Detalle Profesor

Nuestros investigadores
Luis Montuenga Badía
Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)
Autores: Ortiz Espinosa, Sergio; Morales Urteaga, Xabier; Senent, Y.; et al.
ISSN   0304-3835  Vol.   529  2022  págs.   70 - 84
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a major role in cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which complement C5a increases the capacity of polymorphonuclear MDSCs (PMN-MDSCs) to promote tumor growth and metastatic spread. Stimulation of PMN-MDSCs with C5a favored the invasion of cancer cells via a process dependent on the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETosis was dependent on the production of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) by cancer cells. Moreover, C5a induced the surface expression of the HMGB1 receptors TLR4 and RAGE in PMN-MDSCs. In a mouse lung metastasis model, inhibition of C5a, C5a receptor-1 (C5aR1) or NETosis reduced the number of circulating-tumor cells (CTCs) and the metastatic burden. In support of the translational relevance of these findings, C5a was able to stimulate migration and NETosis in PMN-MDSCs obtained from lung cancer patients. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complexes, as markers of NETosis, were elevated in lung cancer patients and significantly correlated with C5a levels. In conclusion, C5a induces the formation of NETs from PMN-MDSCs in the presence of cancer cells, which may facilitate cancer cell dissemination and metastasis.
Autores: Valencia Leoz, Karmele (Autor de correspondencia); Sainz, C.; Bértolo Martín de Rosales, Cristina María; et al.
ISSN   1754-8403  Vol.   15    1  2022  págs.   dmm049137
There is a paucity of adequate mouse models and cell lines available to study lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). We have generated and characterized two models of phenotypically different transplantable LUSC cell lines, i.e. UN-SCC679 and UN-SCC680, derived from A/J mice that had been chemically induced with N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU). Furthermore, we genetically characterized and compared both LUSC cell lines by performing whole-exome and RNA sequencing. These experiments revealed similar genetic and transcriptomic patterns that may correspond to the classic LUSC human subtype. In addition, we compared the immune landscape generated by both tumor cells lines in vivo and assessed their response to immune checkpoint inhibition. The differences between the two cell lines are a good model for the remarkable heterogeneity of human squamous cell carcinoma. Study of the metastatic potential of these models revealed that both cell lines represent the organotropism of LUSC in humans, i.e. affinity to the brain, bones, liver and adrenal glands. In summary, we have generated valuable cell line tools for LUSC research, which recapitulates the complexity of the human disease.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Remírez, A.; Sainz, C.; et al.
ISSN   1931-5244  Vol.   233  2021  págs.   77 - 91
Lung cancer screening detects early-stage cancers, but also a large number of benign nodules. Molecular markers can help in the lung cancer screening process by refining inclusion criteria or guiding the management of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In this study, we developed a diagnostic model based on the quantification in plasma of complement-derived fragment C4c, cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The model was first validated in two independent cohorts, and showed a good diagnostic performance across a range of lung tumor types, emphasizing its high specificity and positive predictive value. We next tested its utility in two clinically relevant contexts: assessment of lung cancer risk and nodule malignancy. The scores derived from the model were associated with a significantly higher risk of having lung cancer in asymptomatic individuals enrolled in a computed tomography (CT)-screening program (OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.20-2.97). Our model also served to discriminate between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules (AUC: 0.86; 95% CI = 0.80-0.92) with very good specificity (92%). Moreover, the model performed better in combination with clinical factors, and may be used to reclassify patients with intermediate-risk indeterminate pulmonary nodules into patients who require a more aggressive work-up. In conclusion, we propose a new diagnostic biomarker panel that may dictate which incidental or screening-detected pulmonary nodules require a more active work-up. (Translational Research 2021; 233:77-91)
Autores: Horgan, D.; Ciliberto, G.; Conte, P.; et al.
Revista: CANCERS
ISSN   2072-6694  Vol.   13    3  2021  págs.   583
Simple Summary The increasing number of data supporting use of a personalized approach in cancer treatment, is changing the path of patient's management. In the same time, the availability of technologies should allow patients to receive the best test for the specific individual condition. This is theoretically true, when a specific test is designed for the specific disease condition, while it is difficult to implement in the setting of agnostic therapies. Financial sources availability related to the non homogeneous health systems working in the different countries do not allow for an immediate implementation of the technologies and test commercially available. Future perspectives for targeted oncology include tumor-agnostic drugs, which target a given mutation and could be used in treating cancers from multiple organ types. Therefore, the present paper is aimed to both underline a how much important is this new view and also to sensitize the international bodies that supervise health policies at the decision-making level, with the aim of harmonizing cancer treatment pathways in at least all European countries. Rapid and continuing advances in biomarker testing are not being matched by uptake in health systems, and this is hampering both patient care and innovation. It also risks costing health systems the opportunity to make their services more efficient and, over time, more economical. The potential that genomics has brought to biomarker testing in diagnosis, prediction and research is being realised, pre-eminently in many cancers, but also in an ever-wider range of conditions-notably BRCA1/2 testing in ovarian, breast, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Nevertheless, the implementation of genetic testing in clinical routine setting is still challenging. Development is impeded by country-related heterogeneity, data deficiencies, and lack of policy alignment on standards, approval-and the role of real-world evidence in the process-and reimbursement. The acute nature of the problem is compellingly illustrated by the particular challenges facing the development and use of tumour agnostic therapies, where the gaps in preparedness for taking advantage of this innovative approach to cancer therapy are sharply exposed. Europe should already have in place a guarantee of universal access to a minimum suite of biomarker tests and should be planning for an optimum testing scenario with a wider range of biomarker tests integrated into a more sophisticated health system articulated around personalised medicine. Improving healthcare and winning advantages for Europe's industrial competitiveness and innovation require an appropriate policy framework-starting with an update to outdated recommendations. We show herein the main issues and proposals that emerged during the previous advisory boards organised by the European Alliance for Personalized Medicine which mainly focus on possible scenarios of harmonisation of both oncogenetic testing and management of cancer patients.
Autores: Palanca-Ballester, C.; Rodríguez Casanova, A.; Torres, S.; et al.
Revista: CANCERS
ISSN   2072-6694  Vol.   13    12  2021  págs.   3016
Simple Summary Apart from genetic changes, cancer is characterized by epigenetic alterations, which indicate modifications in the DNA (such as DNA methylation) and histones (such as methylation and acetylation), as well as gene expression regulation by non-coding (nc)RNAs. These changes can be used in biological fluids (liquid biopsies) for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of cancer drug response. Although these alterations are not widely used as biomarkers in the clinical practice yet, increasing number of commercial kits and clinical trials are expected to prove that epigenetic changes are able to offer valuable information for cancer patients. Early alterations in cancer include the deregulation of epigenetic events such as changes in DNA methylation and abnormal levels of non-coding (nc)RNAs. Although these changes can be identified in tumors, alternative sources of samples may offer advantages over tissue biopsies. Because tumors shed DNA, RNA, and proteins, biological fluids containing these molecules can accurately reflect alterations found in cancer cells, not only coming from the primary tumor, but also from metastasis and from the tumor microenvironment (TME). Depending on the type of cancer, biological fluids encompass blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva, among others. Such samples are named with the general term "liquid biopsy" (LB).
Autores: Osarogiagbon, R.; Nishimura, K.; Rami Porta, R.; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   16    10  2021  págs.   S857 - S858
Autores: Redín Cabodevilla, María Esther; Garmendia Iturbe, Irati; Lozano Moreda, Teresa; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   16    10  2021  págs.   S949 - S949
Autores: Valencia Leoz, Karmele; Bértolo Martín de Rosales, Cristina María; Sainz, C.; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   16    10  2021  págs.   S972 - S973
Autores: Sánchez-Canteli, M.; Juesas, L.; Redín Cabodevilla, María Esther; et al.
Revista: CANCERS
ISSN   2072-6694  Vol.   13    9  2021  págs.   2079
Our goal was to assess the correlation of immune parameters with the response to induction chemotherapy (ICT) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Pretreatment biopsies from 64 patients with HNSCC that received ICT were assessed for PD-L1 protein expression and density of CD8+ and FOXP3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). In addition, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was calculated from pretreatment whole blood counts. In total, 55% of cases exhibited PD-L1 combined proportion score (CPS) positivity (¿1% stained cells). PD-L1 CPS positivity correlated with a high density of both CD8+ (p = 0.01) and FOXP3+ (p < 0.001) TILs. There was no correlation between PD-L1 expression or TIL density and NLR values. In univariate analyses, the absence of PD-L1 CPS expression (p = 0.042) and a high NLR (p = 0.034) were significantly correlated with response to ICT. Neither CD8+ TIL (p = 0.99) nor FOXP3+ TIL densities (p = 0.71) were associated with response to ICT. In multivariate analysis, only a high NLR was associated with response to ICT (HR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.06¿15.5, p = 0.04). In addition, a high NLR was also independently associated with lower disease-specific (p = 0.03) and overall survival rates (p = 0.04), particularly in the subset of patients who received definitive surgical treatment. These results suggest that NLR could emerge as a predictive biomarker of response to ICT.
Autores: Juesas Iglesias, L.; Sánchez Canteli, M.; Redin Resano, E.; et al.
ISSN   1368-8375  Vol.   118  2021 
Autores: Montuenga Badía, Luis (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN   1865-5041  Vol.   14    Suppl. 3  2021  págs.   S62 - S63
Autores: Rodríguez Pérez, María; Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Seijo Maceiras, Luis Miguel; et al.
ISSN   2218-6751  Vol.   10    2  2021  págs.   1165-1185
Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening, together with the recent advances in targeted and immunotherapies, have shown to improve non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) survival. Furthermore, screening has increased the number of early stage-detected tumors, allowing for surgical resection and multimodality treatments when needed. The need for improved sensitivity and specificity of NSCLC screening has led to increased interest in combining clinical and radiological data with molecular data. The development of biomarkers is poised to refine inclusion criteria for LDCT screening programs. Biomarkers may also be useful to better characterize the risk of indeterminate nodules found in the course of screening or to refine prognosis and help in the management of screening detected tumors. The clinical implications of these biomarkers are still being investigated and whether or not biomarkers will be included in further decision-making algorithms in the context of screening and early lung cancer management still needs to be determined. However, it seems clear that there is much room for improvement even in early stage lung cancer disease-free survival (DFS) rates; thus, biomarkers may be the key to refine risk-stratification and treatment of these patients. Clinicians' capacity to register, integrate, and analyze all the available data in both high risk individuals and early stage NSCLC patients will lead to a better understanding of the disease's mechanisms, and will have a dire
Autores: Frigola, J.; Navarro, A.; Carbonell, C.; et al.
ISSN   1574-7891  Vol.   15    4  2021  págs.   887 - 900
Immunotherapy has transformed advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment strategies and has led to unprecedented long-lasting responses in some patients. However, the molecular determinants driving these long-term responses remain elusive. To address this issue, we performed an integrative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic features of long-term immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)-associated responders. We assembled a cohort of 47 patients with NSCLC receiving ICIs that was enriched in long-term responders [>18 months of progression-free survival (PFS)]. We performed whole-exome sequencing from tumor samples, estimated the tumor mutational burden (TMB), and inferred the somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). We also obtained gene transcription data for a subset of patients using Nanostring, which we used to assess the tumor immune infiltration status and PD-L1 expression. Our results indicate that there is an association between TMB and benefit to ICIs, which is driven by those patients with long-term response. Additionally, high SCNAs burden is associated with poor response and negatively correlates with the presence of several immune cell types (B cells, natural killers, regulatory T cells or effector CD8 T cells). Also, CD274 (PD-L1) expression is increased in patients with benefit, mainly in those with long-term response. In our cohort, combined assessment of TMB and SCNAs burden enabled identification of long-term responders (considering PFS and overall survival). Notably, the association between TMB, SCNAs burden, and PD-L1 expression with the outcomes of ICIs treatment was validated in two public datasets of ICI-treated patients with NSCLC. Thus, our data indicate that TMB is associated with long-term benefit following ICIs treatment in NSCLC and that TMB, SCNAs burden, and PD-L1 are complementary determinants of response to ICIs.
Autores: Aguado, C.; Teixido, C.; Roman, R.; et al.
ISSN   1574-7891  Vol.   15    2  2021  págs.   350 - 363
MET inhibitors have shown activity in non-small-cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) with MET amplification and exon 14 skipping (MET Delta ex14). However, patient stratification is imperfect, and thus, response rates have varied widely. Here, we studied MET alterations in 474 advanced NSCLC patients by nCounter, an RNA-based technique, together with next-generation sequencing (NGS), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), exploring correlation with clinical benefit. Of the 474 samples analyzed, 422 (89%) yielded valid results by nCounter, which identified 13 patients (3%) with MET Delta ex14 and 15 patients (3.5%) with very-high MET mRNA expression. These two subgroups were mutually exclusive, displayed distinct phenotypes and did not generally coexist with other drivers. For MET Delta ex14, 3/8 (37.5%) samples positive by nCounter tested negative by NGS. Regarding patients with very-high MET mRNA, 92% had MET amplification by FISH and/or NGS. However, FISH failed to identify three patients (30%) with very-high MET RNA expression, among which one received MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment deriving clinical benefit. Our results indicate that quantitative mRNA-based techniques can improve the selection of patients for MET-targeted therapies.
Autores: Redín Cabodevilla, María Esther; Garmendia Iturbe, Irati; Lozano Moreda, Teresa; et al.
