Sushi-IL15-Apo increases NK cell proliferation and survival as well as spontaneous and antibody-mediated cytotoxicity. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) is the receptor for ApoA-I and is expressed on the surface of tumor cells. SR-B1 can adsorb the chimeric protein on tumor cells and can transpresent IL-15 to NK and CD8(+) T cells. A transient NK-humanized murine model was developed to test the increase of ADCC attained by the chimeric protein in vivo. The EGFR(+) human colon cancer cell line HT-29 was intraperitoneally inoculated in immune-deficient Rag2(gamma)(-/-)c(-/-) mice that were reconstituted with freshly isolated PBMCs and treated with the anti-EGFR mAb cetuximab. The combination of the Sushi-IL15-Apo protein and cetuximab reduced the number of remaining tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and delayed tumor engraftment in the peritoneum. Furthermore, Sushi-IL15-Apo increased the anti-tumor effect of a murine anti-EGFR mAb in Rag1(-/-) mice bearing subcutaneous MC38 colon cancer transfected to express EGFR. Thus, Sushi-IL15-Apo is a potent tool to increase the number and the activation of NK cells to promote the ADCC activity of antibodies targeting tumor antigens.
Autores: Rodríguez, I.; Leaman, O.; et al.
ISSN 1879-016X  Vol. 196  2018  págs. 195 - 203
Radiotherapy of cancer has been traditionally considered as a local therapy without noticeable effects outside the irradiated fields. However, ionizing radiation exerts multiple biological effects on both malignant and stromal cells that account for a complex spectrum of mechanisms beyond simple termination of cancer cells. In the era of immunotherapy, interest in radiation-induced inflammation and cell death has considerably risen, since these mechanisms lead to profound changes in the systemic immune response against cancer antigens. Immunotherapies such as immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (anti-PD-1, anti-CTLA-4, anti-CD137, anti-OX40, anti-CD40, anti-TGFß), TLR-agonists, and adoptive T-cell therapy have been synergistically combined with radiotherapy in mouse models. Importantly, radiation and immunotherapy combinations do not only act against the irradiated tumor but also against distant non-irradiated metastases (abscopal effects). A series of clinical trials are exploring the beneficial effects of radioimmunotherapy combinations. The concepts of crosspriming of tumor neoantigens and immunogenic cell death are key elements underlying this combination efficacy. Proinflamatory changes in the vasculature of the irradiated lesions and in the cellular composition of the leukocyte infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment contribute to raise or dampen cancer immunogenicity. It should be stressed that not all effects of radiotherapy favor antitumor immunity as there are counterbalancing mechanisms such as TGFß and VEGFs that inhibit the efficacy of the antitumor immune response, hence offering additional therapeutic targets to suppress. All in all, radiotherapy and immunotherapy are compatible and often synergistic approaches against cancer that jointly target irradiated and non-irradiated malignant lesions in the same patient.
Autores: Labiano, S.; Garasa, S.; et al.
ISSN 2326-6066  Vol. 6  Nº 7  2018  págs. 798 - 811
T and NK lymphocytes express CD137 (4-1BB), a costimulatory receptor of the TNFR family whose function is exploitable for cancer immunotherapy. Mitochondria regulate the function and survival of F lymphocytes. herein, we show that CD137 costimulation provided by agonist mAb and CD137L (4-1BBL) induced mitochondria enlargement that resulted in enhanced mitochondrial mass and transmembrane potential in human and mouse CD8(+) T cells. Such mitochondrial changes increased 'T-cell respiratory capacities and were critically dependent on mitochondrial fusion protein OPA-1 expression. Mass and function of mitochondria in rumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells from cancer-hearing mice were invigorated by agonist mAb to CD137, whereas mitochondria) baseline mass and function were depressed in CD137-deficient tumor reactive T cells. Tumor rejection induced by the synergistic combination of adoptive T-cell therapy and agonistic anti-CD 137 WAS critically dependent on OPA-1 expression in transferred CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, stimulation of CD137 with CD137 mAb in shortterm cultures of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes led to mitochondria enlargement and increased transmembrane potential. Collectively, these data point to a critical link between mitochondrial morphology and function and enhanced antitumor effector activity upon CD 117 costimulation of T cells. (C)2018 AACR.
Autores: Compte, M.; Harwood, S. L.; Munoz, I. G.; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2018  págs. 4809
The costimulation of immune cells using first-generation anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has demonstrated anti-tumor activity in human trials. Further clinical development, however, is restricted by significant off-tumor toxicities associated with Fc gamma R interactions. Here, we have designed an Fc-free tumor-targeted 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody, 1D8(N)/(C)EGa1, consisting of three anti-4-1BB single-chain variable fragments and three anti-EGFR single-domain antibodies positioned in an extended hexagonal conformation around the collagen XVIII homotrimerization domain. The1D8(N)/(C)EGa1 trimerbody demonstrated high-avidity binding to 4-1BB and EGFR and a potent in vitro costimulatory capacity in the presence of EGFR. The trimerbody rapidly accumulates in EGFR-positive tumors and exhibits anti-tumor activity similar to IgG-based 4-1BB-agonistic mAbs. Importantly, treatment with 1D8(N)/(C)EGa1 does not induce systemic inflammatory cytokine production or hepatotoxicity associated with IgG-based 4-1BB agonists. These results implicate Fc gamma R interactions in the 4-1BB-agonist-associated immune abnormalities, and promote the use of the non-canonical antibody presented in this work for safe and effective costimulatory strategies in cancer immunotherapy.
Autores: Sanchez-Paulete, A. R. ; Quetglas, J. I.; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 78  Nº 23  2018  págs. 6643 - 6654
Multiple lines of evidence indicate a critical role of antigen cross-presentation by conventional BATF3-dependent type 1 classical dendritic cells (cDC1) in CD8-mediated antitumor immunity. Flt3L and XCL1, respectively, constitute a key growth/differentiation factor and a potent and specific chemoattractant for cDC1. To exploit their antitumor functions in local immunotherapy, we prepared Semliki Forest Virus (SFV)-based vectors encoding XCL1 and soluble Flt3L (sFlt3L). These vectors readily conferred transgene expression to the tumor cells in culture and when engrafted as subcutaneous mouse tumor models. In syngeneic mice, intratumoral injection of SFV-XCL1-sFlt3L (SFV-XF) delayed progression of MC38-and B16-derived tumors. Therapeutic activity was observed and exerted additive effects in combination with anti-PD-1, anti-CD137, or CTLA-4 immunostimulatory mAbs. Therapeutic effects were abolished by CD8 beta T-cell depletion and were enhanced by CD4 T-cell depletion, but not by T regulatory cell predepletion with anti-CD25 mAb. Antitumor effects were also abolished in BATF3- and IFNARdeficient mice. In B16-OVA tumors, SFV-XF increased the number of infiltratingCD8T cells, including those recognizing OVA. Consistently, following the intratumoral SFV-XF treatment courses, we observed increased BATF3-dependent cDC1 among B16-OVA tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Such an intratumoral increase was not seen in MC38-derived tumors, but both resident and migratory cDC1 were boosted in SFV-XF-treated MC38 tumor-draining lymph nodes. In conclusion, viral gene transfer of sFlt3L and XCL1 is feasible, safe, and biologically active in mice, exerting antitumor effects that can be potentiated by CD4 T-cell depletion. Significance: These findings demonstrate that transgenic expression of sFLT3L and XCL1 in tumor cells mediates crosspriming of, and elicits potent antitumor activity from, CD8 T lymphocytes, particularly in combination with CD4 T-cell depletion. (C) 2018 AACR.
Autores: Perez-Ruiz, E.; Minute, L.; Ochoa, María del Carmen; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 78  Nº 13 Supl.  2018 
Autores: Baraibar, Iosune; Romano, P. M. ; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 29  Nº Supl. 6  2018  págs. 21 - 22
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Castañón, Eduardo; Mau-Sorensen, M.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 29  Nº Supl. 8  2018 
Autores:  et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 29  Nº Supl.3  2018 
Autores: Meyer, T.; Melero, Ignacio Javier; Yau, T.; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 68  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. S16 - S16
Autores: Rodas, I. M. ; Longo, F.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 29  Nº Supl. 8  2018  págs. 732 - 732
Autores: Baraibar, Iosune; Martin-Romano, P.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 29  Nº Supl. 8  2018 
Autores: Kudo, M.; Matilla, A. M.; Santoro, A.; et al.
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 68  Nº 6  2018  págs. 1445A - 1446A
Autores: Pérez, José Luis; Pajares, María Josefa; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 29  Nº Supl. 8  2018  págs. viii651 - viii652
Autores: Muntasell, A.; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Cordeiro, L.; et al.
ISSN 0952-7915  Vol. 45  2017  págs. 73 - 81
Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes specialized in early defense against virus-infected and transformed cells. NK-cell function is regulated by activating and inhibitory surface receptors recognizing their ligands on transformed cells. Modulation of NK numbers and/or function by a variety of agents such as cytokines and monoclonal antibodies may result in enhanced anti-tumor activity. Recombinant cytokines (i.e., IL-15 and IL-2), antibodies blocking inhibitory receptors (i.e., KIR, NKG2A and TIGIT) and agonists delivering signals via CD137, NKG2D and CD16 stand out as the most suitable opportunities. These agents can be used to potentiate NKcell- mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against antibody-coated tumor cells, offering potential for multiple combinatorial immunotherapy strategies against cancer.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
ISSN 0305-7372  Vol. 60  2017  págs. 24 - 31
Interleukin-8 (CXCL8) was originally described asa chemokine whose main function is the attraction of a polymorphonuclear inflammatory leukocyte infiltrate acting on CXCR1/2. Recently, it has been found that tumors very frequently coopt the production of this chemokine, which in this malignant context exerts different pro-tumoral functions. Reportedly, these include angiogenesis, survival signaling for cancer stem cells and attraction of myeloid cells endowed with the ability to immunosuppress and locally provide growth factors. Given the fact that in cancer patients IL-8 is mainly produced by tumor cells themselves, its serum concentration has been shown to correlate with tumor burden. Thus, IL-8 serum concentrations have been shown to be useful asa pharmacodynamic biomarker to early detect response to immunotherapy. Finally, because of the roles that IL-8 plays in favoring tumor progression, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to interfere with its functions. Such interventions hold promise, especially for therapeutic combinations in the field of cancer immunotherapy.
Autores: Pérez, José Luis; Sanmamed, M. F.; Bosch, A.; et al.