ISSN   2051-1426  Vol.   9    3  2021  págs.   e001496
Introduction The use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors has drastically improved the management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but innate and acquired resistances are hurdles needed to be solved. Immunomodulatory drugs that can reinvigorate the immune cytotoxic activity, in combination with antiprogrammed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody, are a great promise to overcome resistance. We evaluated the impact of the SRC family kinases (SFKs) on NSCLC prognosis, and the immunomodulatory effect of the SFK inhibitor dasatinib, in combination with anti-PD-1, in clinically relevant mouse models of NSCLC. Methods A cohort of patients from University Clinic of Navarra (n=116) was used to study immune infiltrates by multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) and YES1 protein expression in tumor samples. Publicly available resources (TCGA, Km Plotter, and CIBERSORT) were used to study patient's survival based on expression of SFKs and tumor infiltrates. Syngeneic NSCLC mouse models 393P and UNSCC680AJ were used for in vivo drug testing. Results Among the SFK members, YES1 expression showed the highest association with poor prognosis. Patients with high YES1 tumor levels also showed high infiltration of CD4+/FOXP3+ cells (regulatory T cells (Tregs)), suggesting an immunosuppressive phenotype. After testing for YES1 expression in a panel of murine cell lines, 393P and UNSCC680AJ were selected for in vivo studies. In the 393P model, dasatinib+anti-PD-1 treatment resulted in synergistic activity, with 87% tumor regressions and development of immunological memory that impeded tumor growth when mice were rechallenged. In vivo depletion experiments further showed that CD8+ and CD4+ cells are necessary for the therapeutic effect of the combination. The antitumor activity was accompanied by a very significant decrease in the number of Tregs, which was validated by mIF in tumor sections. In the UNSCC680AJ model, the antitumor effects of dasatinib+anti-PD-1 were milder but similar to the 393P model. In in vitro assays, we demonstrated that dasatinib blocks proliferation and transforming growth factor beta-driven conversion of effector CD4+ cells into Tregs through targeting of phospholymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase and downstream effectors pSTAT5 and pSMAD3. Conclusions YES1 protein expression is associated with increased numbers of Tregs in patients with NSCLC. Dasatinib synergizes with anti-PD-1 to impair tumor growth in NSCLC experimental models. This study provides the preclinical rationale for the combined use of dasatinib and PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 blockade to improve outcomes of patients with NSCLC.
Autores: Mesa Guzmán, MIguel Alejandro (Autor de correspondencia); González Gutiérrez, Jessica; Alcaide Ocaña, Ana Belén; et al.
ISSN   0300-2896  Vol.   57    2  2021  págs.   101 - 106
Autores: Patiño García, Ana; Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; Segura Ruiz, Victor; et al.
ISSN   2218-6751  Vol.   10    3  2021  págs.   1327 - +
Background: Tobacco is the main risk factor for developing lung cancer. Yet, some heavy smokers do not develop lung cancer at advanced ages while others develop it at young ages. Here, we assess for the first time the genetic background of these clinically relevant extreme phenotypes using whole exome sequencing (WES). Methods: We performed WES of germline DNA from heavy smokers who either developed lung adenocarcinoma at an early age ( extreme cases, n=50) or did not present lung adenocarcinoma or other tumors at an advanced age (extreme controls, n=50). We selected non-synonymous variants located in exonic regions and consensus splice sites of the genes that showed significantly different allelic frequencies between both cohorts. We validated our results in all the additional extreme cases (i.e., heavy smokers who developed lung adenocarcinoma at an early age) available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Results: The mean age for the extreme cases and controls was respectively 49.7 and 77.5 years. Mean tobacco consumption was 43.6 and 56.8 pack-years. We identified 619 significantly different variants between both cohorts, and we validated 108 of these in extreme cases selected from TCGA. Nine validated variants, located in relevant cancer related genes, such as PARP4, HLA-A or NQO1, among others, achieved statistical significance in the False Discovery Rate test. The most significant validated variant (P=4.48x10(-5)) was located in the tumor-suppressor gene ALPK2. Conclusions: We describe genetic variants associated with extreme phenotypes of high and low risk for the development of tobacco-induced lung adenocarcinoma. Our results and our strategy may help to identify high-risk subjects and to develop new therapeutic strategies.
Autores: Athie, A. ; Marchese, Francesco Paolo; González Rojas, Sandra Jovanna; et al.
ISSN   0021-9525  Vol.   219    9  2020 
Cancer is characterized by genomic instability leading to deletion or amplification of oncogenes or tumor suppressors. However, most of the altered regions are devoid of known cancer drivers. Here, we identify lncRNAs frequently lost or amplified in cancer. Among them, we found amplified IncRNA associated with lung cancer-1 (ALAL-1) as frequently amplified in lung adenocarcinomas. ALAL-1 is also overexpressed in additional tumor types, such as lung squamous carcinoma. The RNA product of ALAL-1 is able to promote the proliferation and tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells. ALAL-1 is a TNF alpha- and NF-kappa B-induced cytoplasmic lncRNA that specifically interacts with SART3, regulating the subcellular localization of the protein deubiquitinase USP4 and, in turn, its function in the cell. Interestingly, ALAL-1 expression inversely correlates with the immune infiltration of lung squamous tumors, while tumors with ALAL-1 amplification show lower infiltration of several types of immune cells. We have thus unveiled a pro-oncogenic lncRNA that mediates cancer immune evasion, pointing to a new target for immune potentiation.
Autores: Montuenga Badía, Luis (Autor de correspondencia); Zulueta Frances, Javier Joseph
ISSN   1137-6627  Vol.   43    2  2020  págs.   131 - 139
Autores: Peinado, P.; Andrades, A.; Cuadros, M.; et al.
Revista: CANCERS
ISSN   2072-6694  Vol.   12    12  2020 
Simple Summary Mammalian SWI/SNF complexes regulate gene expression by reorganizing the way DNA is packaged into chromatin. SWI/SNF subunits are recurrently altered in tumors at multiple levels, including DNA mutations as well as alteration of the levels of RNA and protein. Cancer cell lines are often used to study SWI/SNF function, but their patterns of SWI/SNF alterations can be complex. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of DNA mutations and RNA and protein expression of SWI/SNF members in 38 lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cell lines. We show that over 85% of our cell lines harbored at least one alteration in one SWI/SNF subunit. In addition, over 75% of our cell lines lacked expression of at least one SWI/SNF subunit at the protein level. Our catalog will help researchers choose an appropriate cell line model to study SWI/SNF function in LUAD. Mammalian SWI/SNF (SWitch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable) complexes are ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers whose subunits have emerged among the most frequently mutated genes in cancer. Studying SWI/SNF function in cancer cell line models has unveiled vulnerabilities in SWI/SNF-mutant tumors that can lead to the discovery of new therapeutic drugs. However, choosing an appropriate cancer cell line model for SWI/SNF functional studies can be challenging because SWI/SNF subunits are frequently altered in cancer by various mechanisms, including genetic alterations and post-transcriptional mechanisms. In this work, we combined genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to study the mutational status and the expression levels of the SWI/SNF subunits in a panel of 38 lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cell lines. We found that the SWI/SNF complex was mutated in more than 76% of our LUAD cell lines and there was a high variability in the expression of the different SWI/SNF subunits. These results underline the importance of the SWI/SNF complex as a tumor suppressor in LUAD and the difficulties in defining altered and unaltered cell models for the SWI/SNF complex. These findings will assist researchers in choosing the most suitable cellular models for their studies of SWI/SNF to bring all of its potential to the development of novel therapeutic applications.
Autores: Carazo Melo, Fernando; Bértolo Martín de Rosales, Cristina María; Castilla Ruíz, Carlos; et al.
Revista: CANCERS
ISSN   2072-6694  Vol.   12    7  2020 
The development of predictive biomarkers of response to targeted therapies is an unmet clinical need for many antitumoral agents. Recent genome-wide loss-of-function screens, such as RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR-Cas9 libraries, are an unprecedented resource to identify novel drug targets, reposition drugs and associate predictive biomarkers in the context of precision oncology. In this work, we have developed and validated a large-scale bioinformatics tool named DrugSniper, which exploits loss-of-function experiments to model the sensitivity of 6237 inhibitors and predict their corresponding biomarkers of sensitivity in 30 tumor types. Applying DrugSniper to small cell lung cancer (SCLC), we identified genes extensively explored in SCLC, such as Aurora kinases or epigenetic agents. Interestingly, the analysis suggested a remarkable vulnerability to polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibition inCREBBP-mutant SCLC cells. We validated this association in vitro using four mutated and four wild-type SCLC cell lines and twoPLK1inhibitors (Volasertib and BI2536), confirming that the effect ofPLK1inhibitors depended on the mutational status ofCREBBP. Besides, DrugSniper was validated in-silico with several known clinically-used treatments, including the sensitivity of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) and Vemurafenib toFLT3andBRAFmutant cells, respectively. These findings show the potential of genome-wide loss-of-function screens to identify new personalized therapeutic hypotheses in SCLC and potentially in other tumors, which is a valuable starting point for further drug development and drug repositioning projects.
Autores: Quintanal-Villalonga, A.; Ferrer, I.; Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
ISSN   2352-3964  Vol.   53  2020 
Background: Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)1 and FGFR4 have been associated with tumorigenesis in a variety of tumour types. As a therapeutic approach, their inhibition has been attempted in different types of malignancies, including lung cancer, and was initially focused on FGFR1-amplified tumours, though with limited success. Methods: In vitro and in vivo functional assessments of the oncogenic potential of downregulated/overexpressed genes in isogenic cell lines were performed, as well as inhibitor efficacy tests in vitro and in vivo in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). mRNA was extracted from FFPE non-small cell lung cancer samples to determine the prognostic potential of the genes under study. Findings: We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence showing that expression of the adhesion molecule N-cadherin is key for the oncogenic role of FGFR1/4 in non-small cell lung cancer. According to this, assessment of the expression of genes in different lung cancer patient cohorts showed that FGFR1 or FGFR4 expression alone showed no prognostic potential, and that only co-expression of FGFR1 and/or FGFR4 with N-cadherin inferred a poorer outcome. Treatment of high-FGFR1 and/or FGFR4-expressing lung cancer cell lines and patient-derived xenografts with selective FGFR inhibitors showed high efficacy, but only in models with high FGFR1/4 and N-cadherin expression. Interpretation: Our data show that the determination of the expression of FGFR1 or FGFR4 alone is not sufficient to predict anti-FGFR therapy efficacy; complementary determination of N-cadherin expression may further optimise patient selection for this therapeutic strategy. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. (
Autores: Pros, E.; Saigi, M.; Alameda Serrano, Daniel; et al.
ISSN   0923-7534  Vol.   31    2  2020  págs.   274 - 282
BACKGROUND: The etiology and the molecular basis of lung adenocarcinomas (LuADs) in nonsmokers are currently unknown. Furthermore, the scarcity of available primary cultures continues to hamper our biological understanding of non-smoking-related lung adenocarcinomas (NSK-LuADs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We established patient-derived cancer cell (PDC) cultures from metastatic NSK-LuADs, including two pairs of matched EGFR-mutant PDCs before and after resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and then performed whole-exome and RNA sequencing to delineate their genomic architecture. For validation, we analyzed independent cohorts of primary LuADs. RESULTS: In addition to known non-smoker-associated alterations (e.g. RET, ALK, EGFR, and ERBB2), we discovered novel fusions and recurrently mutated genes, including ATF7IP, a regulator of gene expression, that was inactivated in 5% of primary LuAD cases. We also found germline mutations at dominant familiar-cancer genes, highlighting the importance of genetic predisposition in the origin of a subset of NSK-LuADs. Furthermore, there was an over-representation of inactivating alterations at RB1, mostly through complex intragenic rearrangements, in treatment-naive EGFR-mutant LuADs. Three EGFR-mutant and one EGFR-wild-type tumors acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy, respectively, and histology on re-biopsies revealed the development of small-cell lung cancer/squamous cell carcinoma (SCLC/LuSCC) transformation. These features were consistent with RB1 inactivation and acquired EGFR-T790M mutation or FGFR3-TACC3 fusion in EGFR-mutant tumors. CONCLUSIONS: We found recurrent alterations in LuADs that deserve further exploration. Our work also demonstrates that a subset of NSK-LuADs arises within cancer-predisposition syndromes. The preferential occurrence of RB1 inactivation, via complex rearrangements, found in EGFR-mutant tumors appears to favor SCLC/LuSCC transformation under growth-inhibition pressures. Thus RB1 inactivation may predict the risk of LuAD transformation to a more aggressive type of lung cancer, and may need to be considered as a part of the clinical management of NSK-LuADs patients.
Autores: Sánchez-Canteli, M.; Granda-Diaz, R.; del Río-Ibisate, N.; et al.
ISSN   0340-7004  Vol.   69    10  2020  págs.   2089 - 2100
Introduction The importance of immune tumor microenvironment in the prognosis of patients with head and neck squamous carcinomas (HNSCC) is increasingly recognized. We analyzed the prognostic relevance of PD-L1 and PD-1 expressions in relation to the infiltration by CD8(+) and FOXP3(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Methods Samples from 372 surgically treated HPV-negative HNSCC patients were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression [both tumor proportion score (TPS) and combined proportion score (CPS)], PD-1 expression in immune cells, and density of infiltrating CD8(+) and FOXP3(+) TILs. PD-L1 expression and CD8(+) TIL density were combined to establish the type of tumor microenvironment. Results 29.5% cases exhibited PD-L1 TPS positivity (>= 1%), whereas PD-L1 CPS positivity (>= 1%) was observed in 40% cases. 47.5% cases showed positive PD-1 expression (>= 1%). PD-L1 and PD-1 positivity correlated with a high density of both CD8(+) and FOXP3(+) TILs. In univariate analysis, PD-L1 TPS positivity (P = 0.026), PD-L1 CPS positivity (P = 0.004), high density of CD8(+) TIL (P = 0.001), and high density of FOXP3(+) TIL (P = 0.004) were associated with a better disease-specific survival (DSS). However, in multivariate analysis, only high density of CD8(+) TIL was associated with a better DSS (P = 0.002). The type of tumor microenvironment correlated with DSS (P = .008), with the better DSS observed in cases with type I (PD-L1 CPS positivity and high density of CD8(+) TIL). Conclusions High infiltration by CD8(+) TIL is associated with better survival outcomes. Positive PD-L1 expression correlates with a high infiltration by TILs, explaining its association with better prognosis.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Ortiz Espinosa, Sergio; Lozano Moreda, Teresa; et al.
ISSN   2662-1347  Vol.   1  2020  págs.   75 - 85
Harnessing the immune system by blocking the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway has been a major breakthrough in non-small-cell lung cancer treatment. Nonetheless, many patients fail to respond to PD-1 inhibition. Using three syngeneic models, we demonstrate that short-term starvation synergizes with PD-1 blockade to inhibit lung cancer progression and metastasis. This antitumor activity was linked to a reduction in circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and a downregulation of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling in tumor cells. A combined inhibition of IGF-1R and PD-1 synergistically reduced tumor growth in mice. This effect required CD8 cells, boosted the intratumoral CD8/Treg ratio and led to the development of tumor-specific immunity. In patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, high plasma levels of IGF-1 or high IGF-1R expression in tumors was associated with resistance to anti-PD-1¿programmed death-ligand 1 immunotherapy. In conclusion, our data strongly support the clinical evaluation of IGF-1 modulators in combination with PD-1 blockade.
Autores: Martinez-Terroba, E.; Behrens, C.; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
Revista: THORAX
ISSN   0040-6376  Vol.   74    4  2019  págs.   371 - 379
Introduction Prognostic biomarkers have been very elusive in the lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and none is currently being used in the clinical setting. We aimed to identify and validate the clinical utility of a protein-based prognostic signature to stratify patients with early lung SCC according to their risk of recurrence or death. Methods Patients were staged following the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) staging criteria (eighth edition, 2018). Three independent retrospective cohorts of 117, 96 and 105 patients with lung SCC were analysed to develop and validate a prognostic signature based on immunohistochemistry for five proteins. Results We identified a five protein-based signature whose prognostic index (PI) was an independent and significant predictor of disease-free survival (DFS) (p<0.001; HR=4.06, 95% CI 2.18 to 7.56) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.004; HR=2.38, 95% CI 1.32 to 4.31). The prognostic capability of PI was confirmed in an external multi-institutional cohort for DFS (p=0.042; HR=2.01, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.94) and for OS (p=0.031; HR=2.29, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.86). Moreover, PI added complementary information to the newly established IASLC TNM 8th edition staging system. A combined prognostic model including both molecular and anatomical (TNM) criteria improved the risk stratification in both cohorts (p<0.05). Conclusion We have identified and validated a clinically feasible protein-based prognostic model that complements the updated TNM system allowing more accurate risk stratification. This signature may be used as an advantageous tool to improve the clinical management of the patients, allowing the reduction of lung SCC mortality through a more accurate knowledge of the patient's potential outcome.
Autores: Seijo Maceiras, Luis Miguel; Peled, N.; Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   14    3  2019  págs.   343 - 357
The present review is an update of the research and development efforts regarding the use of molecular biomarkers in the lung cancer screening setting. The two main unmet clinical needs, namely, the refinement of risk to improve the selection of individuals undergoing screening and the characterization of undetermined nodules found during the computed tomography-based screening process are the object of the biomarkers described in the present review. We first propose some principles to optimize lung cancer biomarker discovery projects. Then, we summarize the discovery and developmental status of currently promising molecular candidates, such as autoantibodies, complement fragments, microRNAs, circulating tumor DNA, DNA methylation, blood protein profiling, or RNA airway or nasal signatures. We also mention other emerging biomarkers or new technologies to follow, such as exhaled breath biomarkers, metabolomics, sputum cell imaging, genetic predisposition studies, and the integration of next-generation sequencing into study of circulating DNA. We also underline the importance of integrating different molecular technologies together with imaging, radiomics, and artificial intelligence. We list a number of completed, ongoing, or planned trials to show the clinical utility of molecular biomarkers. Finally, we comment on future research challenges in the field of biomarkers in the context of lung cancer screening and propose a design of a trial to test the clinical utility of one or several candidate biomarkers. (C) 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autores: Pros, E. ; Saigi, M.; Bejar, J. J. A.; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   14    10  2019  págs.   S428 - S428
Autores: Villalba Esparza, María; Redín Cabodevilla, María Esther; Expósito Rincón, Francisco; et al.
ISSN   2045-2322  Vol.   9  2019  págs.   15400
Finding novel targets in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly needed and identification of synthetic lethality between two genes is a new approach to target NSCLC. We previously found that TMPRSS4 promotes NSCLC growth and constitutes a prognostic biomarker. Here, through large-scale analyses across 5 public databases we identified consistent co-expression between TMPRSS4 and DDR1. Similar to TMPRSS4, DDR1 promoter was hypomethylated in NSCLC in 3 independent cohorts and hypomethylation was an independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival. Treatment with 5-azacitidine increased DDR1 levels in cell lines, suggesting an epigenetic regulation. Cells lacking TMPRSS4 were highly sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the DDR1 inhibitor dasatinib. TMPRSS4/DDR1 double knock-down (KD) cells, but not single KD cells suffered a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest with loss of E2F1 and cyclins A and B, increased p21 levels and a larger number of cells in apoptosis. Moreover, double KD cells were highly sensitized to cisplatin, which caused massive apoptosis (similar to 40%). In vivo studies demonstrated tumor regression in double KD-injected mice. In conclusion, we have identified a novel vulnerability in NSCLC resulting from a synthetic lethal interaction between DDR1 and TMPRSS4.
Autores: Exposito, F.; Villalba, M. ; Pajares, M. J.; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   14    10  2019  págs.   S501
Autores: Ortiz Espinosa, Sergio; Morales, X. ; Sainz, C.; et al.
ISSN   0161-5890  Vol.   114  2019  págs.   419 - 420
Autores: Villalba Esparza, María; Expósito Rincón, Francisco; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   2077-0383  Vol.   8    12  2019  págs.   E2134
Relapse rates in surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are between 30% and 45% within five years of diagnosis, which shows the clinical need to identify those patients at high risk of recurrence. The eighth TNM staging system recently refined the classification of NSCLC patients and their associated prognosis, but molecular biomarkers could improve the heterogeneous outcomes found within each stage. Here, using two independent cohorts (MDA and CIMA-CUN) and the eighth TNM classification, we show that TMPRSS4 protein expression is an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC, particularly for patients at stage I: relapse-free survival (RFS) HR, 2.42 (95% CI, 1.47-3.99), p < 0.001; overall survival (OS) HR, 1.99 (95% CI, 1.25-3.16), p = 0.004). In stage IA, high levels of this protein remained associated with worse prognosis (p = 0.002 for RFS and p = 0.001 for OS). As TMPRSS4 expression is epigenetically regulated, methylation status could be used in circulating tumor DNA from liquid biopsies to monitor patients. We developed a digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) method to quantify absolute copy numbers of methylated and unmethylated CpGs within the TMPRSS4 and SHOX2 (as control) promoters in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. In case-control studies, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 hypomethylation can be used as a diagnostic tool in early stages, with an AUROC of 0.72 (p = 0.008; 91% specificity and 52% sensitivity) for BAL and 0.73 (p = 0.015; 65% specificity and 90% sensitivity) for plasma, in early stages. In conclusion, TMPRSS4 protein expression can be used to stratify patients at high risk of relapse/death in very early stages NSCLC patients. Moreover, analysis of TMPRSS4 methylation status by ddPCR in blood and BAL is feasible and could serve as a non-invasive biomarker to monitor surgically resected patients.
Autores: Expósito Rincón, Francisco; Villalba. M.; Redrado Jordán, Miriam; et al.
ISSN   0304-3835  Vol.   453  2019  págs.   21 - 33
High mortality rates caused by NSCLC show the need for the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In this study we have investigated the biological effects and molecular mechanisms elicited by TMPRSS4 in NSCLC. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 in LKR13¿cells increased malignancy, subcutaneous tumor growth and multiorganic metastasis. In conditional knock-down (KD) experiments, abrogation of TMPRSS4 in H358 and H2170¿cells altered proliferation, clonogenicity, tumor engraftment and tumor growth. Reduction in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, decreased BrdU incorporation and increased apoptosis was also found. Transcriptomic analysis in KD cells revealed downregulation of genes involved in DNA replication, such as MCM6, TYMS and CDKN1A (p21). In patients, expression of a signature of MCM6/TYMS/TMPRSS4 genes was highly associated with poor prognosis. Downregulation of TMPRSS4 significantly increased sensitivity to chemotherapy agents. In experiments using cisplatin, apoptosis and expression of the DNA-damage marker ¿-H2A was higher in cells lacking TMPRSS4. Moreover, in vivo assays demonstrated that tumors with no TMPRSS4 were significantly more sensitive to cisplatin than controls. These results show that TMPRSS4 can be considered as a novel target in NSCLC, whose inhibition increases chemosensitivity.
Autores: Hermida-Prado, F. ; Granda-Diaz, R. ; del-Rio-Ibisate, N.; et al.
Revista: CANCERS
ISSN   2072-6694  Vol.   11    11  2019 
Aberrant SRC expression and activation is frequently detected in multiple cancers, and hence, targeting SRC has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Different SRC inhibitors have demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models, although they largely lack clinical efficacy as monotherapy in late-stage solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Adequate selection and stratification of patients who may respond to and benefit from anti-SRC therapies is therefore needed to guide clinical trials and treatment efficacy. This study investigates the prognostic significance of active SRC expression in a homogeneous cohort of 122 human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative, surgically treated HNSCC patients. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the active form of SRC by means of anti-SRC Clone 28 monoclonal antibody was specifically performed and subsequently correlated with clinical data. The expression of p-SRC (Tyr419), total SRC, and downstream SRC effectors was also analyzed. Our results uncovered striking differences in the prognostic relevance of SRC expression in HNSCC patients depending on the tumor site. Active SRC expression was found to significantly associate with advanced disease stages, presence of lymph node metastasis, and tumor recurrences in patients with laryngeal tumors, but not in the pharyngeal subgroup. Multivariate Cox analysis further revealed active SRC expression as an independent predictor of cancer-specific mortality in patients with laryngeal carcinomas. Concordantly, expression of p-SRC (Tyr419) and the SRC substrates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Arf GTPase-activating protein ASAP1 also showed specific associations with poor prognosis in the larynx. These findings could have important implications in ongoing Src family kinase (SFK)-based clinical trials, as these new criteria could help to improve patient selection and develop biomarker-stratified trials.
Autores: Hermida-Prado, F. ; Villaronga, M. A.; Granda-Diaz, R. ; et al.
ISSN   1179-9161  Vol.   8    8  2019 
The frequent dysregulation of SRC family kinases (SFK) in multiple cancers prompted various inhibitors to be actively tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Disappointingly, dasatinib and saracatinib failed to demonstrate monotherapeutic efficacy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Deeper functional and mechanistic knowledge of the actions of these drugs is therefore needed to improve clinical outcome and to develop more efficient combinational strategies. Even though the SFK inhibitors dasatinib and saracatinib robustly blocked cell migration and invasion in HNSCC cell lines, this study unveils undesirable stem cell-promoting functions that could explain the lack of clinical efficacy in HNSCC patients. These deleterious effects were targeted by the mithramycin analog EC-8042 that efficiently eliminated cancer stem cells (CSC)-enriched tumorsphere cultures as well as tumor bulk cells and demonstrated potent antitumor activity in vivo. Furthermore, combination treatment of dasatinib with EC-8042 provided favorable complementary anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, and anti-CSC functions without any noticeable adverse interactions of both agents. These findings strongly support combinational strategies with EC-8042 for clinical testing in HNSCC patients. These data may have implications on ongoing dasatinib-based trials.
Autores: Pérez Gracia, José Luis; Pita, G.; Segura Ruiz, Victor; et al.
ISSN   0732-183X  Vol.   37    15  2019 
Autores: Garmendia, Irati; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Hermida-Prado, F.; et al.
ISSN   1073-449X  Vol.   200    7  2019  págs.   888 - 899
Rationale: The characterization of new genetic alterations is essential to assign effective personalized therapies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Furthermore, finding stratification biomarkers is essential for successful personalized therapies. Molecular alterations of YES1, a member of the SRC (proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src) family kinases (SFKs), can be found in a significant subset of patients with lung cancer.Objectives: To evaluate YES1 (v-YES-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral oncogene homolog 1) genetic alteration as a therapeutic target and predictive biomarker of response to dasatinib in NSCLC.Methods: Functional significance was evaluated by in vivo models of NSCLC and metastasis and patient-derived xenografts. The efficacy of pharmacological and genetic (CRISPR [clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats]/Cas9 [CRISPR-associated protein 9]) YES1 abrogation was also evaluated. In vitro functional assays for signaling, survival, and invasion were also performed. The association between YES1 alterations and prognosis was evaluated in clinical samples.
Autores: Martinez-Terroba, E.; Behrens, C.; de Miguel, F. J.; et al.
ISSN   0022-3417  Vol.   245    4  2018  págs.   421 - 432
Each of the pathological stages (I-IIIa) of surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer has hidden biological heterogeneity, manifested as heterogeneous outcomes within each stage. Thus, the finding of robust and precise molecular classifiers with which to assess individual patient risk is an unmet medical need. Here, we identified and validated the clinical utility of a new prognostic signature based on three proteins (BRCA1, QKI, and SLC2A1) to stratify early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients according to their risk of recurrence or death. Patients were staged according to the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) staging criteria (8th edition, 2018). A test cohort (n=239) was used to assess the value of this new prognostic index (PI) based on the three proteins. The prognostic signature was developed by Cox regression with the use of stringent statistical criteria (TRIPOD: Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis). The model resulted in a highly significant predictor of 5-year outcome for disease-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p<0.001). The prognostic ability of the model was externally validated in an independent multi-institutional cohort of patients (n=114, p=0.021). We also demonstrated that this molecular classifier adds relevant information to the gold standard TNM-based pathological staging, with a highly significant improvement of the likelihood ratio. We subsequently developed a combined PI including both the molecular and the pathological data that improved the risk stratification in both cohorts (p <= 0.001). Moreover, the signature may help to select stage I-IIA patients who might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. In summary, this protein-based signature accurately identifies those patients with a high risk of recurrence and death, and adds further prognostic information to the TNM-based clinical staging, even when the new IASLC 8th edition staging criteria are applied. More importantly, it may be a valuable tool for selecting patients for adjuvant therapy. Copyright (C) 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Zandueta Pascual, Carolina; Corrales Pecino, Leticia; et al.