ISSN 0305-7372  Vol. 53  2017  págs. 79 - 97
The discovery of reliable biomarkers to predict efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs remains one of the key challenges in cancer research. Despite its relevance, no efficient study designs to identify promising candidate biomarkers have been established. This has led to the proliferation of a myriad of exploratory studies using dissimilar strategies, most of which fail to identify any promising targets and are seldom validated. The lack of a proper methodology also determines that many anti-cancer drugs are developed below their potential, due to failure to identify predictive biomarkers. While some drugs will be systematically administered to many patients who will not benefit from them, leading to unnecessary toxicities and costs, others will never reach registration due to our inability to identify the specific patient population in which they are active. Despite these drawbacks, a limited number of outstanding predictive biomarkers have been successfully identified and validated, and have changed the standard practice of oncology. In this manuscript, a multidisciplinary panel reviews how those key biomarkers were identified and, based on those experiences, proposes a methodological framework the DESIGN guidelines-to-standardize the clinical design of biomarker identification studies and to develop future research in this pivotal field. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Minute, L.; Rodríguez, I.; et al.
ISSN 1440-1711  Vol. 95  Nº 4  2017  págs. 347 - 355
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a set of mechanisms that target cells coated with IgG antibodies of the proper subclasses (IgG1 in the human) to be the prey of cell-to-cell cytolysis executed by immune cells expressing FcRIIIA (CD16A). These effectors include not only natural killer (NK) cells but also other CD16+ subsets such as monocyte/macrophages, NKT cells or ¿¿ T cells. In cancer therapy, ADCC is exploited by antibodies that selectively recognize proteins on the surface of malignant cells. An approach to enhance antitumor activity is to act on effector cells so they are increased in their numbers or enhanced in their individual (on a cell per cell basis) ADCC performance. This enhancement can be therapeutically attained by cytokines (that is, interleukin (IL)-15, IL-21, IL-18, IL-2); immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (that is, anti-CD137, anti-CD96, anti-TIGIT, anti-KIR, anti-PD-1); TLR agonists or by adoptive infusions of ex vivo expanded NK cells which can be genetically engineered to become more efficient effectors. In conjunction with approaches optimizing IgG1 Fc affinity to CD16, acting on effector cells offers hope to achieve synergistic immunotherapy strategies.
Autores: Cueto, F. J.; Garasa, S.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl. 12  2017  págs. 44 - 55
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the main professional antigen-presenting cells for induction of T-cell adaptive responses. Cancer cells express tumor antigens, including neoantigens generated by nonsynonymous mutations, but are poor for antigen presentation and for providing costimulatory signals for T-cell priming. Mounting evidence suggests that antigen transfer to DCs and their surrogate presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules together with costimulatory signals is paramount for induction of viral and cancer immunity. Of the great diversity of DCs, BATF3/IRF8-dependent conventional DCs type 1 (cDC1) excel at cross-presentation of tumor cell-associated antigens. Location of cDC1s in the tumor correlates with improved infiltration by CD8(+) T cells and tumor-specific T-cell immunity. Indeed, cDC1s are crucial for antitumor efficacy using checkpoint inhibitors and anti-CD137 agonist monoclonal antibodies in mouse models. Enhancement and exploitation of T-cell cross-priming by cDC1s offer opportunities for improved cancer immunotherapy, including in vivo targeting of tumor antigens to internalizing receptors on cDC1s and strategies to increase their numbers, activation and priming capacity within tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes.
Autores: Aznar, María Ángela; Tinari, N.; Rullan, A. J.; et al.
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 198  Nº 1  2017  págs. 31 - 39
Immune mechanisms have evolved to cope with local entry of microbes acting in a confined fashion but eventually inducing systemic immune memory. Indeed, in situ delivery of a number of agents into tumors can mimic in the malignant tissue the phenomena that control intracellular infection leading to the killing of infected cells. Vascular endothelium activation and lymphocyte attraction, together with dendritic cell-mediated cross-priming, are the key elements. Intratumoral therapy with pathogen-associated molecular patterns or recombinant viruses is being tested in the clinic. Cell therapies can be also delivered intratumorally, including infusion of autologous dendritic cells and even tumor-reactive T lymphocytes. Intralesional virotherapy with an HSV vector expressing GM-CSF has been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of unresectable melanoma. Immunomodulatory monoclonal Abs have also been successfully applied intratumorally in animal models. Local delivery means less systemic toxicity while focusing the immune response on the malignancy and the affected draining lymph nodes.
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Minute, L.; Sánchez-Arraez, A.; et al.
ISSN 2162-402X  Vol. 6  Nº 5  2017  págs. e1306619
Lessons learned over decades on the use of gene and cell therapies have found clinical applicability in the field of cancer immunotherapy. On December 16th, 2016 a symposium was held in Pamplona (Spain) to analyze and discuss the critical points for the clinical success of adoptive cell transfer strategies in cancer immunotherapy. Cellular immunotherapy is being currently exploited for the development of new cancer vaccines using ex vivo manipulated dendritic cells or to enhance the number of effector cells, transferring reinvigorated NK cells or T cells. In this meeting report, we summarize the main topics covered and provide an overview of the field of cellular immunotherapy.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Navarro, B.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl. 12  2017  págs. xii1 - xii2
Autores: Segal, N. H.; Logan, T. F.; Hodi, F. S.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 23  Nº 8  2017  págs. 1929 - 1936
Purpose: Urelumab is an agonist antibody to CD137 with potential application as an immuno-oncology therapeutic. Data were analyzed to assess safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamic activity of urelumab, including the dose selected for ongoing development in patients with advanced solid tumors and lymphoma. Experimental Design: A total of 346 patients with advanced cancers who had progressed after standard treatment received at least one dose of urelumab in one of three dose-escalation, monotherapy studies. Urelumab was administered at doses ranging from 0.1 to 15 mg/kg. Safety analyses included treatmentrelated and serious adverse events (AEs), as well as treatment-related AEs leading to discontinuation and death, with a focus on liver function test abnormalities and hepatic AEs. Results: Urelumab doses between 1 and 15 mg/kg given every 3 weeks resulted in a higher frequency of treatment-related AEs than 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Dose was the single most important factor contributing to transaminitis development, which was more frequent and severe at doses >= 1 mg/kg. At the MTD of 0.1 mg/kg every 3 weeks, urelumab was relatively well tolerated, with fatigue (16%) and nausea (13%) being the most common treatment-related AEs, and was associated with immunologic and pharmacodynamic activity demonstrated by the induction of IFN-inducible genes and cytokines. Conclusions: Integrated evaluation of urelumab safety data showed significant transaminitis was strongly associated with doses of >= 1 mg/kg. However, urelumab 0.1 mg/kg every 3 weeks was demonstrated to be safe, with pharmacodynamic activity supporting continued clinical evaluation of this dose as monotherapy and in combination with other immuno-oncology agents. (C) 2016 AACR.
Autores: Hunter, M. C.; Russo, E.; et al.
ISSN 2211-1247  Vol. 18  Nº 4  2017  págs. 857 - 865
T cells are the most abundant cell type found in afferent lymph, but their migration through lymphatic vessels (LVs) remains poorly understood. Performing intravital microscopy in the murine skin, we imaged T cell migration through afferent LVs in vivo. T cells entered into and actively migrated within lymphatic capillaries but were passively transported in contractile collecting vessels. Intralymphatic T cell number and motility were increased during contact-hypersensitivity-induced inflammation and dependent on ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions. In vitro, blockade of endothelial cell-expressed ICAM-1 reduced T cell adhesion, crawling, and transmigration across lymphatic endothelium and decreased T cell advancement from capillaries into lymphatic collectors in skin explants. In vivo, T cell migration to draining lymph nodes was significantly reduced upon ICAM-1 or LFA-1 blockade. Our findings indicate that T cell migration through LVs occurs in distinct steps and reveal a key role for ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions in this process.
Autores: Garasa, S.; Rodriguez, I.; et al.
ISSN 0360-3016  Vol. 97  Nº 2  2017  págs. 389 - 400
Purpose/Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on the expression of the integrin ligands ICAM-1 and VCAM that control leucocyte transit by lymphatic endothelial cells. Materials/Methods: Confluent monolayers of primary human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) were irradiated with single dose of 2, 5, 10 or 20 Gy, with 6 MeV-x-rays using a Linear-Accelerator. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was determined by flow cytometry. Human tissue specimens received a single dose of 20 Gy with 15 MeV-x-rays. MC38, B16-OVA or B16-VEGF-C tumors grown in C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with single dose of 20Gy using a Linear-Accelerator fitted with a 10mm Radiosurgery collimator. Clinical samples were obtained from patients previous and 4 weeks after complete standard radiotherapy. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was detected in all tissue specimens by confocal microscopy. To understand the role of TGF beta in this process anti-TGF beta blocking mAb were injected i.p. 30min before radiotherapy. Cell adhesion to irradiated LEC was analyzed in adhesion experiments performed in the presence or in the absence of anti- TGF beta and /or anti-ICAM1 blocking mAb. Results: We demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells in tumor samples experience induction of surface ICAM-1 and VCAM when exposed to ionizing radiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These effects can be recapitulated in cultured LEC, and are in part mediated by TGF beta. These data are consistent with increases in ICAM-1 and VCAM expression on LYVE-1+ endothelial cells in freshly explanted human tumor tissue and in mouse transplanted tumors after radiotherapy. Finally, ICAM-1 and VCAM expression accounts for enhanced adherence of human T lymphocytes to irradiated LEC. Conclusion: Our results show induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM on LVs in irradiated lesions and offer a starting point for elucidating the biological and therapeutic implications of targeting leukocyte traffic in combination to immunotherapy. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autores: Enamorado, M.; Iborra, S.; Priego, E.; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 8  2017  págs. 16073
The goal of successful anti-tumoural immunity is the development of long-term protective immunity to prevent relapse. Infiltration of tumours with CD8(+) T cells with a resident memory (Trm) phenotype correlates with improved survival. However, the interplay of circulating CD8(+) T cells and Trm cells remains poorly explored in tumour immunity. Using different vaccination strategies that fine-tune the generation of Trm cells or circulating memory T cells, here we show that, while both subsets are sufficient for anti-tumour immunity, the presence of Trm cells improves anti-tumour efficacy. Transferred central memory T cells (Tcm) generate Trm cells following viral infection or tumour challenge. Anti-PD-1 treatment promotes infiltration of transferred Tcm cells within tumours, improving anti-tumour immunity. Moreover, Batf3-dependent dendritic cells are essential for reactivation of circulating memory anti-tumour response. Our findings show the plasticity, collaboration and requirements for reactivation of memory CD8(+) T cells subsets needed for optimal tumour vaccination and immunotherapy.
Autores: El-Khoueiry, A. B.; Sangro, Bruno; Yau, T. ; et al.