ISSN   1073-449X  Vol.   197    9  2018  págs.   1164 - 1176
RATIONALE: C5aR1 (CD88), a receptor for complement anaphylatoxin C5a, is a potent immune mediator. Its impact on malignant growth and dissemination of non-small cell lung cancer cells is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of the C5a/C5aR1 axis to the malignant phenotype of non-small cell lung cancer cells, particularly in skeletal colonization, a preferential lung metastasis site. METHODS: Association between C5aR1 expression and clinical outcome was assessed in silico and validated by immunohistochemistry. Functional significance was evaluated by lentiviral gene silencing and ligand l-aptamer inhibition in in vivo models of lung cancer bone metastasis. In vitro functional assays for signaling, migration, invasion, metalloprotease activity, and osteoclastogenesis were also performed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: High levels of C5aR1 in human lung tumors were significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and bone metastasis. Silencing of C5aR1 in lung cancer cells led to a substantial reduction in skeletal metastatic burden and osteolysis in in vivo models. Furthermore, metalloproteolytic, migratory, and invasive tumor cell activities were modulated in vitro by C5aR1 stimulation or gene silencing. l-Aptamer blockade or C5aR1 silencing significantly reduced the osseous metastatic activity of lung cancer cells in vivo. This effect was associated with decreased osteoclastogenic activity in vitro and was rescued by the exogenous addition of the chemokine CXCL16. CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of C5aR1 signaling in lung cancer cells abrogates their tumor-associated osteoclastogenic activity, impairing osseous colonization. This study unveils the role played by the C5a/C5aR1 axis in lung cancer dissemination and supports its potential use as a novel therapeutic target.
Autores: Pérez Gracia, José Luis; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Fusco, Juan Pablo; et al.
ISSN   0923-7534  Vol.   29    Supl. 8  2018  págs.   viii651 - viii652
Autores: Romero Riojas, Juan Pablo; Ortiz-Estevez, M.; Muniategui Merino, Ander; et al.
ISSN   1471-2164  Vol.   19    703  2018 
Background: RNA-seq is a reference technology for determining alternative splicing at genome-wide level. Exon arrays remain widely used for the analysis of gene expression, but show poor validation rate with regard to splicing events. Commercial arrays that include probes within exon junctions have been developed in order to overcome this problem. We compare the performance of RNA-seq (Illumina HiSeq) and junction arrays (Affymetrix Human Transcriptome array) for the analysis of transcript splicing events. Three different breast cancer cell lines were treated with CX-4945, a drug that severely affects splicing. To enable a direct comparison of the two platforms, we adapted EventPointer, an algorithm that detects and labels alternative splicing events using junction arrays, to work also on RNA-seq data. Common results and discrepancies between the technologies were validated and/or resolved by over 200 PCR experiments. Results: As might be expected, RNA-seq appears superior in cases where the technologies disagree and is able to discover novel splicing events beyond the limitations of physical probe-sets. We observe a high degree of coherence between the two technologies, however, with correlation of EventPointer results over 0.90. Through decimation, the detection power of the junction arrays is equivalent to RNA-seq with up to 60 million reads. Conclusions: Our results suggest, therefore, that exon-junction arrays are a viable alternative to RNA-seq for detection of alternative splicing events when focusing on well-described transcriptional regions.
Autores: Etxeberria Uriz, Iñaki; Teijeira Sánchez, Álvaro; Montuenga Badía, Luis; et al.
ISSN   2159-8274  Vol.   8    7  2018  págs.   794 - 796
Cancer genetic alterations and epigenetics control the malignant phenotype of tumor cells and the stroma. Synergistic oncogenic alterations may cooperatively dictate immunogenicity, level of infiltration by immune system cells, and response to immunotherapy in an epistatic fashion. The work of Skoulidis and colleagues shows that concomitant RAS and STK11/LKB1 mutations in non-small cell lung adenocarcinomas result in primary resistance to PD-1-based immunotherapy and poor T-cell infi ltration. (c) 2018 AACR.
Autores: Fusco, Juan Pablo; Pita, G.; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   2045-7634  Vol.   7    7  2018  págs.   3474 - 3483
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may modulate individual susceptibility to carcinogens. We designed a genome-wide association study to characterize individuals presenting extreme phenotypes of high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and we validated our results. We hypothesized that this strategy would enrich the frequencies of the alleles that contribute to the observed traits. We genotyped 2.37 million SNPs in 95 extreme phenotype individuals, that is: heavy smokers that either developed NSCLC at an early age (extreme cases); or did not present NSCLC at an advanced age (extreme controls), selected from a discovery set (n=3631). We validated significant SNPs in 133 additional subjects with extreme phenotypes selected from databases including >39,000 individuals. Two SNPs were validated: rs12660420 (p(combined)=5.66x10(-5); ORcombined=2.80), mapping to a noncoding transcript exon of PDE10A; and rs6835978 (p(combined)=1.02x10(-4); ORcombined=2.57), an intronic variant in ATP10D. We assessed the relevance of both proteins in early-stage NSCLC. PDE10A and ATP10D mRNA expressions correlated with survival in 821 stage I-II NSCLC patients (p=0.01 and p<0.0001). PDE10A protein expression correlated with survival in 149 patients with stage I-II NSCLC (p=0.002). In conclusion, we validated two variants associated with extreme phenotypes of high and low risk of developing tobacco-induced NSCLC. Our findings may allow to identify individuals presenting high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced NSCLC and to characterize molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and resistance to develop NSCLC.
Autores: Quintanal-Villalonga, A.; Ferrer, I. ; Marrugal, A. ; et al.
ISSN   0008-5472  Vol.   78    13 Supl.  2018 
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Freire, J. ; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   13    10  2018  págs.   S394
Autores: Catena, R.; Montuenga Badía, Luis; Bodenmiller, B., (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN   0022-3417  Vol.   244    4  2018  págs.   479 - 484
Imaging mass cytometry is a novel imaging modality that enables simultaneous antibody-based detection of >40 epitopes and molecules in tissue sections at subcellular resolution by the use of isotopically pure metal tags. Essential for any imaging approach in which antigen detection is performed is counterstaining, which reveals the overall structure of the tissue. Counterstaining is necessary because antigens of interest are often present in only a small subset of cells, and the rest of the tissue structures are not visible. As most biological tissues are nearly transparent or non-fluorescent, chromogenic reagents such as haematoxylin (for immunohistochemistry) or fluorescent dyes such as 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (which stains nuclei for epifluorescence and confocal microscopy) are utilized. Here, we describe a metal-based counterstain for imaging mass cytometry based on simple oxidation and subsequent covalent binding of the tissue components to ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4). RuO4 counterstaining reveals general tissue structure both in areas with high cell content and in stromal areas with low cellularity and fibrous or hyaline material in a manner analogous to haematoxylin in immunohistochemical counterstaining or eosin or other anionic dyes in conventional histology. Our new counterstain approach is applicable to any metal-based imaging technique, and will facilitate the adaptation of imaging mass cytometry for routine applications in clinical and research laboratories. Copyright (c) 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Expósito Rincón, Francisco; Villalba, M.; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   13    10  2018  págs.   S521
Autores: Martinez-Terroba, E.; Ezponda Itoiz, Teresa; Bértolo Martín de Rosales, Cristina María; et al.
ISSN   0023-6837  Vol.   98    12  2018  págs.   1562 - 1574
In recent years, the relevance of RNA metabolism has been increasingly recognized in a variety of diseases. Modifications in the levels of RNA-binding proteins elicit changes in the expression of cancer-related genes. Here we evaluate whether SRSF1 regulates the expression of DNA repair genes, and whether this regulation has a relevant role in lung carcinogenesis. An in silico analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the expression of SRSF1 and DNA repair genes. In vitro functional analyses were conducted in SRSF1 or DNA ligase 1 (LIG1)-downregulated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. In addition, the prognostic value of LIG1 was evaluated in NSCLC patients by immunohistochemistry. We found a significant correlation between the DNA repair gene LIG1 and SRSF1 in NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, SRSF1 binds to LIG1 mRNA and regulates its expression by increasing its mRNA stability and enhancing its translation in an mTOR-dependent manner. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated LIG1 inhibition reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Finally, the expression of LIG1 was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC, as confirmed in a series of 210 patients. These results show that LIG1 is regulated by the oncoprotein SRSF1 and plays a relevant role in lung cancer cell proliferation and progression. LIG1 is associated with poor prognosis in non-small lung cancer patients.
Autores: Abou Faycal, C.; Brambilla, E.; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; et al.
ISSN   0007-0920  Vol.   118    12  2018  págs.   1596 - 1608
BACKGROUND: While lung adenocarcinoma patients can somewhat benefit from anti-angiogenic therapies, patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma (SQLC) cannot. The reasons for this discrepancy remain largely unknown. Soluble VEGF receptor-1, namely sVEGFR1-i13, is a truncated splice variant of the cell membrane-spanning VEGFR1 that has no transmembrane or tyrosine kinase domain. sVEGFR1-i13 is mainly viewed as an anti-angiogenic factor which counteracts VEGF-A/VEGFR signalling in endothelial cells. However, its role in tumour cells is poorly known. METHODS: mRNA and protein status were analysed by Real-Time qPCR, western blotting, ELISA assay, proximity ligation assay or immunohistochemistry in human tumour cell lines, murine tumourgrafts and non small cell lung carcinoma patients samples. RESULTS: We show that anti-angiogenic therapies specifically increase the levels of sVEGFR1-i13 in SQLC cell lines and chemically induced SQLC murine tumourgrafts. At the molecular level, we characterise a sVEGFR1-i13/beta 1 integrin/VEGFR autocrine loop which determines whether SQLC cells proliferate or go into apoptosis, in response to anti-angiogenic therapies. Furthermore, we show that high levels of both sVEGFR1-i13 and beta 1 integrin mRNAs and proteins are associated with advanced stages in SQLC patients and with a poor clinical outcome in patients with early stage SQLC. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results reveal an unexpected pro-tumoural function of sVEGFR1-i13 in SQLC tumour cells, which contributes to their progression and escape from anti-angiogenic therapies. These data might help to understand why some SQLC patients do not respond to anti-angiogenic therapies.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Ortiz Espinosa, S.; Moreno, H. ; et al.
ISSN   2159-8274  Vol.   7    7  2017  págs.   694 - 703
Disruption of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway with immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major breakthrough in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that combined inhibition of C5a/C5aR1 and PD-1 signaling may have a synergistic antitumor effect. The RMP1-14 antibody was used to block PD-1, and an L-aptamer was used to inhibit signaling of complement C5a with its receptors. Using syngeneic models of lung cancer, we demonstrate that the combination of C5a and PD-1 blockade markedly reduces tumor growth and metastasis and leads to prolonged survival. This effect is accompanied by a negative association between the frequency of CD8 T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells within tumors, which may result in a more complete reversal of CD8 T-cell exhaustion. Our study provides support for the clinical evaluation of anti-PD-1 and anti-C5a drugs as a novel combination therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Using a variety of preclinical models of lung cancer, we demonstrate that the blockade of C5a results in a substantial improvement in the efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibodies against lung cancer growth and metastasis. This study provides the preclinical rationale for the combined blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 and C5a to restore antitumor immune responses, inhibit tumor cell growth, and improve outcomes of patients with lung cancer. (C) 2017 AACR.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Ortiz Espinosa, Sergio; Moreno, H.; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   12    1  2017  págs.   S391 - S391
Autores: Pereira,C.; Gimenez-Xavier, P.; Pros, E.; et al.
ISSN   1078-0432  Vol.   23    12  2017  págs.   3203 - 3213
Purpose: We aimed to maximize the performance of detecting genetic alterations in lung cancer using high-throughput sequencing for patient-derived xenografts (PDXs).Experimental Design: We undertook an integrated RNA and whole-exome sequencing of 14 PDXs. We focused on the genetic and functional analysis of ß2-microglobulin (B2M), a component of the HLA class-I complex.Results: We identified alterations in genes involved in various functions, such as B2M involved in immunosurveillance. We extended the mutational analysis of B2M to about 230 lung cancers. Five percent of the lung cancers carried somatic mutations, most of which impaired the correct formation of the HLA-I complex. We also report that genes such as CALR, PDIA3, and TAP1, which are involved in the maturation of the HLA-I complex, are altered in lung cancer. By gene expression microarrays, we observed that restitution of B2M in lung cancer cells upregulated targets of IFN¿/IFN¿. Furthermore, one third of the lung cancers lacked the HLA-I complex, which was associated with lower cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration. The levels of B2M and HLA-I proteins correlated with those of PD-L1. Finally, a deficiency in HLA-I complex and CD8+ infiltration tended to correlate with reduced survival of patients with lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1.Conclusions: Here, we report recurrent inactivation of B2M in lung cancer. These observations, coupled with the mutations found at CALR, PDIA3, and TAP1, and the downregulation of the HLA-I complex, indicate that an abnormal immunosurveillance axis contributes to lung cancer development. Finally, our observations suggest that an impaired HLA-I complex affects the response to anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 therapies.
Autores: Gettinger, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Choi, J.; Hastings, K.; et al.
ISSN   2159-8274  Vol.   7    12  2017  págs.   1420 - 1435
Mechanisms of acquired resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are poorly understood. We leveraged a collection of 14 ICI-resistant lung cancer samples to investigate whether alterations in genes encoding HLA Class I antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM) components or interferon signaling play a role in acquired resistance to PD-1 or PD-L1 antagonistic antibodies. Recurrent mutations or copy-number changes were not detected in our cohort. In one case, we found acquired homozygous loss of B2M that caused lack of cell-surface HLA Class I expression in the tumor and a matched patient-derived xenograft (PDX). Downregulation of B2M was also found in two additional PDXs established from ICI-resistant tumors. CRISPR-mediated knockout of B2m in an immunocompetent lung cancer mouse model conferred resistance to PD-1 blockade in vivo, proving its role in resistance to ICIs. These results indicate that HLA Class I APM disruption can mediate escape from ICIs in lung cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: As programmed death 1 axis inhibitors are becoming more established in standard treatment algorithms for diverse malignancies, acquired resistance to these therapies is increasingly being encountered. Here, we found that defective antigen processing and presentation can serve as a mechanism of such resistance in lung cancer.
Autores: Pérez Gracia, José Luis (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández de Sanmamed Gutiérrez, Miguel; Bosch, A.; et al.
ISSN   0305-7372  Vol.   53  2017  págs.   79 - 97
The discovery of reliable biomarkers to predict efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs remains one of the key challenges in cancer research. Despite its relevance, no efficient study designs to identify promising candidate biomarkers have been established. This has led to the proliferation of a myriad of exploratory studies using dissimilar strategies, most of which fail to identify any promising targets and are seldom validated. The lack of a proper methodology also determines that many anti-cancer drugs are developed below their potential, due to failure to identify predictive biomarkers. While some drugs will be systematically administered to many patients who will not benefit from them, leading to unnecessary toxicities and costs, others will never reach registration due to our inability to identify the specific patient population in which they are active. Despite these drawbacks, a limited number of outstanding predictive biomarkers have been successfully identified and validated, and have changed the standard practice of oncology. In this manuscript, a multidisciplinary panel reviews how those key biomarkers were identified and, based on those experiences, proposes a methodological framework the DESIGN guidelines-to-standardize the clinical design of biomarker identification studies and to develop future research in this pivotal field. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Autores: de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; Sánchez Salcedo, Pablo Antonio; Bastarrika Alemañ, Gorka; et al.
ISSN   0903-1936  Vol.   49    1  2017  págs.   1601521
Autores: Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; Garmendia Iturbe, Irati; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   12    1  2017  págs.   S446 - S447
Autores: de Miguel Sánchez de Puerta, Fernando; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Martínez Terroba, Elena; et al.
ISSN   1574-7891  Vol.   10    9  2016  págs.   1437 - 1449
Increasing interest has been devoted in recent years to the understanding of alternative splicing in cancer. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify cancer-associated splice variants in non-small cell lung cancer. We discovered and validated novel differences in the splicing of genes known to be relevant to lung cancer biology, such as NFIB, ENAH or SPAG9. Gene enrichment analyses revealed an important contribution of alternative splicing to cancer-related molecular functions, especially those involved in cytoskeletal dynamics. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the altered genes found in our analysis were targets of the protein quaking (QKI), pointing to this factor as one of the most relevant regulators of alternative splicing in non-small cell lung cancer. We also found that ESYT2, one of the QKI targets, is involved in cytoskeletal organization. ESYT2-short variant inhibition in lung cancer cells resulted in a cortical distribution of actin whereas inhibition of the long variant caused an increase of endocytosis, suggesting that the cancer-associated splicing pattern of ESYT2 has a profound impact in the biology of cancer cells. Finally, we show that low nuclear QKI expression in non-small cell lung cancer is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (HR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.11-5.46, P = 0.026). In conclusion, we identified several splicing variants with functional relevance in lung cancer largely regulated by the splicing factor QKI, a tumor suppressor associated with prognosis in lung cancer.
Autores: Díaz-Lagares, A.; Méndez-González, J.; Hervás, D.; et al.
ISSN   1078-0432  Vol.   22    13  2016  págs.   3361 - 3371
PURPOSE: Lung cancer remains as the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, mainly due to late diagnosis. Cytology is the gold-standard method for lung cancer diagnosis in minimally invasive respiratory samples, despite its low sensitivity. We aimed to identify epigenetic biomarkers with clinical utility for cancer diagnosis in minimally/noninvasive specimens to improve accuracy of current technologies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The identification of novel epigenetic biomarkers in stage I lung tumors was accomplished using an integrative genome-wide restrictive analysis of two different large public databases. DNA methylation levels for the selected biomarkers were validated by pyrosequencing in paraffin-embedded tissues and minimally invasive and noninvasive respiratory samples in independent cohorts. RESULTS: We identified nine cancer-specific hypermethylated genes in early-stage lung primary tumors. Four of these genes presented consistent CpG island hypermethylation compared with nonmalignant lung and were associated with transcriptional silencing. A diagnostic signature was built using multivariate logistic regression model based on the combination of four genes:BCAT1, CDO1, TRIM58, andZNF177 Clinical diagnostic value was also validated in multiple independent cohorts and yielded a remarkable diagnostic accuracy in all cohorts tested. Calibrated and cross-validated epigenetic model predicts with high accuracy the probability to detect cancer in minimally and noninvasive samples. We demonstrated that this epigenetic signature achieved higher diagnostic efficacy in bronchial fluids as compared with conventional cytology for lung cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive epigenetic biomarkers have emerged as promising tools for cancer diagnosis. The herein obtained epigenetic model in combination with current diagnostic protocols may improve early diagnosis and outcome of lung cancer patients.
Autores: Villalba, M.; López, L.; Redrado Jordán, Miriam; et al.
ISSN   0213-3911  Vol.   32    9  2016  págs.   929 - 940
Metastatic spread is responsible for the majority of cancer deaths and identification of metastasis-related therapeutic targets is compulsory. TMPRSS4 is a pro-metastatic druggable transmembrane type II serine protease whose expression has been associated with the development of several cancer types and poor prognosis. To study the role and expression of this protease in cancer, we have developed molecular tools (active recombinant proteins and a polyclonal antibody) that can be used for diagnostic purposes and for testing anti-TMPRSS4 drugs. In addition, we have evaluated TMPRSS4 protein expression in several cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs). Full length and truncated TMPRSS4 recombinant proteins maintained the catalytic activity in two different expression systems (baculovirus and E. coli). Sensitivity of the rabbit polyclonal antisera against TMPRSS4 (ING-pAb) outperformed the antibody most commonly used in clinical settings. Analysis by immunohistochemistry in the different TMAs identified a subset of adenocarcinomas, squamous carcinomas, large cell carcinomas and carcinoids of the lung, which may define aggressive tumors. In conclusion, our biological tools will help the characterization of TMPRSS4 activity and protein expression, as well as the evaluation of anti-TMRSS4 drugs. Future studies should determine the clinical value of assessing TMPRSS4 levels in different types of lung cancer.
Autores: Villalba, M.; Díaz Lagares, Ángel; Redrado Jordán, Miriam; et al.
ISSN   1949-2553  Vol.   7    16  2016  págs.   22752 - 22769
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, which highlights the need of innovative therapeutic options. Although targeted therapies can be successfully used in a subset of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (ADC), they are not appropriate for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). In addition, there is an unmet need for the identification of prognostic biomarkers that can select patients at risk of relapse in early stages. Here, we have used several cohorts of NSCLC patients to analyze the prognostic value of both protein expression and DNA promoter methylation status of the prometastatic serine protease TMPRSS4. Moreover, expression and promoter methylation was evaluated in a panel of 46 lung cancer cell lines. We have demonstrated that a high TMPRSS4 expression is an independent prognostic factor in SCC. Similarly, aberrant hypomethylation in tumors, which correlates with high TMPRSS4 expression, is an independent prognostic predictor in SCC. The inverse correlation between expression and methylation status was also observed in cell lines. In vitro studies showed that treatment of cells lacking TMPRSS4 expression with a demethylating agent significantly increased TMPRSS4 levels. In conclusion, TMPRSS4 is a novel independent prognostic biomarker regulated by epigenetic changes in SCC and a potential therapeutic target in this tumor type, where targeted therapy is still underdeveloped.
Autores: Romero, J. P.; Muniategui Merino, Ander; de Miguel Sánchez de Puerta, Fernando; et al.
ISSN   1471-2164  Vol.   17  2016  págs.   467
Background: Alternative splicing (AS) is a major source of variability in the transcriptome of eukaryotes. There is an increasing interest in its role in different pathologies. Before sequencing technology appeared, AS was measured with specific arrays. However, these arrays did not perform well in the detection of AS events and provided very large false discovery rates (FDR). Recently the Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0) has been deployed. It includes junction probes. However, the interpretation software provided by its vendor (TAC 3.0) does not fully exploit its potential (does not study jointly the exons and junctions involved in a splicing event) and can only be applied to case-control studies. New statistical algorithms and software must be developed in order to exploit the HTA 2.0 array for event detection. Results: We have developed EventPointer, an R package (built under the aroma. affymetrix framework) to search and analyze Alternative Splicing events using HTA 2.0 arrays. This software uses a linear model that broadens its application from plain case-control studies to complex experimental designs. Given the CEL files and the design and contrast matrices, the software retrieves a list of all the detected events indicating: 1) the type of event (exon cassette, alternative 3', etc.), 2) its fold change and its statistical significance, and 3) the potential protein domains affected by the AS events and the statistical significance of the possible enrichment. Our tests have shown that EventPointer has an extremely low FDR value (only 1 false positive within the tested top-200 events). This software is publicly available and it has been uploaded to GitHub. Conclusions: This software empowers the HTA 2.0 arrays for AS event detection as an alternative to RNA-seq: simplifying considerably the required analysis, speeding it up and reducing the required computational power.
Autores: Salazar-Degracia, A.; Blanco Barrenechea, David; Vilà-Ubach, M.; et al.
ISSN   1479-5876  Vol.   14    1  2016  págs.   244
BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting negatively impacts the progress of chronic diseases such as lung cancer (LC) and emphysema, which are in turn interrelated. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that muscle atrophy and body weight loss may develop in an experimental mouse model of lung carcinogenesis, that the profile of alterations in muscle fiber phenotype (fiber type composition and morphometry, muscle structural alterations, and nuclear apoptosis), and in muscle metabolism are similar in both respiratory and limb muscles of the tumor-bearing mice, and that the presence of underlying emphysema may influence those events. METHODS: Diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles of mice with urethane-induced lung cancer (LC-U) with and without elastase-induced emphysema (E-U) and non-exposed controls (N = 8/group) were studied: fiber type composition, morphometry, muscle abnormalities, apoptotic nuclei (immunohistochemistry), and proteolytic and autophagy markers (immunoblotting) at 20- and 35-week exposure times. In the latter cohort, structural contractile proteins, creatine kinase (CK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) expression, oxidative stress, and inflammation were also measured. Body and muscle weights were quantified (baseline, during follow-up, and sacrifice). RESULTS: Compared to controls, in U and E-U mice, whole body, diaphragm and gastrocnemius weights were reduced. Additionally, both in diaphragm and gastrocnemius, muscle fiber cross-sectional areas were smaller, structural abnormalities, autophagy and apoptotic nuclei were increased, while levels of actin, myosin, CK, PPARs, and antioxidants were decreased, and muscle proteolytic markers did not vary among groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this model of lung carcinogenesis with and without emphysema, reduced body weight gain and muscle atrophy were observed in respiratory and limb muscles of mice after 20- and 35-week exposure times most likely through increased nuclear apoptosis and autophagy. Underlying emphysema induced a larger reduction in the size of slow- and fast-twitch fibers in the diaphragm of U and E-U mice probably as a result of the greater inspiratory burden imposed onto this muscle.
Autores: Azpilikueta, A.; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; Labiano Almiñana, Sara; et al.
ISSN   1556-0864  Vol.   11    4  2016  págs.   524 - 536
INTRODUCTION: Anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antagonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with special efficacy in patients with squamous cell lung cancer are being developed in the clinic. However, robust and reliable experimental models to test immunotherapeutic combinations in squamous lung tumors are still lacking. METHODS: We generated a transplantable squamous cell carcinoma cell line (UN-SCC680AJ) from a lung tumor induced by chronic N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea mutagenesis in A/J mice. Tumor cells expressed cytokeratins, overexpressed p40, and lacked thyroid transcription factor 1, confirming the squamous lineage reported by histological analysis. More than 200 mutations found in its exome suggested potential for antigenicity. Immunocompetent mice subcutaneously implanted with this syngeneic cell line were treated with anti-CD137 and/or anti-PD-1 mAbs and monitored for tumor growth/progression or assessed for intratumoral leukocyte infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In syngeneic mice, large 12-day-established tumors derived from the transplantable cell line variant UN-SCC680AJ were amenable to curative treatment with anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-CD137 immunostimulatory mAbs. Single-agent therapies lost curative efficacy when treatment was started beyond day +17, whereas a combination of anti-PD-1 plus anti-CD137 achieved complete rejections. Tumor cells expressed weak baseline PD-L1 on the plasma membrane, but this could be readily induced by interferon-¿. Combined treatment efficacy required CD8 T cells and induced a leukocyte infiltrate in which T lymphocytes co-expressing CD137 and PD-1 were prominent. CONCLUSIONS: These promising results advocate the use of combined anti-PD-1/PD-L1 plus anti-CD137 mAb immunotherapy for the treatment of squamous non-small cell lung cancer in the clinical setting.
Autores: López de Aberasturi Soladrero, Arrate; Redrado Jordán, Miriam; Villalba, M.; et al.
ISSN   0304-3835  Vol.   370    2  2016  págs.   165 - 176
Metastasis involves a series of changes in cancer cells that promote their escape from the primary tumor and colonization to a new organ. This process is related to the transition from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype (EMT). Recently, some authors have shown that migratory cells with an EMT phenotype share properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which allow them to form a new tumor mass. The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS4 is highly expressed in some solid tumors, promotes metastasis and confers EMT features to cancer cells. We hypothesized that TMPRSS4 could also provide CSC properties. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 reduces E-cadherin and induces N-cadherin and vimentin in A549 lung cancer cells, supporting an EMT phenotype. These changes are accompanied by enhanced migration, invasion and tumorigenicity in vivo. TMPRSS4 expression was highly increased in a panel of lung cancer cells cultured as tumorspheres (a typical assay to enrich for CSCs). H358 and H441 cells with knocked-down TMPRSS4 levels were significantly less able to form primary and secondary tumorspheres than control cells. Moreover, they showed a lower proportion of ALDH+ cells (examined by FACS analysis) and lower expression of some CSC markers than controls. A549 cells overexpressing TMPRSS4 conferred the opposite phenotype and were also more sensitive to the CSC-targeted drug salinomycin than control cells, but were more resistant to regular chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil). Analysis of 70 NSCLC samples from patients revealed a very significant correlation between TMPRSS4 expression and CSC markers ALDH (p¿=¿0.0018) and OCT4 (p¿=¿0.0004), suggesting that TMPRSS4 is associated with a CSC phenotype in patients' tumors. These results show that TMPRSS4, in addition to inducing EMT, can also promote CSC features in lung cancer; therefore, CSC-targeting drugs could be an appropriate treatment for TMPRSS4+ tumors.
Autores: Vallejo-Diaz, J.; Olazabal-Moran, M.; Cariaga-Martinez, A. E.; et al.
ISSN   1949-2553  Vol.   7    51  2016  págs.   85063 - 85078
Oncogenic mutations in the PI3K/AKT pathway are present in nearly half of human tumors. Nonetheless, inhibitory compounds of the pathway often induce pathway rebound and tumor resistance. We find that lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC), which accounts for similar to 20% of lung cancer, exhibits increased expression of the PI3K subunit PIK3R2, which is at low expression levels in normal tissues. We tested a new approach to interfere with PI3K/AKT pathway activation in lung SQCC. We generated tumor xenografts of SQCC cell lines and examined the consequences of targeting PIK3R2 expression. In tumors with high PIK3R2 expression, and independently of PIK3CA, KRAS, or PTEN mutations, PIK3R2 depletion induced lung SQCC xenograft regression without triggering PI3K/AKT pathway rebound. These results validate the use PIK3R2 interfering tools for the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Autores: Monsó, E. ; Montuenga Badía, Luis; Sánchez de Cos, J.; et al.