Revista: LANCET
ISSN 0140-6736  Vol. 389  Nº 10088  2017  págs. 2492 - 2502
BACKGROUND: For patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, sorafenib is the only approved drug worldwide, and outcomes remain poor. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of nivolumab, a programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with or without chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We did a phase 1/2, open-label, non-comparative, dose escalation and expansion trial (CheckMate 040) of nivolumab in adults (¿18 years) with histologically confirmed advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with or without hepatitis C or B (HCV or HBV) infection. Previous sorafenib treatment was allowed. A dose-escalation phase was conducted at seven hospitals or academic centres in four countries or territories (USA, Spain, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and a dose-expansion phase was conducted at an additional 39 sites in 11 countries (Canada, UK, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan). At screening, eligible patients had Child-Pugh scores of 7 or less (Child-Pugh A or B7) for the dose-escalation phase and 6 or less (Child-Pugh A) for the dose-expansion phase, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less. Patients with HBV infection had to be receiving effective antiviral therapy (viral load <100 IU/mL); antiviral therapy was not required for patients with HCV infection. We excluded patients previously treated with an agent targeting T-cell costimulation or checkpoint pathways. Patients received intravenous nivolumab 0·1-10 mg/kg every 2 weeks in the dose-escalation phase (3+3 design). Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was given every 2 weeks in the dose-expansion phase to patients in four cohorts: sorafenib untreated or intolerant without viral hepatitis, sorafenib progressor without viral hepatitis, HCV infected, and HBV infected. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability for the escalation phase and objective response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1) for the expansion phase. This study is registered with, number NCT01658878. FINDINGS: Between Nov 26, 2012, and Aug 8, 2016, 262 eligible patients were treated (48 patients in the dose-escalation phase and 214 in the dose-expansion phase). 202 (77%) of 262 patients have completed treatment and follow-up is ongoing. During dose escalation, nivolumab showed a manageable safety profile, including acceptable tolerability. In this phase, 46 (96%) of 48 patients discontinued treatment, 42 (88%) due to disease progression. Incidence of treatment-related adverse events did not seem to be associated with dose and no maximum tolerated dose was reached. 12 (25%) of 48 patients had grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events. Three (6%) patients had treatment-related serious adverse events (pemphigoid, adrenal insufficiency, liver disorder). 30 (63%) of 48 patients in the dose-escalation phase died (not determined to be related to nivolumab therapy). Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was chosen for dose expansion. The objective response rate was 20% (95% CI 15-26) in patients treated with nivolumab 3 mg/kg in the dose-expansion phase and 15% (95% CI 6-28) in the dose-escalation phase. INTERPRETATION: Nivolumab had a manageable safety profile and no new signals were observed in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Durable objective responses show the potential of nivolumab for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.
Autores: Rodríguez, I.; Barbes, B; et al.
ISSN 1538-4721  Vol. 16  Nº 6  2017  págs. 1246 - 1251
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that the proimmune effects of radiotherapy can be synergistically augmented with immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to act both on irradiated tumor lesions and on tumors at distant, nonirradiated sites. We have recently reported that external beam radiotherapy achieves abscopal effects when combined with antagonist anti-PD1 mAbs and agonist anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAbs. The goal of this work is to study the abscopal effects of radiotherapy instigated by brachytherapy techniques. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Mice bearing a subcutaneous colorectal carcinoma, MC38 (colorectal cancer), in both flanks were randomly assigned to receive brachytherapy or not (8 Gy × three fractions) to only one of the two grafted tumors, in combination with intraperitoneal immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (anti-PD1, anti-CD137, and/or their respective isotype controls). To study the abscopal effects of brachytherapy, we established an experimental set up that permits irradiation of mouse tumors sparing a distant site resembling metastasis. Such second nonirradiated tumor was used as indicator of abscopal effect. Tumor size was monitored every 2 days. RESULTS: Abscopal effects on distant nonirradiated subcutaneous tumor lesions of transplanted MC38-derived tumors only took place when brachytherapy was combined with immunostimulatory anti-PD1 and/or anti-CD137 mAbs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that immunotherapy-potentiated abscopal effects can be attained by brachytherapy. Accordingly, immunotherapy plus brachytherapy combinations are suitable for clinical translation.
Autores: Sanmamed, M. F. ; Pérez, José Luis; Schalper, K. A. ; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº 8  2017  págs. 1988 - 1995
Background: Surrogate biomarkers of efficacy are needed for anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy, given the existence of delayed responses and pseudo-progressions. We evaluated changes in serum IL-8 levels as a biomarker of response to anti-PD-1 blockade in melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Patients and methods: Metastatic melanoma and NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab alone or nivolumab plus ipilimumab were studied. Serum was collected at baseline; at 2-4 weeks after the first dose; and at the time-points of response evaluation. Serum IL-8 levels were determined by sandwich ELISA. Changes in serum IL-8 levels were compared with the Wilcoxon test and their strength of association with response was assessed with the Mann-Whitney test. Accuracy of changes in IL-8 levels to predict response was estimated using receiver operation characteristics curves. Results: Twenty-nine melanoma patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab were studied. In responding patients, serum IL-8 levels significantly decreased between baseline and best response (P < 0.001), and significantly increased upon progression (P = 0.004). In non-responders, IL-8 levels significantly increased between baseline and progression (P = 0.013). Early changes in serum IL-8 levels (2-4 weeks after treatment initiation) were strongly associated with response (P < 0.001). These observations were validated in 19 NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab (P = 0.001), and in 15 melanoma patients treated with nivolumab plus ipilimumab (P < 0.001). Early decreases in serum IL-8 levels were associated with longer overall survival in melanoma (P = 0.001) and NSCLC (P = 0.015) patients. Serum IL-8 levels also correctly reflected true response in three cancer patients presenting pseudoprogression. Conclusions: Changes in serum IL-8 levels could be used to monitor and predict clinical benefit from immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma and NSCLC patients.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Minute, L. ; Rodriguez, I.; et al.
ISSN 0818-9641  Vol. 95  Nº 4  2017  págs. 347 - 355
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a set of mechanisms that target cells coated with IgG antibodies of the proper subclasses (IgG1 in the human) to be the prey of cell-to-cell cytolysis executed by immune cells expressing FcRIIIA (CD16A). These effectors include not only natural killer (NK) cells but also other CD16+ subsets such as monocyte/macrophages, NKT cells or ¿¿ T cells. In cancer therapy, ADCC is exploited by antibodies that selectively recognize proteins on the surface of malignant cells. An approach to enhance antitumor activity is to act on effector cells so they are increased in their numbers or enhanced in their individual (on a cell per cell basis) ADCC performance. This enhancement can be therapeutically attained by cytokines (that is, interleukin (IL)-15, IL-21, IL-18, IL-2); immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (that is, anti-CD137, anti-CD96, anti-TIGIT, anti-KIR, anti-PD-1); TLR agonists or by adoptive infusions of ex vivo expanded NK cells which can be genetically engineered to become more efficient effectors. In conjunction with approaches optimizing IgG1 Fc affinity to CD16, acting on effector cells offers hope to achieve synergistic immunotherapy strategies.
Autores: Melendez Rodriguez, F.; Palazon, A.; et al.
ISSN 2162-402X  Vol. 6  Nº 4  2017  págs. e1283468
CD69 is an early activation marker on the surface of T lymphocytes undergoing activation by cognate antigen. We observed intense expression of CD69 on tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes that reside in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and hypothesized that CD69 could be, at least partially, under the control of the transcriptional hypoxia response. In line with this, human and mouse CD3-stimulated lymphocytes cultured under hypoxia (1% O-2) showed increased expression of CD69 at the protein and mRNA level. Consistent with these findings, mouse T lymphocytes that had recently undergone hypoxia in vivo, as denoted by pimonidazole staining, were more frequently CD69(+) in the tumor and bone marrow hypoxic tissue compartments. We found evidence for HIF-1 involvement both when using T-lymphocytes from inducible HIF-1(-/-) mice and when observing tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in mice whose T cells are HIF-1(-/-). Direct pro-transcriptional activity of HIF-1 on a newly identified hypoxia response element (HRE) found in the human CD69 locus was demonstrated by ChIP experiments. These results uncover a connection between the HIF-1 oxygen-sensing pathway and CD69 immunobiology.
Autores: Pérez, Ana Isabel; Melero, Ignacio Javier, (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 23  Nº 18  2017  págs. 5326 - 5328
T-cell costimulation and coinhibition can be respectively exploited by blocking and agonist mAbs. Both strategies can be synergistically combined in mouse models. Early clinical results from combinations of anti-PD-1 mAbs in conjunc-tion with agonist anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAbs show excellent safety and promising efficacy. (C) 2017 AACR.
Autores: Marquez Rodas, I.; López-Tarruella Cobo, S.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Suppl. 5  2017  págs.  LBA20
Autores: Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl. 11  2017  págs. 48P
Autores: Segal, N. H.; Saro, J.; Melero, Ignacio Javier; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl 5  2017  págs.  403P
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Segal, N. H.; Saro, J.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl. 5  2017 
Autores: Sangro, Bruno; Yau, T. ; Hsu, C.; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 66  Nº 1  2017  págs. S34 - S35
Autores: Datar, I. ; Sanmamed, M. F.; Choi, J. ; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  2017  págs. 5 - 5
Autores: Sangro, Bruno; Melero, Ignacio Javier; Yau, T.; et al.
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 66  Nº Supl. 1  2017  págs. 82A
Autores: van Brummelen, E.; Lassen, U.; Melero, Ignacio Javier; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl. 5  2017 
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Minute,L.; Ajona, Daniel; et al.
ISSN 0105-2896  Vol. 274  Nº 1  2016  págs. 290 - 306
Chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment and evasion of the antitumor effector immune response are two of the emerging hallmarks required for oncogenesis and cancer progression. The innate immune system not only plays a critical role in perpetuating these tumor-promoting hallmarks but also in developing antitumor adaptive immune responses. Thus, understanding the dual role of the innate system in cancer immunology is required for the design of combined immunotherapy strategies able to tackle established tumors. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the role of cell populations and soluble components of the innate immune system in cancer, with a focus on complement, the adapter molecule Stimulator of Interferon Genes, natural killer cells, myeloid cells, and B cells.
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Melero, Ignacio Javier, (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 1074-7613  Vol. 44  Nº 3  2016  págs. 525 - 526
The role of the immune system in the control of cancer formation and progression has been a matter of considerable debate over many years. In this issue of Immunity, Mlecnik et al. (2016) show the importance of immunosurveillance in controlling tumors in a series of microsatellite-instable human colon carcinomas.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier, (Autor de correspondencia); Berraondo, Pedro; et al.
ISSN 2159-8290  Vol. 6  Nº 12  2016  págs. 1312 - 1314
Surgery remains our strongest treatment pillar against early stages of cancer. In a number of instances, the curative potential of surgery can be enhanced by treatments given before (neoadjuvant) or after (adjuvant) surgical procedures. Immunomodulation has emerged as a powerful tool to fight metastatic disease across cancer histologies and goes now to be tested at earlier surgically amenable stages. The work by Liu and colleagues in this issue provides solid preclinical evidence in support of neoadjuvant immunotherapy over adjuvant approaches.
Autores: Azpilikueta, A.; Agorreta, J; Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2016  págs. 524 - 536
INTRODUCTION: Anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antagonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with special efficacy in patients with squamous cell lung cancer are being developed in the clinic. However, robust and reliable experimental models to test immunotherapeutic combinations in squamous lung tumors are still lacking. METHODS: We generated a transplantable squamous cell carcinoma cell line (UN-SCC680AJ) from a lung tumor induced by chronic N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea mutagenesis in A/J mice. Tumor cells expressed cytokeratins, overexpressed p40, and lacked thyroid transcription factor 1, confirming the squamous lineage reported by histological analysis. More than 200 mutations found in its exome suggested potential for antigenicity. Immunocompetent mice subcutaneously implanted with this syngeneic cell line were treated with anti-CD137 and/or anti-PD-1 mAbs and monitored for tumor growth/progression or assessed for intratumoral leukocyte infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In syngeneic mice, large 12-day-established tumors derived from the transplantable cell line variant UN-SCC680AJ were amenable to curative treatment with anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-CD137 immunostimulatory mAbs. Single-agent therapies lost curative efficacy when treatment was started beyond day +17, whereas a combination of anti-PD-1 plus anti-CD137 achieved complete rejections. Tumor cells expressed weak baseline PD-L1 on the plasma membrane, but this could be readily induced by interferon-¿. Combined treatment efficacy required CD8 T cells and induced a leukocyte infiltrate in which T lymphocytes co-expressing CD137 and PD-1 were prominent. CONCLUSIONS: These promising results advocate the use of combined anti-PD-1/PD-L1 plus anti-CD137 mAb immunotherapy for the treatment of squamous non-small cell lung cancer in the clinical setting.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 22  Nº 15  2016  págs. 3924 - 3936
PURPOSE: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are considered an important T-cell immunosuppressive component in cancer-bearing hosts. The factors that attract these cells to the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. IL8 (CXCL8) is a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils and monocytes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: MDSC were characterized and sorted by multicolor flow cytometry on ficoll-gradient isolated blood leucokytes from healthy volunteers (n = 10) and advanced cancer patients (n = 28). In chemotaxis assays, sorted granulocytic and monocytic MDSC were tested in response to recombinant IL8, IL8 derived from cancer cell lines, and patient sera. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation was assessed by confocal microscopy, fluorimetry, and time-lapse fluorescence confocal microscopy on short-term MDSC cultures. RESULTS: IL8 chemoattracts both granulocytic (GrMDSC) and monocytic (MoMDSC) human MDSC. Monocytic but not granulocytic MDSC exerted a suppressor activity on the proliferation of autologous T cells isolated from the circulation of cancer patients. IL8 did not modify the T-cell suppressor activity of human MDSC. However, IL8 induced the formation of NETs in the GrMDSC subset. CONCLUSIONS: IL8 derived from tumors contributes to the chemotactic recruitment of MDSC and to their functional control.
Autores: Rodriguez, I.; Garasa, S.; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 76  Nº 20  2016  págs. 5994 - 6005
Preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that the proimmune effects of radiotherapy can be synergistically augmented with immunostimulatory mAbs to act both on irradiated tumor lesions and on distant, nonirradiated tumor sites. The combination of radiotherapy with immunostimulatory anti-PD1 and anti-CD137 mAbs was conducive to favorable effects on distant nonirradiated tumor lesions as observed in transplanted MC38 (colorectal cancer), B16OVA (melanoma), and 4T1 (breast cancer) models. The therapeutic activity was crucially performed by CD8 T cells, as found in selective depletion experiments. Moreover, the integrities of BATF-3-dependent dendritic cells specialized in crosspresentation/crosspriming of antigens to CD8+ T cells and of the type I IFN system were absolute requirements for the antitumor effects to occur. The irradiation regimen induced immune infiltrate changes in the irradiated and nonirradiated lesions featured by reductions in the total content of effector T cells, Tregs, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while effector T cells expressed more intracellular IFN¿ in both the irradiated and contralateral tumors. Importantly, 48 hours after irradiation, CD8+ TILs showed brighter expression of CD137 and PD1, thereby displaying more target molecules for the corresponding mAbs. Likewise, PD1 and CD137 were induced on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from surgically excised human carcinomas that were irradiated ex vivo These mechanisms involving crosspriming and CD8 T cells advocate clinical development of immunotherapy combinations with anti-PD1 plus anti-CD137 mAbs that can be synergistically accompanied by radiotherapy strategies, even if the disease is left outside the field of irradiation.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Sangro, Bruno; Yau, T.; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 27  Nº Suppl. 6  2016  págs. 615O
Background Median overall survival (OS) for first-line (1L) treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) with sorafenib (sor) is up to 11¿mo and 7¿8¿mo with best supportive care (BSC) post-sor failure. Nivolumab (nivo), an IgG4 mAb to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, was evaluated in a phase 1/2 study of patients (pts) with aHCC. After the multiple ascending-dose escalation (ESC) phase, dose expansion (EXP) followed. Interim results are presented. Methods Pts had histologically confirmed aHCC, Child-Pugh (CP) scores ¿ 7 (ESC) or¿¿¿6 (EXP). ESC pts who previously failed, refused, or were intolerant (intol) of sor received nivo 0.1¿10¿mg/kg across 3 cohorts: uninfected HCC, HBV-, and HCV-infected. EXP pts received nivo 3¿mg/kg across 4 cohorts: uninfected sor naïve/intol, uninfected sor progressors, HBV-, and HCV-infected. Primary endpoints were safety (ESC) and overall response rate (ORR) by RECIST 1.1 (EXP). Other endpoints included OS, duration of response (DOR), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) assessment. Results 48 (ESC) and 214 (EXP) pts were enrolled and treated with nivo. At baseline, 85% and 70% were CP¿=¿5, 77% and 75% had extrahepatic metastasis, and 73% and 66% had prior sor, for ESC and EXP, respectively. EXP safety profile was similar to that of previously reported ESC. In EXP, treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 65% of pts; 18% of pts had grade 3¿4. Most common TRAEs were fatigue (21%), pruritus (15%), rash (12%), and diarrhea (9%); most common grade 3¿4 TRAEs were increases in AST (4%), lipase and ALT (3% each), and amylase (2%). Efficacy data are presented in the table. Responses occurred regardless of underlying HCC etiology and PD-L1 expression. Conclusions Nivo was well tolerated in pts with aHCC. ORR and OS rate for ESC is favorable to historic BSC data. Tolerability and efficacy profiles are consistent between ESC and EXP phases of this ongoing study.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Sangro, Bruno; Yau, T.; et al.
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 64  Nº 6  2016  págs. 1124A
Autores: Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 27  Nº Supl. 6  2016  págs. 1055O
Autores: Prieto, Jesús María; Melero, Ignacio Javier; Sangro, Bruno;
ISSN 1759-5045  Vol. 12  Nº 12  2015  págs. 681 - 700
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious therapeutic challenge and targeted therapies only provide a modest benefit in terms of overall survival. Novel approaches are urgently needed for the treatment of this prevalent malignancy. Evidence demonstrating the antigenicity of tumour cells, the discovery that immune checkpoint molecules have an essential role in immune evasion of tumour cells, and the impressive clinical results achieved by blocking these inhibitory receptors, are revolutionizing cancer immunotherapy. Here, we review the data on HCC immunogenicity, the mechanisms for HCC immune subversion and the different immunotherapies that have been tested to treat HCC. Taking into account the multiplicity of hyperadditive immunosuppressive forces acting within the HCC microenvironment, a combinatorial approach is advised. Strategies include combinations of systemic immunomodulation and gene therapy, cell therapy or virotherapy.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
ISSN 0969-7128  Vol. 22  Nº 11  2015  págs. 856 - 865
Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDA) vectors constitute excellent gene therapy tools for metabolic liver diseases. We have previously shown that an HDA vector encoding human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) corrects acute intermittent porphyria mice. Now, six non-human primates were injected in the left hepatic lobe with the PBGD-encoding HDA vector to study levels and persistence of transgene expression. Intrahepatic administration of 5 × 10(12) viral particles¿kg(-1) (10(10) infective units¿kg(-1)) of HDA only resulted in transient (¿14 weeks) transgene expression in one out of three individuals. In contrast, a more prolonged 90-day immunosuppressive regimen (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, rituximab and steroids) extended meaningful transgene expression for over 76 weeks in two out of two cases. Transgene expression under immunosuppression (IS) reached maximum levels 6 weeks after HDA administration and gradually declined reaching a stable plateau within the therapeutic range for acute porphyria. The non-injected liver lobes also expressed the transgene because of vector circulation. IS controlled anticapsid T-cell responses and decreased the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Re-administration of HDA-hPBGD at week +78 achieved therapeutically meaningful transgene expression only in those animals receiving IS again at the time of this second vector exposure. Overall, immunity against adenoviral capsids poses serious hurdles for long-term HDA-mediated liver transduction, which can be partially circumvented by pharmacological IS.
Autores: Azpilicueta, Arantza; Sánchez-Paulete, A. R.; et al.
ISSN 2162-4011  Vol. 5  Nº 1  2015  págs. e1062967
Hypoxia is a common feature in solid tumors that has been implicated in immune evasion. Previous studies from our group have shown that hypoxia upregulates the co-stimulatory receptor CD137 on activated T lymphocytes and on vascular endothelial cells. In this study, we show that exposure of mouse and human tumor cell lines to hypoxic conditions (1% O2) promotes CD137 transcription. However, the resulting mRNA is predominantly an alternatively spliced form that encodes for a soluble variant, lacking the transmembrane domain. Accordingly, soluble CD137 (sCD137) is detectable by ELISA in the supernatant of hypoxia-exposed cell lines and in the serum of tumor-bearing mice. sCD137, as secreted by tumor cells, is able to bind to CD137-Ligand (CD137L). Our studies on primed T lymphocytes in co-culture with stable transfectants for CD137L demonstrate that tumor-secreted sCD137 prevents co-stimulation of T lymphocytes. Such an effect results from preventing the interaction of CD137L with the transmembrane forms of CD137 expressed on T lymphocytes undergoing activation. Indeed, silencing CD137 with shRNA renders more immunogenic tumor-cell variants upon inoculation to immunocompetent mice but which readily grafted on immunodeficient or CD8+ T-cell-depleted mice. These mechanisms are interpreted as a molecular strategy deployed by tumors to repress lymphocyte co-stimulation via CD137/CD137L.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; Echeveste, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 2162-4011  Vol. 4  Nº 12  2015  págs. e1054597
CD137 (4-1BB) is a surface marker discovered on activated T lymphocytes. However, its expression pattern is broader and has also been described on activated NK cells, B-cells and myeloid cells including mature dendritic cells. In this study, we have immunostained for CD137 on paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues including tonsils, lymph nodes, ectopic tertiary lymphoid tissue in Hashimoto thyroiditis and cancer. Surprisingly, immunostaining mainly decorates intrafollicular lymphocytes in the tissues analyzed, with only scattered staining in interfollicular areas. Moreover, pathologic lymphoid follicles in follicular lymphoma and tertiary lymphoid tissue associated to non-small cell lung cancer showed a similar pattern of immunostaining. Multicolor flow cytometry demonstrated that CD137 expression was restricted to CD4+ CXCR5+ follicular T helper lymphocytes in tonsils and lymph nodes. Short term culture of lymph node cell suspensions in the presence of an agonist anti-CD137 mAb or CD137-ligand results in the functional upregulation of TFH cells, including CD40L surface expression and cytokine production, in three out of six cases. As a consequence, immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies, anti-CD137 mAb such as urelumab and PF-05082566 should be expected to primarily act on this lymphocyte subset, thus modifying ongoing humoral immune responses.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Lasarte, Juan José;
ISSN 0028-4793  Vol. 372  Nº 8  2015  págs. 783
Autores: Lourenco, Bruno David, (Autor de correspondencia); Azpilicueta, Arantza; Puig, N.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 29  Nº 10  2015  págs. 2110 - 2113
Autores: Aznar, María Ángela; Melero, Ignacio Javier;
ISSN 1479-5876  Vol. 12  2014  págs. 202
New approaches to generate effective anticancer responses by either inducing immune responses or inhibiting immunosuppression are under development to improve efficacy in patients. On March 4-5th, 2014, a symposium was held in Pamplona, Spain, to report the new strategies showing preclinical and clinical results regarding translational research efforts on the topic. Participants interacted through oral presentations of 15 speakers and further discussions on topics that included novel therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy, viral vectors and interferon-based approaches, experimental tumor imaging and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Promising agents to target cancer cells and therapeutic approaches that are under translation from bench to patients were presented.