ISSN   0300-2896  Vol.   51    9  2015  págs.   462 - 467
he aim of the Clinical and Molecular Staging of Stage I-IIp Lung Cancer Project is to identify molecular variables that improve the prognostic and predictive accuracy of TMN classification in stage I/IIp non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical data and lung tissue, tumor and blood samples will be collected from 3 patient cohorts created for this purpose. The prognostic protein signature will be validated from these samples, and micro-RNA, ALK, Ros1, Pdl-1, and TKT, TKTL1 y G6PD expression will be analyzed. Tissue inflammatory markers and stromal cell markers will also be analyzed. Methylation of p16, DAPK, RASSF1a, APC and CDH13 genes in the tissue samples will be determined, and inflammatory markers in peripheral blood will also be analyzed. Variables that improve the prognostic and predictive accuracy of TNM in NSCLC by molecular staging may be identified from this extensive analytical panel.
Autores: Aramburu, A.; Zudaire Ripa, María Isabel; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   1471-2164  Vol.   16  2015  págs.   752
Background: The development of a more refined prognostic methodology for early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an unmet clinical need. An accurate prognostic tool might help to select patients at early stages for adjuvant therapies. Results: A new integrated bioinformatics searching strategy, that combines gene copy number alterations and expression, together with clinical parameters was applied to derive two prognostic genomic signatures. The proposed methodology combines data from patients with and without clinical data with a priori information on the ability of a gene to be a prognostic marker. Two initial candidate sets of 513 and 150 genes for lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, were generated by identifying genes which have both: a) significant correlation between copy number and gene expression, and b) significant prognostic value at the gene expression level in external databases. From these candidates, two panels of 7 (ADC) and 5 (SCC) genes were further identified via semi-supervised learning. These panels, together with clinical data (stage, age and sex), were used to construct the ADC and SCC hazard scores combining clinical and genomic data. The signatures were validated in two independent datasets (n = 73 for ADC, n = 97 for SCC), confirming that the prognostic value of both clinical-genomic models is robust, statistically significant (P = 0.008 for ADC and P = 0.019 for SCC) and outperforms both the clinical models (P = 0.060 for ADC and P = 0.121 for SCC) and the genomic models applied separately (P = 0.350 for ADC and P = 0.269 for SCC). Conclusion: The present work provides a methodology to generate a robust signature using copy number data that can be potentially used to any cancer. Using it, we found new prognostic scores based on tumor DNA that, jointly with clinical information, are able to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with early-stage ADC and SCC.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Chiara, M. D.; et al.
ISSN   1354-523X  Vol.   21    7  2015  págs.   899 - 904
OBJECTIVE: Complement C4d-containing fragments have been proposed as diagnostic markers for lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of C4d in oropharyngeal (OPSCC) and oral (OSCC) squamous cell carcinomas. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: C4d staining was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 244 OPSCC surgical specimens. C4d levels were quantified by ELISA in resting saliva samples from 48 patients with oral leukoplakia and 62 with OSCC. Plasma samples from 21 patients with leukoplakia and 30 with oral carcinoma were also studied. RESULTS: C4d staining in OPSCC specimens was associated with nodal invasion (P = 0.001), histopathologic grade (P = 0.014), disease stage (P = 0.040), and focal-adhesion kinase expression (P < 0.001). No association was found between C4d and prognosis. Saliva C4d levels were higher in patients with oral cancer than in subjects with leukoplakia (0.07 ± 0.07 vs 0.04 ± 0.03 ¿g ml(-1) , P = 0.003). The area under the ROC curve was 0.63 (95%CI: 0.55-0.71). Salivary C4d levels in stage IV patients were higher than in patients with earlier stages (P = 0.028) and correlated with tumor size (P = 0.045). Plasma C4d levels also correlated with salivary C4d levels (P = 0.041), but differences between patients with oral cancer and subjects with leukoplakia were not significant (1.26 ± 0.59 vs 1.09 ± 0.39 ¿g ml(-1) , P = 0.232). CONCLUSION: C4d-containing fragments are detected in oral primary tumors and are increased in saliva from patients with OSCC.
Autores: Sánchez Salcedo, Pablo Antonio; Berto Botella, Juan Antonio; de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; et al.
ISSN   0300-2896  Vol.   51    4  2015  págs.   169 - 176
The experience in Spain's longest lung cancer screening program is comparable to what has been described in the rest of Europe, and confirms the feasibility and efficacy of lung cancer screening using LDCT.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; Pastor, M. D.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN   1932-6203  Vol.   10    3  2015  págs.   e0119878
Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI
Autores: Grbesa, I.; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Martínez Terroba, Elena; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN   1932-6203  Vol.   10    4  2015  págs.   e0124670
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases involved in the regulation of key cancer-associated genes. In this study we evaluated the relevance of these deacetylases in lung cancer biology. Material and Methods Protein levels of SIRT1 and SIRT2 were determined in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and primary tumors from 105 patients. Changes in proliferation were assessed after SIRT1 and SIRT2 downregulation in lung cancer cell lines using siRNA-mediated technology or tenovin-1, a SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitor. Results High SIRT1 and SIRT2 protein levels were found in NSCLC cell lines compared with nontumor lung epithelial cells. The expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2 proteins was also significantly higher in lung primary tumors than in normal tissue (P<0.001 for both sirtuins). Stronger nuclear SIRT1 staining was observed in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.033). Interestingly, in NSCLC patients, high SIRT1 and SIRT2 expression levels were associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.04 and P=0.007, respectively). Moreover, the combination of high SIRT1 and SIRT2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.002) and overall survival (P=0.022). In vitro studies showed that SIRT1 and/or SIRT2 downregulation significantly decreased proliferation of NSCLC. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that SIRT1 and SIRT2 have a protumorigenic role in lu
Autores: Sánchez Salcedo, Pablo Antonio; Wilson, D. O.; de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; et al.
ISSN   1073-449X  Vol.   191    8  2015  págs.   924 - 931
Rationale: Lung cancer (LC) screening using low-dose chest computed tomography is now recommended in several guidelines using the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) entry criteria (age, 55-74; ¿30 pack-years; tobacco cessation within the previous 15 yr for former smokers). Concerns exist about their lack of sensitivity. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of NLST criteria in two different LC screening studies from Europe and the United States, and to explore the effect of using emphysema as a complementary criterion. Methods: Participants from the Pamplona International Early Lung Action Detection Program (P-IELCAP; n = 3,061) and the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS; n = 3,638) were considered. LC cumulative frequencies, incidence densities, and annual detection rates were calculated in three hypothetical cohorts, including subjects whometNLST criteria alone, those withcomputed tomography-detected emphysema, and those who met NLST criteria and/or had emphysema. Measurements and Main Results: Thirty-six percent and 59% of P-IELCAP and PLuSS participants, respectively, met NLST criteria. Among these, higher LC incidence densities and detection rates were observed. However, applying NLST criteria to our original cohorts would miss asmany as 39% of all LC. Annual screening of subjects meeting either NLST criteria or having emphysema detected most cancers (88% and 95% of incident LC of P-IELCAP and PLuSS, respectively) despite reducing the number of screened participants by as much as 52%. Conclusions: LC screening based solely on NLST criteria could miss a significant number of LC cases. Combining NLST criteria and emphysema to select screening candidates results in higher LC detection rates and a lower number of cancers missed.
Autores: Pio Osés, Rubén; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; Montuenga Badía, Luis
ISSN   0022-5223  Vol.   150    4  2015  págs.   986 - 992
Objective: The current staging system for lung cancer is not sufficient to accurately identify those patients with early-stage tumors who would benefit from postsurgery chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to validate a prognostic signature based on the expression of 5 RNA (ribonucleic acid) metabolism-related genes. Methods: Five lung cancer microarray datasets, 3 from adenocarcinomas and 2 from squamous cell carcinomas, were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between the classifier and recurrence and survival. Results: Statistically significant differences in relapse-free survival and overall survival were observed when lung adenocarcinoma patients were divided into 3 risk groups. The prognostic information provided by the signature was independent from other demographic and disease variables, including stage. Significant differences in survival were observed between low-and high-risk groups in stage-IB patients: 5-year survival rates ranged from 83% to 100% in the low-risk groups, and from 30% to 71% in the high-risk groups, depending on the dataset. The RNA metabolism score additionally displayed an association with the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (P<. 001), suggesting that those patients in the low-risk group are not good candidates for this treatment. Conclusions: The RNA metabolism signature is a prognostic marker that may be useful for predicting survival and optimizing the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Autores: Bleau, Anne Marie; Zandueta Pascual, Carolina; Redrado Jordán, Miriam; et al.
ISSN   1949-2553  Vol.   6    29  2015  págs.   27288 - 27303
The spread of lung cancer cells to distant sites represents a common event associated with poor prognosis. A fraction of tumor cells named cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to overcome therapeutic stress and remain quiescent. However, whether these CSCs have also the capacity to initiate and sustain metastasis remains unclear. Here, we used tumor sphere cultures (TSC) isolated from mouse and human lung cancer models to enrich for CSCs, and assessed their metastatic potential as compared to non-CSCs. As expected, TSC overexpressed a variety of stem cell markers and displayed chemoresistance. The CSC phenotype of TSC was confirmed by their higher growth ability in soft agar and tumorigenic potential in vivo, despite their reduced in vitro cell growth kinetics. Surprisingly, the appearance of spontaneous lung metastases was strongly delayed in mice injected with TSC as compared to non-TSC cells. Similarly, this finding was confirmed in several other models of metastasis, an effect associated with a retarded colonization activity. Interestingly, such delay correlated with a quiescent phenotype whose underlined mechanisms included an increase in p27 protein and lower phospho-ERK1/2 levels. Thus, these data suggest that cells enriched for CSC properties display an impaired metastatic activity, a finding with potential clinical implications.
Autores: Rakha, E.; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Ilie, M.; et al.
ISSN   0959-8049  Vol.   51    14  2015  págs.   1897 - 1903
Background: Mortality in early stage, resectable lung cancer is sufficiently high to warrant consideration of post-surgical treatment. Novel markers to stratify resectable lung cancer patients may help with the selection of treatment to improve outcome. Methods: Primary tumour tissue from 485 patients, surgically treated for stage I-II lung adenocarcinoma, was analysed for the RNA expression of 31 cell cycle progression (CCP) genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression average, the CCP score, was combined with pathological stage into a prognostic score (PS). Cox proportional hazards regression assessed prediction of 5-year lung cancer mortality above clinical variables. The PS threshold was tested for risk discrimination by the Mantel-Cox log-rank test. Results: The CCP score added significant information above clinical markers (all patients, P = 0.0029; stage I patients, P = 0.013). The prognostic score was a superior predictor of outcome compared to pathological stage alone (PS, P = 0.00084; stage, P = 0.24). Five-year lung cancer mortality was significantly different between the low-risk (90%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 81-95%), and high-risk groups (65%, 95% CI 57-72%), P = 4.2 x 10(-6)). Conclusions: The CCP score is an independent prognostic marker in early stage lung adenocarcinoma. The prognostic score provides superior risk estimates than stage alone. The threefold higher risk in the high-risk group defines a subset of patients that should consider therapeutic choices to improve outcome.
Autores: Larrayoz Ilundain, Marta; Pio Osés, Rubén; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   1757-4684  Vol.   6    4  2014  págs.   539 - 550
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is a clinically validated antiangiogenic target for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some contradictory results have been reported on the biological effects of antiangiogenic drugs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs in NSCLC histological subtypes, we analyzed the anticancer effect of two anti-VEGFR2 therapies (sunitinib and DC101) in chemically induced mouse models and tumorgrafts of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Antiangiogenic treatments induced vascular trimming in both histological subtypes. In ADC tumors, vascular trimming was accompanied by tumor stabilization. In contrast, in SCC tumors, antiangiogenic therapy was associated with disease progression and induction of tumor proliferation. Moreover, in SCC, anti-VEGFR2 therapies increased the expression of stem cell markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1, CD133, and CD15, independently of intratumoral hypoxia. In vitro studies with ADC cell lines revealed that antiangiogenic treatments reduced pAKT and pERK signaling and inhibited proliferation, while in SCC-derived cell lines the same treatments increased pAKT and pERK, and induced survival. In conclusion, this study evaluates for the first time the effect of antiangiogenic drugs in lung SCC murine models in vivo and sheds light on the contradictory results of antiangiogenic therapies in NSCLC.
Autores: Pérez Gracia, José Luis; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Andueza Arrieta, María Pilar; et al.
ISSN   0923-7534  Vol.   25    Supl. 4  2014 
Autores: de Miguel Sánchez de Puerta, Fernando; Sharma, Ravi Datta; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   0008-5472  Vol.   74    4  2014  págs.   1105 - 1115
Abnormal alternative splicing has been associated with cancer. Genome-wide microarrays can be used to detect differential splicing events. In this study, we have developed ExonPointer, an algorithm that uses data from exon and junction probes to identify annotated cassette exons. We used the algorithm to profile differential splicing events in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells after downregulation of the oncogenic serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1). Data were generated using two different microarray platforms. The PCR-based validation rate of the top 20 ranked genes was 60% and 100%. Functional enrichment analyses found a substantial number of splicing events in genes related to RNA metabolism. These analyses also identified genes associated with cancer and developmental and hereditary disorders, as well as biologic processes such as cell division, apoptosis, and proliferation. Most of the top 20 ranked genes were validated in other adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung cancer cells, with validation rates of 80% to 95% and 70% to 75%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis allowed us to identify four genes, ATP11C, IQCB1, TUBD1, and proline-rich coiled-coil 2C (PRRC2C), with a significantly different pattern of alternative splicing in primary non-small cell lung tumors compared with normal lung tissue. In the case of PRRC2C, SRSF1 downregulation led to the skipping of an exon overexpressed in primary lung tumors. Specific siRNA downregulation of the exon-containing var
Autores: Pérez Gracia, José Luis; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Andueza Arrieta, María Pilar; et al.
ISSN   0732-183X  Vol.   32    15  2014 
Autores: Romero, O. A.; Torres-Diz, M.; Pros, E. ; et al.
ISSN   2159-8274  Vol.   4    3  2014  págs.   292 - 303
Our knowledge of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) genetics is still very limited, amplification of L-MYC, N-MYC, and C-MYC being some of the well-established gene alterations. Here, we report our discovery of tumor-specific inactivation of the MYC-associated factor X gene, MAX, in SCLC. MAX inactivation is mutually exclusive with alterations of MYC and BRG1, the latter coding for an ATPase of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex. We demonstrate that BRG1 regulates the expression of MAX through direct recruitment to the MAX promoter, and that depletion of BRG1 strongly hinders cell growth, specifically in MAX-deficient cells, heralding a synthetic lethal interaction. Furthermore, MAX requires BRG1 to activate neuroendocrine transcriptional programs and to upregulate MYC targets, such as glycolysis-related genes. Finally, inactivation of the MAX dimerization protein, MGA, was also observed in both non-small cell lung cancer and SCLC. Our results provide evidence that an aberrant SWI/SNF-MYC network is essential for lung cancer development.
Autores: Bleau, Anne Marie; Freire Salinas, Francisco Javier; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   0020-7136  Vol.   135    11  2014  págs.   2516 - 2527
New mouse models with specific drivers of genetic alterations are needed for preclinical studies. Herein, we created and characterized at the genetic level a new syngeneic model for lung cancer and metastasis in Balb-c mice. Tumor cell lines were obtained from a silica-mediated airway chronic inflammation that promotes tumorigenesis when combined with low doses of N-nitrosodimethylamine, a tobacco smoke carcinogen. Orthotopic transplantation of these cells induced lung adenocarcinomas, and their intracardiac injection led to prominent colonization of various organs (bone, lung, liver and brain). Driver gene alterations included a mutation in the codon 12 of KRAS (G-A transition), accompanied by a homozygous deletion of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene. The mutant form of WWOX lacked exons 5-8 and displayed reduced protein expression level and activity. WWOX gene restoration decreased the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity, confirming the tumor suppressor function of this gene in this particular model. Interestingly, we found that cells displayed remarkable sphere formation ability with expression of specific lung cancer stem cell markers. Study of non-small-cell lung cancer patient cohorts demonstrated a deletion of WWOX in 30% of cases, with significant reduction in protein levels as compared to normal tissues. Overall, our new syngeneic mouse model provides a most valuable tool to study lung cancer metastasis in balb-c mice background and highlights the importance of WWOX deletion in lung carcinogenesis.
Autores: Luis-Ravelo Salazar, Diego; Antón Ibáñez, Iker; Zandueta Pascual, Carolina; et al.
ISSN   1574-7891  Vol.   8    2  2014  págs.   196 - 206
Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the most common lung cancer subtype and presents a high mortality rate. Clinical recurrence is often associated with the emergence of metastasis and treatment resistance. The purpose of this study was to identify genes with high prometastatic activity which could potentially account for treatment resistance. Global transcriptomic profiling was performed by robust microarray analysis in highly metastatic subpopulations. Extensive in vitro and in vivo functional studies were achieved by overexpression and by silencing gene expression. We identified the small GTPase RHOB as a gene that promotes early and late stages of metastasis in ADC. Gene silencing of RHOB prevented metastatic activity in a systemic murine model of bone metastasis. These effects were highly dependent on tumor-host interactions. Clinical analysis revealed a marked association between high RHOB levels and poor survival. Consistently, high RHOB levels promote metastasis progression, taxane-chemoresistance, and contribute to the survival advantage to ¿-irradiation. We postulate that RHOB belongs to a novel class of "genes of recurrence" that have a dual role in metastasis and treatment resistance.
Autores: Pajares Villandiego, María José; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; Salvo Brugarolas, Elizabeth; et al.
ISSN   0007-0920  Vol.   110    6  2014  págs.   1545 - 1551
Background: Transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBI) is a secreted protein that mediates cell anchoring to the extracellular matrix. This protein is downregulated in lung cancer, and when overexpressed, contributes to apoptotic cell death. Using a small series of stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, we previously suggested the usefulness of TGFBI as a prognostic and predictive factor in chemotherapy-treated late-stage NSCLC. In order to validate and extend these results, we broaden the analysis and studied TGFBI expression in a large series of samples obtained from stage I-IV NSCLC patients. Methods: TGFBI expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 364 completely resected primary NSCLC samples: 242 adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 122 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyse the association between TGFBI expression and survival. Results: High TGFBI levels were associated with longer overall survival (OS, P < 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS, P < 0.001) in SCC patients who received adjuvant platinium-based chemotherapy. Moreover, multivariate analysis demonstrated that high TGFBI expression is an independent predictor of better survival in patients (OS: P = 0.030 and PFS: P = 0.026). Conclusions: TGFBI may be useful for the identification of a subset of NSCLC who may benefit from adjuvant therapy.
Autores: Larzábal Primo, Leyre; De Aberasturi, A.L.; Redrado Jordán, Miriam; et al.
ISSN   0007-0920  Vol.   110    3  2014  págs.   764 - 774
BACKGROUND: TMPRSS4 is a membrane-anchored protease involved in cell migration and invasion in different cancer types including lung cancer. TMPRSS4 expression is increased in NSCLC and its inhibition through shRNA reduces lung metastasis. However, molecular mechanisms leading to the protumorigenic regulation of TMPRSS4 in lung cancer are unknown. METHODS: miR-205 was identified as an overexpressed gene upon TMPRSS4 downregulation through microarray analysis. Cell migration and invasion assays and in vivo lung primary tumour and metastasis models were used for functional analysis of miR-205 overexpression in H2170 and H441 cell lines. Luciferase assays were used to identify a new miR-205 direct target in NSCLC. RESULTS: miR-205 overexpression promoted an epithelial phenotype with increased E-cadherin and reduced fibronectin. Furthermore, miR-205 expression caused a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell growth, migration, attachment to fibronectin, primary tumour growth and metastasis formation in vivo. Integrin ¿5 (a proinvasive protein) was identified as a new miR-205 direct target in NSCLC. Integrin ¿5 downregulation in lung cancer cells resulted in complete abrogation of cell migration, a decreased capacity to adhere to fibronectin and reduced in vivo tumour growth, compared with control cells. TMPRSS4 silencing resulted in a concomitant reduction of integrin ¿5 levels. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated for the first time a new molecular pathway that connects TMPRSS4 and integrin ¿5 through miR-205 to regulate cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Our results will help designing new therapeutic strategies to inhibit this novel pathway in NSCLC.
Autores: Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; Hu, J.; Liu, D.; et al.
ISSN   1541-7786  Vol.   12    5  2014  págs.   660 - 669
The TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a mitochondrial HSP that has been related to drug resistance and protection from apoptosis in colorectal and prostate cancer. Here, the effect of TRAP1 ablation on cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function was determined in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, the prognostic value of TRAP1 was evaluated in patients with NSCLC. These results demonstrate that TRAP1 knockdown reduces cell growth and clonogenic cell survival. Moreover, TRAP1 downregulation impairs mitochondrial functions such as ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by TMRM (tetramethylrhodamine methylester) uptake, but it does not affect mitochondrial density or mitochondrial morphology. The effect of TRAP1 silencing on apoptosis, analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoblot expression (cleaved PARP, caspase-9, and caspase-3) was cell line and context dependent. Finally, the prognostic potential of TRAP1 expression in NSCLC was ascertained via immunohistochemical analysis which revealed that high TRAP1 expression was associated with increased risk of disease recurrence (univariate analysis, P = 0.008; multivariate analysis, HR: 2.554; 95% confidence interval, 1.085-6.012; P = 0.03). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that TRAP1 impacts the viability of NSCLC cells, and that its expression is prognostic in NSCLC.
Autores: Sandoval, J.; Mendez Gonzalez, J.; Nadal, E.; et al.
ISSN   0732-183X  Vol.   31    32  2013  págs.   4140 - 4147
PURPOSE: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a tumor in which only small improvements in clinical outcome have been achieved. The issue is critical for stage I patients for whom there are no available biomarkers that indicate which high-risk patients should receive adjuvant chemotherapy. We aimed to find DNA methylation markers that could be helpful in this regard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A DNA methylation microarray that analyzes 450,000 CpG sites was used to study tumoral DNA obtained from 444 patients with NSCLC that included 237 stage I tumors. The prognostic DNA methylation markers were validated by a single-methylation pyrosequencing assay in an independent cohort of 143 patients with stage I NSCLC. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering of the 10,000 most variable DNA methylation sites in the discovery cohort identified patients with high-risk stage I NSCLC who had shorter relapse-free survival (RFS; hazard ratio [HR], 2.35; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.28; P = .004). The study in the validation cohort of the significant methylated sites from the discovery cohort found that hypermethylation of five genes was significantly associated with shorter RFS in stage I NSCLC: HIST1H4F, PCDHGB6, NPBWR1, ALX1, and HOXA9. A signature based on the number of hypermethylated events distinguished patients with high- and low-risk stage I NSCLC (HR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.61 to 6.54; P = .001). CONCLUSION: The DNA methylation signature of NSCLC affects the outcome of stage I patients, and it can be practically determined by user-friendly polymerase chain reaction assays. The analysis of the best DNA methylation biomarkers improved prognostic accuracy beyond standard staging.
Autores: Rudyanto, Rina Dewi; Bastarrika Alemañ, Gorka; De Biurrun Baquedano, Gabriel; et al.
ISSN   1361-8423  Vol.   17    8  2013  págs.   1095-1105
We present and evaluate an automatic and quantitative method for the complex task of characterizing individual nodule volumetric progression in a longitudinal mouse model of lung cancer. Fourteen A/J mice received an intraperitoneal injection of urethane. Respiratory-gated micro-CT images of the lungs were acquired at 8, 22, and 37 weeks after injection. A radiologist identified a total of 196, 585 and 636 nodules, respectively. The three micro-CT image volumes from every animal were then registered and the nodules automatically matched with an average accuracy of 99.5%. All nodules detected at week 8 were tracked all the way to week 37, and volumetrically segmented to measure their growth and doubling rates. 92.5% of all nodules were correctly segmented, ranging from the earliest stage to advanced stage, where nodule segmentation becomes more challenging due to complex anatomy and nodule overlap. Volume segmentation was validated using a foam lung phantom with embedded polyethylene microspheres. We also correlated growth rates with nodule phenotypes based on histology, to conclude that the growth rate of malignant tumors is significantly higher than that of benign lesions. In conclusion, we present a turnkey solution that combines longitudinal imaging with nodule matching and volumetric nodule segmentation resulting in a powerful tool for preclinical research.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Corrales Pecino, Leticia; et al.
ISSN   1460-2105  Vol.   105    18  2013  págs.   1385 - 1393
BACKGROUND: There is a medical need for diagnostic biomarkers in lung cancer. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of complement activation fragments. METHODS: We assessed complement activation in four bronchial epithelial and seven lung cancer cell lines. C4d, a degradation product of complement activation, was determined in 90 primary lung tumors; bronchoalveolar lavage supernatants from patients with lung cancer (n = 50) and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (n = 22); and plasma samples from advanced (n = 50) and early lung cancer patients (n = 84) subjects with inflammatory lung diseases (n = 133), and asymptomatic individuals enrolled in a lung cancer computed tomography screening program (n = 190). Two-sided P values were calculated by Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Lung cancer cells activated the classical complement pathway mediated by C1q binding that was inhibited by phosphomonoesters. Survival was decreased in patients with high C4d deposition in tumors (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18 to 7.91). C4d levels were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung cancer patients compared with patients with nonmalignant respiratory diseases (0.61 ± 0.87 vs 0.16 ± 0.11 µg/mL; P < .001). C4d levels in plasma samples from lung cancer patients at both advanced and early stages were also increased compared with control subjects (4.13 ± 2.02 vs 1.86 ± 0.95 µg/mL, P < 0.001; 3.18 ± 3.20 vs 1.13 ± 0.69 µg/mL, P < .001, respectively). C4d plasma levels were associated with shorter survival in patients at advanced (HR = 1.59; 95% CI = 0.97 to 2.60) and early stages (HR = 5.57; 95% CI = 1.60 to 19.39). Plasma C4d levels were reduced after surgical removal of lung tumors (P < .001) and were associated with increased lung cancer risk in asymptomatic individuals with (n = 32) or without lung cancer (n = 158) (odds ratio = 4.38; 95% CI = 1.61 to 11.93). CONCLUSIONS: Complement fragment C4d may serve as a biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.
Autores: Fernández García, Ignacio; Marcos, T. ; Muñoz Barrutia, María Arrate; et al.
ISSN   1093-4391  Vol.   5    2  2013  págs.   402-413
Dyskerin is one of the three subunits of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. Very little is known about the role of dyskerin in the biology of the telomeres in cancer cells. In this study, we use a quantitative, multiscale 3D image-based in situ method and several molecular techniques to show that dyskerin is overexpressed in lung cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we show that dyskerin expression correlates with telomere length both at the cell population level--cells with higher dyskerin expression have short telomeres--and at the single cell level--the shortest telomeres of the cell are spatially associated with areas of concentration of dyskerin proteins. Using this in vitro model, we also show that exogenous increase in dyskerin expression confers resistance to telomere shortening caused by a telomerase inactivating drug. Finally, we show that resistance is achieved by the recovery of telomerase activity associated with dyskerin. In summary, using a novel multiscale image-based in situ method, we show that, in lung cancer cell lines, dyskerin responds to continuous telomere attrition by increasing the telomerase RNP activity, which in turn provides resistance to telomere shortening.
Autores: Oliemuller García, Erik Wolfgang; Pelaez Cristobal, Rafael; Garasa, S.; et al.
ISSN   0020-7136  Vol.   132    9  2013  págs.   1986 - 1995
Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is the first described and most studied member of a family of proteins that mediate the addition of tubulin dimers to the growing microtubule. CRMPs have mainly been studied in the nervous system, but recently, they have been described in other tissues where they participate in vesicle transport, migration and mitosis. In this work, we aimed at studying the role of CRMP-2 in lung cancer cell division. We first explored the expression of CRMP-2 and phosphorylated (Thr 514) CRMP-2 in 91 samples obtained from patients with localized nonsmall cell lung cancer. We observed a significant correlation between high levels of nuclear phosphorylated CRMP-2 and poor prognosis in those patients. Interestingly, this association was only positive for untreated patients. To provide a mechanistic explanation to these findings, we used in vitro models to analyze the role of CRMP-2 and its phosphorylated forms in cell division. Thus, we observed by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays that CRMP-2 differentially colocalizes with the mitotic spindle during cell division. The use of phosphodefective or phosphomimetic mutants of CRMP-2 allowed us to prove that anomalies in the phosphorylation status of CRMP-2 result in changes in the mitotic tempo, and increments in the number of multinucleated cells. Finally, here we demonstrate that CRMP-2 phosphorylation impairment, or silencing induces p53 expression and promotes apoptosis through caspase 3 activation. These results pointed to CRMP-2 phosphorylation as a prognostic marker and potential new target to be explored in cancer therapy.