Autores: Gütgemann, I.; Melero, Ignacio Javier;
ISSN 2162-4011  Vol. 3  2014  págs. e27812
Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies can be given in combinations, hence modulating the activity of 2 or more receptors of the immune system. Some of these combinations have been shown to synergize at the elicitation of therapeutically relevant immune responses in transgenic mice developing spontaneous, oncogene-driven tumors, including multifocal hepatocellular carcinomas expressing ovalbumin as a surrogate tumor-associated antigen.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2014  págs. e85432
The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naive WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naive mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Gaudernack, G.; Gerritsen, W.; et al.
ISSN 1759-4774  Vol. 11  Nº 9  2014  págs. 509 - 524
The therapeutic potential of host-specific and tumour-specific immune responses is well recognized and, after many years, active immunotherapies directed at inducing or augmenting these responses are entering clinical practice. Antitumour immunization is a complex, multi-component task, and the optimal combinations of antigens, adjuvants, delivery vehicles and routes of administration are not yet identified. Active immunotherapy must also address the immunosuppressive and tolerogenic mechanisms deployed by tumours. This Review provides an overview of new results from clinical studies of therapeutic cancer vaccines directed against tumour-associated antigens and discusses their implications for the use of active immunotherapy.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Rouzaut, Ana; Motz, G.T.; et al.
ISSN 2159-8274  Vol. 4  Nº 5  2014  págs. 522 - 526
Cancer immunotherapy has great promise, but is limited by diverse mechanisms used by tumors to prevent sustained antitumor immune responses. Tumors disrupt antigen presentation, T/NK-cell activation, and T/NK-cell homing through soluble and cell-surface mediators, the vasculature, and immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells. However, many molecular mechanisms preventing the efficacy of antitumor immunity have been identified and can be disrupted by combination immunotherapy. Here, we examine immunosuppressive mechanisms exploited by tumors and provide insights into the therapies under development to overcome them, focusing on lymphocyte traffic.
Autores: Mellstedt, H.; Gaudernack, G.; Gerritsen, W. R.; et al.
ISSN 2164-5515  Vol. 10  Nº 7  2014  págs. 1828 - 1835
The use of immunotherapy in the management of cancer is growing, and a range of new immunotherapeutic strategies is becoming available. It is important that people involved in the care of cancer understand how cancer immunotherapies differ from conventional chemotherapy and apply this knowledge to their clinical practice. Therefore, from August-September 2011 we undertook a survey of awareness, attitudes, and perceptions of cancer immunotherapy among 426 healthcare professionals (HCPs) in Europe with the aim of identifying and prioritizing educational needs. Nearly all (98%) HCPs were aware of cancer immunotherapy. While 68% of HCPs indicated a high level of interest in cancer immunotherapies, only 24% of the HCPs had direct experience with them. Overall perceptions of cancer immunotherapy among HCPs were largely positive (60%) and rarely negative (3%). The key advantages of cancer immunotherapy were perceived to be good safety and tolerability (75%), a targeted mechanism of action (61%) and good efficacy (48%). The leading barriers to use of immunotherapies were costs of treatment (58%), past clinical trial failures (45%), and access/formulary restrictions (44%). The results indicate that, among the respondents, awareness of cancer immunotherapy was high but that knowledge levels varied and direct experience with their use was limited. There appears to be a need for educational activities on cancer immunotherapy, as well as generation and communication of clinical data on long-term efficacy and safety.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 75  Nº 3  2014  págs. 497 - 507
Host responses are increasingly considered important for the efficacious response to experimental cancer therapies that employ viral vectors, but little is known about the specific nature of host responses required. In this study, we investigated the role of host type I interferons (IFN-I) in the efficacy of virally delivered therapeutic genes. Specifically, we used a Semliki Forest virus encoding IL12 (SFV-IL12) based on its promise as an RNA viral vector for cancer treatment. Intratumoral injection of SFV-IL12 induced production of IFN-I as detected in serum. IFN-I production was abolished in mice deficient for the IFN beta transcriptional regulator IPS-1 and partially attenuated in mice deficient for the IFN beta signaling protein TRIF. Use of bone marrow chimeric hosts established that both hematopoietic and stromal cells were involved in IFN-I production. Macrophages, plasmacytoid, and conventional dendritic cells were each implicated based on cell depletion experiments. Further, mice deficient in the IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) abolished the therapeutic activity of SFV-IL12, as did a specific antibody-mediated blockade of IFNAR signaling. Reduced efficacy was not caused by an impairment in IL12 expression, because IFNAR-deficient mice expressed the viral IL12 transgene even more strongly than wild-type (WT) hosts. Chimeric host analysis for the IFNAR involvement established a strict requirement in hematopoietic cells. Notably, although tumor-specific CD8 T lymphocytes expand
Autores: Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0952-7915  Vol. 27  2014  págs. 89 - 97
Inhibitory receptors on immune system cells respond to membrane-bound and soluble ligands to abort or mitigate the intensity of immune responses by raising thresholds of activation, halting proliferation, favoring apoptosis or inhibiting/deviating effector function differentiation. Such evolutionarily selected inhibitory mechanisms are termed check-points and therefore check-point inhibitors empower any ongoing anti-cancer immune response that might have been too weak or exhausted. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) interfering with CTLA-4-CD80/86, PD-1 - PD-L1, TIM-3-GAL9 and LAG3-MHC-II belong to this category of check-point inhibitors. The anti-CTLA-4 mAb ipilimumab has been approved for metastatic melanoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 mAbs have shown extremely encouraging clinical activity. The potential of combination strategies with these agents has recently been highlighted by clinical observations on CTLA-4+PD-1 combined blockade in melanoma patients.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 20  Nº 22  2014  págs. 5697-5707
IL8 levels correlate with tumor burden in preclinical models and in patients with cancer. IL8 is a potentially useful biomarker to monitor changes in tumor burden following anticancer therapy, and has prognostic significance.
Autores: Rouzaut, Ana; Melero, Ignacio Javier;
ISSN 1664-3224  Vol. 4  2013  págs. 433
Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels (LVs), which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e., LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1, and VEGFR-3). Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid edema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. LVs are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes (LN). Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals). This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins, and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to LN is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behavior of leukocytes and condition the LV for subsequent trans-migratory events.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Mazzolini, G.; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
ISSN 1566-5232  Vol. 13  Nº 1  2013  págs. 15 - 30
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) exerts powerful stimulatory effects on lymphocyte subsets that result in antiviral and antitumoral activities. The functions of this cytokine are mainly mediated in a cell-to-cell contact fashion termed IL-15 trans-presentation. This function is mediated by a cell which tethers IL-15 to its plasmatic membrane complexed to IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R¿). Such surface complexes interact with interleukin-2 receptor beta and gamma on the adjacent cell to elicit signaling. Unlike interleukin-2, IL-15 protects from activation-induced cell death and does not promote regulatory cells. These features underlie its activity against transplanted tumors and its adjuvanticity in tumor and viral vaccines. The GMP-manufactured recombinant protein is undergoing clinical trials but its rapid renal clearance calls for biotechnological strategies to increase molecular weight and ensure IL-15R¿. trans-presentation. Since early efforts with stable transfected tumor cells, IL-15 has been tested in a variety gene therapy approaches. Those mainly include transfer of expression cassettes to tumor cells, T cells, dendritic cells, vaccination sites and the liver as a biofactory organ. Detailed mechanistic knowledge of IL-15 biology is envisaged to make the most of a powerful immunotherapeutic tool ranked as one of the most promising for cancer immunotherapy.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; Rodriguez, A.; et al.
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 36  Nº 3  2013  págs. 519 - 537
Dendritic cells (DC) are cells of hematopoietic origin, which constitutively express MHC class I and II, and are functionally the most potent inducers of T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation. CD8+ T lymphocytes proliferate and acquire cytotoxic functions upon recognition of their cognate antigen on the surface of one or various dendritic cells with which they interact. However, only some DC subsets are able to present antigen to cytotoxic T cell precursors as taken up from extracellular sources. This function is termed cross-presentation (in Spanish, presentacion cruzada or presentacion subrogada) and requires shuttle mechanisms from phagosomes to the cytosol for antigen processing. It has been demonstrated that the differentiation of DC with these capabilities is dependent on FLT-3L and the transcription factor BATF3. They express peculiar functions and differentiation markers. These cells are distinguished in mice by surface CD8 alpha features, while CD141 (BDCA-3) marks these cells in the human. These subpopulations are capable of selective internalization of necrotic cell debris by means of their CLEC9A lectin which is a receptor for extracellular polymerized actin. Expression of the chemokine receptor XCR1 favours contact with CD8+ T cells. Therapeutic vaccination with tumour antigens using DC is a strategy under development for the treatment of cancer. The use of DC subsets with more prominent capabilities for cross-presentation would mimic the natural mechanisms of immunization to induce cytolitic T lymphocytes. In vivo targeting of antigens with monoclonal antibodies against DEC-205 or CLEC9A attains very robust immune responses and is a strategy undergoing clinical trials for chronic viral diseases and malignancies.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier;
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 19  Nº 20  2013  págs. 5546 - 5548
Immunotherapies often permit combinations to increase efficacy. Two approaches are currently leading our field: adoptive therapy with T cells transfected with chimeric antigen receptors and monoclonal antibodies blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 (B7-H1) axis. In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research, preclinical evidence for a synergistic combination of such approaches is reported.
Autores: Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 190  Nº 12  2013  págs. 6694 - 6706
Agonist anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAbs enhance CD8-mediated antitumor immunity. Agonist anti-human CD137 mAbs binding to four distinct epitopes on the CD137 glycoprotein costimulated T cell activation irrespective of the engaged epitope or its interference with CD137L binding. CD137 perturbation with all these agonist mAbs resulted in Ag and Ab internalization toward an endosomal vesicular compartment. Internalization was observed in activated T lymphocytes from humans and mice, not only in culture but also in Ab-injected living animals. These in vivo experiments were carried out upon systemic i.v. injections with anti-CD137 mAbs and showed CD137 internalization in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and in activated human T cells transferred to immunodeficient mice. Efficient CD137 internalization required K63 polyubiquitination and endocytosed CD137-containing vesicles recruited TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 2 and were decorated with K63 polyubiquitins. CD137 stimulation activates NF-¿B through a K63-linked polyubiquitination-dependent route, and CD137-associated TRAF2 becomes K63 polyubiquitinated. Consistent with a role for TRAF2 in CD137 signaling, transgenic mice functionally deficient in TRAF2 showed delayed immunotherapeutic activity of anti-CD137 mAbs. As a whole, these findings advance our knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-CD137 immunostimulatory mAbs such as those currently undergoing clinical trials in cancer patients.
Autores: Morales-Kastresana, A.; Catalán, E.; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 1  2013  págs. 3
BACKGROUND: Treatment with agonist anti-CD137 (4-1BB) immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies elicits complete tumor regressions in a number of transplanted hematological and solid malignancies in mice. Rejection is mainly dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and IFN¿, although a role for NK cells and dendritic cells has been observed in some tumor models. Rejection of EG7-derived thymomas has been shown to be CTL-dependent but not NK-dependent. FINDINGS: In this therapeutic setting, we show that both the perforin-granzyme and FasL effector systems are readily expressed by CD8(+) T lymphocytes infiltrating the EG7 lymphomas which are undergoing rejection. Using knock-out mice, we demonstrate that both effector cytolytic systems are involved in the execution of complete immune rejections against EG7 established tumors. In accordance, EG7 tumor cells were susceptible in vitro to both killing mechanisms acting in a synergistic fashion. CONCLUSIONS: CD137-elicited rejection of EG7-derived tumors involves the interplay of at least two final effector cytolytic mechanisms that act in cooperation.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Melero, Ignacio Javier; Berraondo, Pedro;
ISSN 2162-4011  Vol. 2  Nº 4  2013  págs. e23410
Circulating lipoproteins may offer interesting properties as therapeutic carriers for cytokines and hormones, in terms of both stability and bio-distribution. The fusion of apolipoprotein A-I with interleukin-15 (IL-15) targets the latter to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). The bioactivity of this chimera can be further enhanced by creating triple fusions with IL-15 receptor ¿ domain involved in IL-15 trans-presentation.
Autores: Sangro, Bruno; Gomez-Martin C; de la Mata M; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 59  Nº 1  2013  págs. 81-88
Background & Aims: Tremelimumab is a monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory co-receptor that interferes with T cell activation and proliferation. The purpose of this pilot clinical trial was to test the antitumor and antiviral effect of tremelimumab in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; and to study the safety of its administration to cirrhotic patients. Methods: Tremelimumab at a dose of 15 mg/kg IV every 90 days was administered until tumor progression or severe toxicity. Twenty patients were assessable for toxicity and viral response and 17 were assessable for tumor response. Most patients were in the advanced stage and 43% had an altered liver function (Child-Pugh class B). Results: A good safety profile was recorded and no patient needed steroids because of severe immune-mediated adverse events. Some patients had a transient albeit intense elevation of transaminases after the first dose, but not following subsequent cycles. Partial response rate was 17.6% and disease control rate was 76.4%. Time to progression was 6.48 months (95% CI 3.95-9.14). A significant drop in viral load was observed while new emerging variants of the hypervariable region 1 of HCV replaced the predominant variants present before therapy, particularly in those patients with a more prominent drop in viral load. This antiviral effect was associated with an enhanced specific anti-HCV immune response. Conclusions: Tremelimumab safety profile and antitumor and antiviral activity, in patients with advanced HCC developed on HCV-induced liver cirrhosis, support further investigation. (C) 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Garasa, S.; Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
ISSN 1523-1747  Vol. 133  Nº 9  2013  págs. 2276 - 2285
Dendritic cell (DC) transmigration across the lymphatic endothelium is critical for the initiation and sustenance of immune responses. Under noninflammatory conditions, DC transit across the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) has been shown to be integrin independent. In contrast, there is increasing evidence for the participation of integrins and their ligands in DC transit across lymphatic endothelium under inflammation. In this sense, we describe the formation of ICAM-1 (CD54)-enriched three-dimensional structures on LEC/DC contacts, as these DCs adhere to inflamed skin lymphatic vessels and transmigrate into them. In vitro imaging revealed that under inflammation ICAM-1 accumulated on microvilli projections surrounding 60% of adhered DCs. In contrast, these structures were scarcely formed in noninflammatory conditions. Furthermore, ICAM-1-enriched microvilli were important in promoting DC transendothelial migration and DC crawling over the LEC surface. Microvilli formation was dependent on the presence of beta-integrins on the DC side and on integrin conformational affinity to ligand. Finally, we observed that LEC microvilli structures appeared in close vicinity of CCL21 depots and that their assembly was partially inhibited by CCL21-neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, under inflammatory conditions, integrin ligands form three-dimensional membrane projections around DCs. These structures offer docking sites for DC transit from the tissue toward the lymphatic vessel lumen.
Autores: Rodríguez, I.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 19  Nº 22  2013  págs. 6151 - 6162
Purpose: Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (ISmAb) that unleash antitumor immune responses are showing efficacy in cancer clinical trials. Anti-B7-H1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) block a critical inhibitory pathway in T cells, whereas anti-CD137 and OX40 mAbs provide T-cell costimulation. A combination of these ISmAbs (anti-CD137 + anti-OX40 + anti-B7-H1) was tested using a transgenic mouse model of multifocal and rapidly progressing hepatocellular carcinoma, in which c-myc drives transformation and cytosolic ovalbumin (OVA) is expressed in tumor cells as a model antigen. Experimental Design: Flow-cytometry and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) elicited by treatment and assess their activation status and cytolytic potential. Tolerance induction and its prevention/reversal by treatment with the combination of ISmAbs were revealed by in vivo killing assays. Results: The triple combination of ISmAbs extended survival of mice bearing hepatocellular carcinomas in a CD8-dependent fashion and synergized with adoptive T-cell therapy using activated OVA-specific TCR-transgenic OT-1 and OT-2 lymphocytes. Mice undergoing therapy showed clear increases in tumor infiltration by activated and blastic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes containing perforin/granzyme B and expressing the ISmAb-targeted receptors on their surface. The triple combination of ISmAbs did not result in enhanced OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity but other antigens expressed by cell lines derived from such hepatocellular carcinomas were recognized by endogenous TILs. Adoptively transferred OVA-specific OT-1 lymphocytes into tumor-bearing mice were rendered tolerant, unless given the triple mAb therapy. Conclusion: Extension of survival and dense T-cell infiltrates emphasize the translational potential of combinational immunotherapy strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Hirschhorn-Cymerman; Sanmamed, M.F.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 19  Nº 5  2013  págs. 1044 - 1053
Therapy for cancer can be achieved by artificially stimulating antitumor T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes with agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAb). T and NK cells express several members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) family specialized in delivering a costimulatory signal on their surface. Engagement of these receptors is typically associated with proliferation, elevated effector functions, resistance to apoptosis, and differentiation into memory cells. These receptors lack any intrinsic enzymatic activity and their signal transduction relies on associations with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins. Stimulation of CD137 (4-1BB), CD134 (OX40), and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR (GITR; CD357) promotes impressive tumor-rejecting immunity in a variety of murine tumor models. The mechanisms of action depend on a complex interplay of CTL, T-helper cells, regulatory T cells, dendritic cells, and vascular endothelium in tumors. Agonist mAbs specific for CD137 have shown signs of objective clinical activity in patients with metastatic melanoma, whereas anti-OX40 and anti-GITR mAbs have entered clinical trials. Preclinical evidence suggests that engaging TNFR members would be particularly active with conventional cancer therapies and additional immunotherapeutic approaches. Indeed, T-cell responses elicited to tumor antigens by means of immunogenic tumor cell death are amplified by these immunostimulatory agonist mAbs. Furthermore, anti-CD137 mAbs have been shown to enhance NK-mediated cytotoxicity elicited by rituximab and trastuzumab. Combinations with other immunomodulatory mAb that block T-cell checkpoint blockade receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 are also promising. Clin Cancer Res; 19(5); 1044-53. (C) 2013 AACR.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Rodriguez, I; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 73  Nº 1  2013  págs. 139-149
Interleukin (IL)-15 effects on CD8 T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes hold promise to treat cancer. Fusion proteins have been engineered to provide IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R alpha) mediated trans-presentation to lymphocytes and extend the plasma half-life of the cytokine. In this study, we report on a triple fusion protein combining apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), IL-15, and IL-15R alpha's sushi domain. Apo A-I conveys IL-15 to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), from which the cytokine is trans-presented by the IL-15R alpha's sushi domain. Such a construction was tested by hydrodynamic gene transfer to the liver of mice. Lethal toxicity was observed upon injection of 10 mu g of the expression plasmid. Mice died from an acute lymphocytic pneumonitis in which T and NK cells dominate a severe inflammatory infiltrate. Importantly, mice devoid of NK cells were not susceptible to such toxicity and mice lacking granzymes A and B also survived the otherwise lethal gene transfer. Lower plasmid doses (<2.5 mu g) were tolerated and dramatically increased the numbers of NK and memory CD8 T lymphocytes in the liver, spleen, and lungs, to the point of rescuing the deficiency of such lymphocyte subsets in IL-15R alpha(-/-) mice. Doses of plasmid within the therapeutic window successfully treated metastatic tumor models, including B16OVA lung metastasis of melanoma and MC38 colon cancer liver metastasis. Sushi-IL-15-Apo as a recombinant protein was also bioactive in vivo, became conjugated to HDL, and displayed immunotherapeutic effects against metastatic disease. Cancer Res; 73(1); 139-49. (C) 2012 AACR.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Grimaldi, A.M.; Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 19  Nº 5  2013  págs. 997-1008
Immune system responses are under the control of extracellular biomolecules, which express functions in receptors present on the surface of cells of the immune system, and thus are amenable to be functionally modulated by monoclonal antibodies. Some of these mechanisms are activating and dictate whether the response ensues, while others play the role of powerful repressors. Antagonist antibodies acting on such repressors result in enhanced immune responses, a goal that is also achieved with agonist antibodies acting on the activating receptors. With these simple logics, a series of therapeutic agents are under clinical development and one of them directed at the CTL-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitory receptor (ipilimumab) has been approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The list of antagonist agents acting on repressors under development includes anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 (B7-H1), anti-KIR, and anti-TGF-ß. Agonist antibodies currently being investigated in clinical trials target CD40, CD137 (4-1BB), CD134 (OX40), and glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR). A blossoming preclinical pipeline suggests that other active targets will also be tested in patients in the near future. All of these antibodies are being developed as conventional monoclonal immunoglobulins, but other engineered antibody formats or RNA aptamers are under preclinical scrutiny. The "dark side" of these immune interventions is that they elicit autoimmune/inflammatory reactions that can be severe in some patients. A critical and, largely, pending subject is to identify reliable predictive biomarkers both for efficacy and immune toxicity. Preclinical and early clinical studies indicate a tremendous potential to further improve efficacy, using combinations from among these new agents that frequently act in a synergistic fashion. Combinations with other more conventional means of treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or cancer vaccines also hold much promise.
Autores: Srinivas, M.; Melero, Ignacio Javier; Kaempgen, E.; et al.
ISSN 1555-4309  Vol. 8  Nº 6  2013  págs. 432 - 438
In vivo imaging plays a key role in cell tracking, particularly for the optimization of cellular therapeutics. A recent trend is to use more than one imaging modality (multimodality imaging) for this purpose. There are several advantages to multimodal cell tracking, particularly the corroboration of data obtained using a new imaging agent or technique with an established one, and the ability to glean complementary information from a single experiment. In this review, we examine the different types of labels and imaging strategies used in the literature for multimodal cell tracking, and discuss the pros and cons of these approaches, with a focus on MRI. Despite many efforts and novel technologies, we still have to face situations where current imaging methods are simply not sensitive enough and new labeling strategies are hampered by the lack of approved reagents. Finally, we examine new in vitro and preclinical developments, which have the potential to tackle unresolved challenges in in vivo multimodal imaging.
Autores: Aragones, J; de Landazuri, MO; Melero, Ignacio Javier;
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 18  Nº 5  2012  págs. 1207 - 1213
Both malignant and stromal components in tumors are influenced by the physiologic conditions of the microenvironment. Hypoxia is a prominent feature of solid tumors as a result of defective vascularization and intense metabolic activity. The gene-expression control mechanisms that adapt tissues to hypoxia are exploited by tumors to promote angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The functions of infiltrating immune cells (macrophages and lymphocytes) and other stromal components are also influenced by a limited O-2 supply. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) are the main molecular transcriptional mediators in the hypoxia response. The degradation and activity of HIF-1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha are tightly controlled by the fine-tuned action of oxygen-sensing prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylase enzymes. Recent evidence indicates that hypoxia can modulate the differentiation and function of T lymphocytes and myeloid cells, skewing their cytokine-production profiles and modifying the expression of costimulatory receptors. This conceivably includes tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Hypoxia not only directly affects tumor-infiltrating leukocytes but also exerts effects on tumor cells and vascular cells that indirectly cause selective chemokine-mediated recruitment of suppressive and proangiogenic T-cell subsets. This review focuses on changes induced by hypoxia in immune cells infiltrating solid malignancies. Such changes may either promote or fight cancer, and thus are important for immunotherapy.
Autores: Garasa, S; et al.
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 26  Nº 8  2012  págs. 3380 - 3392
Autores: Okada, H; Topalian, SL; et al.
ISSN 1479-5876  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2012  págs. 108 - 114
Although recent FDA approvals on ipilimumab and sipuleucel-T represent major milestones, the ultimate success of immunotherapy approaches will likely benefit from appropriate combinations with other immunotherapeutic and/or non-immunotherapeutic approaches. However, implementation of ideal combinations in the clinic may still face formidable challenges in regulatory, drug-availability and intellectual property aspects. The 2011 SITC annual meeting hosted a workshop on combination immunotherapy to discuss: 1) the most promising combinations found in the laboratory; 2) early success of combination immunotherapy in clinical trials; 3) industry perspectives on combination approaches, and 4) relevant regulatory issues. The integrated theme was how to accelerate the implementation of efficacious combined immunotherapies for cancer patients. Rodent animal models are providing many examples of synergistic combinations that typically include more than two agents. However, mouse and human immunology differ in a significant number of mechanisms and hence we might be missing opportunities peculiar to humans. Nonetheless, incisive animal experimentation with deep mechanistic insight remains the best compass that we can use to guide our paths in combinatorial immunotherapy. Combination immunotherapy clinical trials are already in progress and preliminary results are extremely promising. As a key to translate promising combinations into clinic, real and "perceived" business and regulatory hurdles were debated. A formidable step forward would be to be able to test combinations of investigational agents prior to individual approval. Taking together the FDA and the industrial perspective on combinatorial immunotherapy, the audience was left with the clear message that this is by no means an impossible task. The general perception is that the road ahead of us is full of combination clinical trials which hopefully will bring clinical benefit to our cancer patients at a fast pace.
Autores: Mazzolini G; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Sanmamed MF; et al.
ISSN 1750-743X  Vol. 4  Nº 11  2012  págs. 1081 - 1085
Autores: Quetglas, José Ignacio; John, L.B.; Kershaw, M.H.; et al.
ISSN 2162-4011  Vol. 1  Nº 8  2012  págs. 1345 - 1355
Malignant cells are susceptible to viral infection and consequent cell death. Virus-induced cell death is endowed with features that are known to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus danger signals emitted by cells succumbing to viral infection as well as viral nucleic acids are detected by specific receptors, and tumor cell antigens can be routed to professional antigen-presenting cells. The anticancer immune response triggered by viral infection is frequently insufficient to eradicate malignancy but may be further amplified. For this purpose, transgenes encoding cytokines as co-stimulatory molecules can be genetically engineered into viral vectors. Alternatively, or in addition, it is possible to use monoclonal antibodies that either block inhibitory receptors of immune effector cells, or act as agonists for co-stimulatory receptors. Combined strategies are based on the ignition of a local immune response at the malignant site plus systemic immune boosting. We have recently reported examples of this approach involving the Vaccinia virus or Semliki Forest virus, interleukin-12 and anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies.
Autores: Belza, Idoia; et al.
ISSN 2162-4011  Vol. 1  Nº 9  2012  págs. 1527-36
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1/CTF1) is a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines that stimulates STAT-3 phosphorylation in cells bearing the cognate receptor. We report that Ctf1(-/-) mice (hereby referred to as CT-1(-/-) mice) are resistant to the hepatic engraftment of MC38 colon carcinoma cells, while these cells engraft normally in the mouse subcutaneous tissue. Tumor intake in the liver could be enhanced by the systemic delivery of a recombinant adenovirus encoding CT-1, which also partly rescued the resistance of CT-1(-/-) mice to the hepatic engraftment of MC38 cells. Moreover, systemic treatment of wild-type (WT) mice with a novel antibody-neutralizing mouse CT-1 also reduced engraftment of this model. Conversely, experiments with Panc02 pancreatic cancer and B16-OVA melanoma cells in CT-1(-/-) mice revealed rates of hepatic engraftment similar to those observed in WT mice. The mechanism whereby CT-1 renders the liver permissive for MC38 metastasis involves T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, as shown by selective depletion experiments and in genetically deficient mice. However, no obvious changes in the number or cell killing capacity of liver lymphocytes in CT-1(-/-) animals could be substantiated. These findings demonstrate that the seed and soil concept to understand metastasis can be locally influenced by cytokines as well as by the cellular immune system
Autores: Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
Revista: Journal of Translational Medicine
ISSN 1479-5876  Vol. 10  2012  págs.  222
These results indicate that our transient and intensive pharmacological immunosuppression fails to improve AAV5-based liver gene transfer in non-human primates. The reasons include an incomplete restraint of humoral immune responses to viral capsids that interfere with repeated gene transfer in addition to an intriguing MMF-dependent drug-mediated interference with liver transgene expression.
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Umansky, V; Melero, Ignacio Javier;
Revista: Cancer Research
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 72  Nº 20  2012  págs. 5159 - 5164
Autores: Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; Mancheño, U; Riezu-Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 189  Nº 7  2012  págs.  3299 - 3310
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Duitman, E. H.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 7  Nº 12  2012 
Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is a major component of high density lipoproteins (HDL) that transport cholesterol in circulation. We have constructed an expression plasmid encoding a chimeric molecule encompassing interleukin-15 (IL-15) and Apo A-I (pApo-hIL15) that was tested by hydrodynamic injections into mice and was co-administered with a plasmid encoding the sushi domain of IL-15R alpha (pSushi) in order to enhance IL-15 trans-presentation and thereby bioactivity. The pharmacokinetics of the Apo A-I chimeric protein were much longer than non-stabilized IL-15 and its bioactivity was enhanced in combination with IL-15R alpha Sushi. Importantly, the APO-IL-15 fusion protein was incorporated in part into circulating HDL. Liver gene transfer of these constructs increased NK and memory-phenotype CD8 lymphocyte numbers in peripheral blood, spleen and liver as a result of proliferation documented by CFSE dilution and BrdU incorporation. Moreover, the gene transfer procedure partly rescued the NK and memory T-cell deficiency observed in IL-15R alpha(-/-) mice. pApo-hIL15+ pSushi gene transfer to the liver showed a modest therapeutic activity against subcutaneously transplanted MC38 colon carcinoma tumors, that was more evident when tumors were set up as liver metastases. The improved pharmacokinetic profile and the strong biological activity of APO-IL-15 fusion protein holds promise for further development in combination with other immunotherapies.
Autores: Bezunartea, Jaione; et al.
ISSN 1525-0016  Vol. 20  Nº 9  2012  págs. 1664 - 1675
Intratumoral injection of Semliki Forest virus encoding interleukin-12 (SFV-IL-12) combines acute expression of IL-12 and stressful apoptosis of infected malignant cells. Agonist antibodies directed to costimulatory receptor CD137 (4-1BB) strongly amplify pre-existing cellular immune responses toward weak tumor antigens. In this study, we provide evidence for powerful synergistic effects of a combined strategy consisting of intratumoral injection of SFV-IL-12 and systemic delivery of agonist anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which was substantiated against poorly immunogenic B16 melanomas (B16-OVA and B16.F10) and TC-1 lung carcinomas. Effector CD8(beta)(+) T cells were sufficient to mediate complete tumor eradications. Accordingly, there was an intensely synergistic in vivo enhancement of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)-mediated immunity against the tumor antigens OVA and tyrosine-related protein-2 (TRP-2). This train of phenomena led to long-lasting tumor-specific immunity against rechallenge, attained transient control of the progression of concomitant tumor lesions that were not directly treated with SFV-IL-12 and caused autoimmune vitiligo. Importantly, we found that SFV-IL-12 intratumoral injection induces bright expression of CD137 on most tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes, thereby providing more abundant targets for the action of the agonist antibody. This efficacious combinatorial immunotherapy strategy offers feasibility for clinical translation since anti-CD137 mAbs are already undergoing clinical trials and development of clinical-grade SFV-IL-12 vectors is in progress.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
Revista: Cancer Discovery
ISSN 2159-8274  Vol. 2  Nº 7  2012  págs. 608 - 623
Autores: Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; Pérez, José Luis; Rouzaut, Ana; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 17  Nº 9  2011  págs. 2619 - 2627
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
Revista: PLoS One
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 3  2011  págs. e17922
IL-8 as produced by carcinoma cells changes DC migration cues, without directly interfering with DC-mediated T-cell stimulation.
Autores: Pappalardo, F; Pennisi, M; et al.
Revista: PLoS One
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 10  2011  págs. e26523
Immunological therapy of progressive tumors requires not only activation and expansion of tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), but also an efficient effector phase including migration of CTLs in the tumor tissue followed by conjugation and killing of target cells. We report the application of an agent-based model to recapitulate both the effect of a specific immunotherapy strategy against B16-melanoma in mice and the tumor progression in a generic tissue section. A comparison of the in silico results with the in vivo experiments shows excellent agreement. We therefore use the model to predict a critical role for CD137 expression on tumor vessel endothelium for successful therapy and other mechanistic aspects. Experimental results are fully compatible with the model predictions. The biologically oriented in silico model derived in this work will be used to predict treatment failure or success in other pre-clinical conditions eventually leading new promising in vivo experiments.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
Revista: PLoS One
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 12  2011  págs. e229300
Moreover, when mouse PMNs with E. coli in their interior are co-injected in the foot pad with DC, many DC loaded with fluorescent material from the PMNs reach draining lymph nodes. Using CT26 (H-2(d)) mouse tumor cells, it was observed that if tumor cells are intracellularly loaded with OVA protein and UV-irradiated, they become phagocytic prey of H-2(d) PMNs. If such PMNs, that cannot present antigens to OT-1 T cells, are immunomagnetically re-isolated and phagocytosed by H-2(b) DC, such DC productively cross-present OVA antigen determinants to OT-1 T cells. Cross-presentation to adoptively transferred OT-1 lymphocytes at draining lymph nodes also take place when OVA-loaded PMNs (H-2(d)) are coinjected in the footpad of mice with autologous DC (H-2(b)). In summary, our results indicate that antigens phagocytosed by short-lived PMNs can be in turn internalized and productively cross-presented by DC.
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
ISSN 0340-7004  Vol. 60  Nº 5  2011  págs. 753 - 756
Autores: Suárez Fuentetaja, N.; Alfaro Alegría, C.; Dubrot Armendáriz, J.; et al.
Revista: International Journal of Cancer (Print)
ISSN 0020-7136  Vol. 129  Nº 2  2011  págs. 374 - 386
The synergy mechanism can be traced to enhanced CTLA-4 expression in effector cells as a result of T(reg) elimination, thereby offering more targets to the blocking antibody. Human T cells and allogenic DCs (derived both from healthy donors and advanced cancer patients) were coinjected in the peritoneum of Rag2(-/-) IL-2R¿(-/-) mice. In these conditions, tremelimumab injected intravenously did not significantly enhance alloreactive proliferation unless T(reg) cells had been predepleted. Synergistic effects in vivo were again largely restricted to the CD4 T-cell compartment. In addition, T(reg) depletion and CTLA-4 blockade synergistically enhanced specific cytotoxicity raised in culture against autologous EBV-transformed cell lines. Taken together, these experiments indicate that tremelimumab therapy may benefit from previous or concomitant T(reg) depletion
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; Pérez, José Luis; et al.
Revista: The Journal of Immunology
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 187  Nº 11  2011  págs. 6130 - 6142
Twenty-four patients with metastatic cancer received two cycles of four daily immunizations with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). DC were incubated with preheated autologous tumor lysate and subsequently with IFN-alpha, TNF-alpha, and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid to attain type 1 maturation. One DC dose was delivered intranodally, under ultrasound control, and the rest intradermally in the opposite thigh. Cyclophosphamide (day -7), GM-CSF (days 1-4), and pegIFN alpha-2a (days 1 and 8) completed each treatment cycle. Pretreatment with cyclophosphamide decreased regulatory T cells to levels observed in healthy subjects both in terms of percentage and in absolute counts in peripheral blood. Treatment induced sustained elevations of IL-12 in serum that correlated with the output of IL-12p70 from cultured DC from each individual. NK activity in peripheral blood was increased and also correlated with the serum concentration of IL-12p70 in each patient. Circulating endothelial cells decreased in 17 of 18 patients, and circulating tumor cells markedly dropped in 6 of 19 cases. IFN-gamma-ELISPOT responses to DC plus tumor lysate were observed in 4 of 11 evaluated cases. Tracing DC migration with [(111)In] scintigraphy showed that intranodal injections reached deeper lymphatic chains in 61% of patients, whereas with intradermal injections a small fraction of injected DC was almost constantly shown to reach draining inguinal lymph nodes. Five patients experienced disease stabilization, but no objective responses were documented. This combinatorial immunotherapy strategy is safe and feasible, and its immunobiological effects suggest potential activity in patients with minimal residual disease. A randomized trial exploring this hypothesis is currently ongoing.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
Revista: International Journal of Cancer (Print)
ISSN 0020-7136  Vol. 28  Nº 1  2011  págs. 105 - 118
Autores: Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
Revista: Cancer Research
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 71  Nº 3  2011  págs. 801 - 11
Agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the immune costimulatory molecule CD137, also known as 4-1BB, are presently in clinical trials for cancer treatment on the basis of their costimulatory effects on primed T cells and perhaps other cells of the immune system. Here we provide evidence that CD137 is selectively expressed on the surface of tumor endothelial cells. Hypoxia upregulated CD137 on murine endothelial cells. Treatment of tumor-bearing immunocompromised Rag(-/-) mice with agonist CD137 mAb did not elicit any measurable antiangiogenic effects. In contrast, agonist mAb stimulated tumor endothelial cells, increasing cell surface expression of the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin. When adoptively transferred into mice, activated T lymphocytes derived from CD137-deficient animals entered more avidly into tumor tissue after treatment with agonist mAb. This effect could be neutralized with anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 blocking antibodies. Thus, stimulation of CD137 not only enhanced T-cell activation but also augmented their trafficking into malignant tissue, through direct actions on the blood vessels that irrigate the tumor. Our findings identify an additional mechanism of action that can explain the immunotherapeutic effects of agonist CD137 antibodies
Autores:  et al.
Revista: Journal of Hepatology
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 52  Nº 3  2010  págs. 417 - 424
Background & Aims: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is characterized by hepatic porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) deficiency resulting in a marked overproduction of presumably toxic porphyrin precursors. Our study aimed to assess the protective effects of bone marrow transplantation or PBGD gene transfer into the liver against phenotypic manifestations of acute porphyria attack induced in an AIP murine model. Methods: Lethally irradiated AIP mice were intravenously injected with 5×106 nucleated bone marrow cells from wild type or AIP donor mice. To achieve liver gene transfer, AIP mice received via hydrodynamic injection plasmids expressing human PBGD or luciferase, driven by a liver-specific promoter. Results: Erythrocyte PBGD activity increased 2.4-fold in AIP mice receiving bone marrow cells from normal animals. Nevertheless, phenobarbital administration in these mice reproduced key features of acute attacks, such as massively increased urinary porphyrin precursor excretion and decreased motor coordination. Hepatic PBGD activity increased 2.2-fold after hydrodynamic injection of therapeutic plasmid. Mice injected with the luciferase control plasmid showed a high excretion of porphyrin precursors after phenobarbital administration whereas just a small increase was observed in AIP mice injected with the PBGD plasmid. Furthermore, motor disturbance was almost completely abolished in AIP mice treated with the therapeutic plasmid. Conclusions: PBGD deficiency in erythroid tissue is not associated with phenotypic manifestations of acute porphyria. In contrast, PBGD over-expression in hepatocytes, albeit in a low proportion, reduced precursor accumulation, which is the hallmark of acute porphyric attacks. Liver-directed gene therapy might offer an alternative to liver transplantation applicable in patients with severe and recurrent manifestations.
Autores: Smerdou, Cristian; Ochoa, María del Carmen; Quetglas, José Ignacio; et al.
Revista: Molecular Therapy
ISSN 1525-0016  Nº 18  2010  págs. 456 - 459
Autores: Pérez, José Luis; Gurpide, Luis Alfonso; Ruiz-Ilundain, MG; et al.
ISSN 1699-048X  Vol. 12  Nº 3  2010  págs. 174 - 180
Autores: Rouzaut, Ana; Garasa, S.; et al.
Revista: European Journal of Immunology
ISSN 0014-2980  Vol. 40  Nº 11  2010  págs. 3054 - 3063
Migration of DC into lymphatic vessels ferries antigenic cargo and pro-inflammatory stimuli into the draining LN. Given that tissues under the influence of viral infections produce type I IFN, it is conceivable that these cytokines enhance DC migration in order to facilitate an antiviral immune response. Cultured lymphatic endothelium monolayers pretreated with TNF-alpha were used to model this phenomenon under inflammatory conditions. DC differentiated in the presence of either IFN-alpha 2b or IFN-alpha 5 showed enhanced adhesion to cultured lymphatic endothelial cells. These pro-adhesive effects were mediated by DC, not the lymphatic endothelium, and correlated with increased DC transmigration across lymphatic endothelial cell monolayers. Transmigration was guided by chemokines acting on DC, and blocking experiments with mAb indicated a role for LFA-1. Furthermore, incubation of DC with IFN-alpha led to the appearance of active conformation epitopes on the CD11a integrin chains expressed by DC. Differentiation of mouse DC in the presence of IFN-alpha also increased DC migration from inflammed footpads toward popliteal LN. Collectively, these results indicate a role for type I IFN in directing DC toward LN under inflammatory conditions.
Autores: Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; Riezu-Boj, José Ignacio; González, I; et al.
Revista: European Journal of Immunology
ISSN 0014-2980  Vol. 40  Nº 12  2010  págs. 3389 - 3402
Autores: Ascierto, PA; Simeone, E; Sznol, M; et al.
ISSN 0093-7754  Vol. 37  Nº 5  2010  págs. 508 - 516
Autores: Fontanellas, Antonio; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
Revista: Molecular Therapy
ISSN 1525-0016  Vol. 18   Nº 4  2010  págs. 754 - 765
Autores: Ochoa, María del Carmen; Arina, A.; et al.
ISSN 0969-7128  Vol. 17  Nº 5  2010  págs. 687 - 689
Autores: Milheiro, F; Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
ISSN 0340-7004  Vol. 59  Nº 8  2010  págs. 1223 - 1233
Autores: Paz, E; Muñoz, C; Yuste, JR; et al.
Libro:  La clínica y el laboratorio. 22ª ed
Nº Capítulo 3  2015  págs. 109 - 158
Autores: Fontanellas, Antonio; Melero, Ignacio Javier;
Libro:  Handbook of porphyrin science: porphyrias and sideroblastic anemias
Vol. 29  2013  págs. -
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Melero, Ignacio Javier;
Libro:  Medicina interna Farreras-Rozman
Vol. 2  2012  págs. 2527 - 2530
Autores: Paz, E.; Muñoz, C.; Yuste, JR; et al.
Libro:  La clínica y el laboratorio. 21ª ed
Nº Capítulo 3  2010  págs. 105 - 147