Autores: Freire Salinas, Francisco Javier; Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; De Biurrun Baquedano, Gabriel; et al.
ISSN   1522-8002  Vol.   15    8  2013  págs.   913 - 924
The association between inflammation and lung tumor development has been clearly demonstrated. However, little is known concerning the molecular events preceding the development of lung cancer. In this study, we characterize a chemically induced lung cancer mouse model in which lung cancer developed in the presence of silicotic chronic inflammation. Silica-induced lung inflammation increased the incidence and multiplicity of lung cancer in mice treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine, a carcinogen found in tobacco smoke. Histologic and molecular analysis revealed that concomitant chronic inflammation contributed to lung tumorigenesis through induction of preneoplastic changes in lung epithelial cells. In addition, silica-mediated inflammation generated an immunosuppressive microenvironment in which we observed increased expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), transforming growth factor-beta 1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), as well as the presence of regulatory T cells. Finally, the K-RAS mutational profile of the tumors changed from Q61R to G12D mutations in the inflammatory milieu. In summary, we describe some of the early molecular changes associated to lung carcinogenesis in a chronic inflammatory microenvironment and provide novel information concerning the mechanisms underlying the formation and the fate of preneoplastic lesions in the silicotic lung.
Autores: de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; Blanco Barrenechea, David; Alcaide Ocaña, Ana Belén; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN   1932-6203  Vol.   8    4  2013  págs.   e60260
Current or former smokers expressing a well-defined disease characteristic such as emphysema, has a specific plasma cytokine profile. This includes a decrease of cytokines mainly implicated in activation of apoptosis or decrease of immunosurveillance. This information should be taken into account when evaluated patients with tobacco respiratory diseases
Autores: Corrales, L; Ajona, D; Rafail, S; et al.
Revista: The Journal of Immunology
ISSN   0022-1767  Vol.   189    9  2012  págs.   4674 - 4683
The complement system contributes to various immune and inflammatory diseases, including cancer. In this study, we investigated the capacity of lung cancer cells to activate complement and characterized the consequences of complement activation on tumor progression. We focused our study on the production and role of the anaphylatoxin C5a, a potent immune mediator generated after complement activation. We first measured the capacity of lung cancer cell lines to deposit C5 and release C5a. C5 deposition, after incubation with normal human serum, was higher in lung cancer cell lines than in nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells. Notably, lung malignant cells produced complement C5a even in the absence of serum. We also found a significant increase of C5a in plasma from patients with non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that the local production of C5a is followed by its systemic diffusion. The contribution of C5a to lung cancer growth in vivo was evaluated in the Lewis lung cancer model. Syngeneic tumors of 3LL cells grew slower in mice treated with an antagonist of the C5a receptor. C5a did not modify 3LL cell proliferation in vitro but induced endothelial cell chemotaxis and blood-vessels formation. C5a also contributed to the immunosuppressive microenvironment required for tumor growth. In particular, blockade of C5a receptor significantly reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells and immunomodulators ARG1, CTLA-4, IL-6, IL-10, LAG3, and PDL1 (B7H1). In conclusion, lung cancer cells have the capacity to generate C5a, a molecule that creates a favorable tumor microenvironment for lung cancer progression.
Autores: Pajares Villandiego, María José; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; Larrayoz Ilundain, Marta; et al.
Revista: Journal of Clinical Oncology
ISSN   0732-183X  Vol.   30    10  2012  págs.   1129 - 1136
Purpose: Antiangiogenic therapies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway have yielded more modest clinical benefit to patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than initially expected. Clinical data suggest a distinct biologic role of the VEGF pathway in the different histologic subtypes of lung cancer. To clarify the influence of histologic differentiation in the prognostic relevance of VEGF-mediated signaling in NSCLC, we performed a concomitant analysis of the expression of three key elements of the VEGF pathway in the earliest stages of the following two principal histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). Patients and Methods: We evaluated tumor cell expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1, and VEGFR2 using automatic immunostaining in a series of 298 patients with early-stage NSCLC recruited as part of the multicenter European Early Lung Cancer Detection Group project. A score measuring the VEGF signaling pathway was calculated by adding the tumor cell expression value of VEGF and its two receptors. The results were validated in two additional independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. Results: The combination of high VEGF, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 protein expression was associated with lower risk of disease progression in early SCC (univariate analysis, P = .008; multivariate analysis, hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.92; P = .02). The results were validated in two independent patient cohorts, confirming the favorable prognostic value of high VEGF signaling score in early lung SCC. Conclusion: Our results clearly indicate that the combination of high expression of the three key elements in the VEGF pathway is associated with a good prognosis in patients with early SCC but not in patients with ADC.
Autores: Vallés Díez, Iñaki; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Segura Ruiz, Victor; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN   1932-6203  Vol.   7    8  2012  págs.   e42086
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Several alterations in RNA metabolism have been found in lung cancer cells; this suggests that RNA metabolism-related molecules are involved in the development of this pathology. In this study, we searched for RNA metabolism-related genes that exhibit different expression levels between normal and tumor lung tissues. We identified eight genes differentially expressed in lung adenocarcinoma microarray datasets. Of these, seven were up-regulated whereas one was down-regulated. Interestingly, most of these genes had not previously been associated with lung cancer. These genes play diverse roles in mRNA metabolism: three are associated with the spliceosome (ASCL3L1, SNRPB and SNRPE), whereas others participate in RNA-related processes such as translation (MARS and MRPL3), mRNA stability (PCBPC1), mRNA transport (RAE), or mRNA editing (ADAR2, also known as ADARB1). Moreover, we found a high incidence of loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 21q22.3, where the ADAR2 locus is located, in NSCLC cell lines and primary tissues, suggesting that the downregulation of ADAR2 in lung cancer is associated with specific genetic losses. Finally, in a series of adenocarcinoma patients, the expression of five of the deregulated genes (ADAR2, MARS, RAE, SNRPB and SNRPE) correlated with prognosis. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that changes in RNA metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, and identify new potential targets for the treatment of this disease.
Autores: Valencia Leoz, Karmele; Ormazabal Goicoechea, Cristina; Zandueta Pascual, Carolina; et al.
ISSN   1078-0432  Vol.   18    4  2012  págs.   969 - 980
Purpose: We investigated the role of the collagen-binding receptor discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR1) in the initiation and development of bone metastasis. Experimental Design: We conducted immunohistochemical analyses in a cohort of 83 lung cancer specimens and examined phosphorylation status in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines. Adhesion, chemotaxis, invasiveness, metalloproteolytic, osteoclastogenic, and apoptotic assays were conducted in DDR1-silenced cells. In vivo, metastatic osseous homing and colonization were assessed in a murine model of metastasis. Results: DDR1 was expressed in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines, and high DDR1 levels in human lung tumors were associated with poor survival. Knockdown (shDDR1) cells displayed unaltered growth kinetics in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, shDDR1 cells showed reduced invasiveness in collagen matrices and increased apoptosis in basal conditions and induced apoptosis in vitro. More importantly, conditioned media of DDR1-knockdown cells decreased osteoclastogenic activity in vitro. Consequently, in a model of tumor metastasis to bone, lack of DDR1 showed decreased metastatic activity associated with reduced tumor burden and osteolytic lesions. These effects were consistent with a substantial reduction in the number of cells reaching the bone compartment. Moreover, intratibial injection of shDDR1 cells significantly decreased bone tumor burden, suggesting impaired colonization ability that was highly dependent on the bone microenvironment. Conclusions: Disruption of DDR1 hampers tumor cell survival, leading to impaired early tumor-bone engagement during skeletal homing. Furthermore, inhibition of DDR1 crucially alters bone colonization. We suggest that DDR1 represents a novel therapeutic target involved in bone metastasis.
Autores: Han, N.; Dol, Z.; Vasieva, O.; et al.
ISSN   1019-6439  Vol.   41    1  2012  págs.   242 - 252
Clinically, our ability to predict disease outcome for patients with early stage lung cancer is currently poor. To address this issue, tumour specimens were collected at surgery from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients as part of the European Early Lung Cancer (EUELC) consortium. The patients were followed-up for three years post-surgery and patients who suffered progressive disease (PD, tumour recurrence, metastasis or a second primary) or remained disease-free (DF) during follow-up were identified. RNA from both tumour and adjacent-normal lung tissue was extracted from patients and subjected to microarray expression profiling. These samples included 36 adenocarcinomas and 23 squamous cell carcinomas from both PD and DF patients. The microarray data was subject to a series of systematic bioinformatics analyses at gene, network and transcription factor levels. The focus of these analyses was 2-fold: firstly to determine whether there were specific biomarkers capable of differentiating between PD and DF patients, and secondly, to identify molecular networks which may contribute to the progressive tumour phenotype. The experimental design and analyses performed permitted the clear differentiation between PD and DF patients using a set of biomarkers implicated in neuroendocrine signalling and allowed the inference of a set of transcription factors whose activity may differ according to disease outcome. Potential links between the biomarkers, the transcription factors and the genes p21/CDKN1A and Myc, which have previously been implicated in NSCLC development, were revealed by a combination of pathway analysis and microarray meta-analysis. These findings suggest that neuroendocrine-related genes, potentially driven through p21/CDKN1A and Myc, are closely linked to whether or not a NSCLC patient will have poor clinical outcome.
Autores: Muñoz Barrutia, María Arrate; Ceresa, Mario; Artaechevarria Artieda, Xabier; et al.
ISSN   1687-4188  Vol.   2012  2012  págs.   734734
Objective. To define the sensitivity of microcomputed tomography- (micro-CT-) derived descriptors for the quantification of lung damage caused by elastase instillation. Materials and Methods. The lungs of 30 elastase treated and 30 control A/J mice were analyzed 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours and 7 and 17 days after elastase instillation using (i) breath-hold-gated micro-CT, (ii) pulmonary function tests (PFTs), (iii) RT-PCR for RNA cytokine expression, and (iv) histomorphometry. For the latter, an automatic, parallel software toolset was implemented that computes the airspace enlargement descriptors: mean linear intercept (L(m)) and weighted means of airspace diameters (D(0), D(1), and D(2)). A Support Vector Classifier was trained and tested based on three nonhistological descriptors using D(2) as ground truth. Results. D(2) detected statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between the groups at all time points. Furthermore, D(2) at 1 hour (24 hours) was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than D(2) at 24 hours (7 days). The classifier trained on the micro-CT-derived descriptors achieves an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.95 well above the others (PFTS AUC = 0.71; cytokine AUC = 0.88). Conclusion. Micro-CT-derived descriptors are more sensitive than the other methods compared, to detect in vivo early signs of the disease.
Autores: Seijo Maceiras, Luis Miguel; Montuenga Badía, Luis; Zulueta Frances, Javier Joseph
ISSN   0027-8874  Vol.   104    3  2012  págs.   254
Autores: Antón Ibáñez, Iker; Molina Buey, Eva; Luis-Ravelo Salazar, Diego; et al.
ISSN   1073-449X  Vol.   186    1  2012  págs.   96 - 105
Rationale: Efficient metastasis requires survival and adaptation of tumor cells to stringent conditions imposed by the extracellular milieu. Identification of critical survival signaling pathways in tumor cells might unveil novel targets relevant in disease progression. Objectives: To investigate the contribution of activated protein C (APC) and its receptor (endothelial protein C receptor [EPCR]) in animal models of lung cancer metastasis and in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Signaling pathway triggered by APC/EPCR and its relevance in apoptosis was studied in vitro. Functional significance was assessed by silencing and blocking antibodies in several in vivo models of lung cancer metastasis in athymic nude Foxn1(nu) mice. We examined EPCR levels using a microarray dataset of 107 patients. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed in an independent cohort of 295 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Measurements and Main Results: The effects of APC binding to EPCR rapidly triggered Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways, leading to attenuated in vitro apoptosis. In vivo, silencing of EPCR expression or blocking APC/EPCR interaction reduced infiltration in the target organ, resulting in impaired prometastatic activity. Moreover, overexpression of EPCR induced an increased metastatic activity to target organs. Analysis of clinical samples showed a robust association between high EPCR levels and poor prognosis, particularly in stage I patients. Conclusions: EPCR and its ligand APC promote cell survival that contributes to tumor cell endurance to stress favoring prometastatic activity of lung adenocarcinoma. EPCR/APC is a novel target of relevance in the clinical outcome of early-stage lung cancer.
Autores: Thunnissen, FB; Prinsen, C; Hold, B; et al.
Revista: Lung Cancer
ISSN   0169-5002  Vol.   75    2  2012  págs.   156 - 160
Autores: Artaechevarria Artieda, Xabier; Blanco Barrenechea, David; De Biurrun Baquedano, Gabriel; et al.
Revista: European Radiology
ISSN   0938-7994  Vol.   21    5  2011  págs.   954-962
Autores: Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Larrayoz Ilundain, Marta; et al.
ISSN   0008-5472  Vol.   71    Supl. 8  2011 
Autores: Ponz Sarvisé, Mariano; Nguewa, Paul; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   1078-0432  Vol.   17    12  2011  págs.   4155 -4166
Autores: Larzábal Primo, Leyre; Nguewa, Paul; Pio Osés, Rubén; et al.
Revista: British Journal of Cancer
ISSN   0007-0920  Vol.   105    10  2011  págs.   1608-1614
Autores: Ceresa, M; Bastarrika Alemañ, Gorka; de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; et al.
Revista: Academic Radiology
ISSN   1076-6332  Vol.   18    11  2011  págs.   1382-1390
Autores: Hsu, Yi-Fan; Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Corrales Pecino, Leticia; et al.
Revista: Molecular Cancer
ISSN   1476-4598  Vol.   9  2010  págs.   1476 - 4598
Background: Cetuximab, an antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), increases survival in patients with advanced EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer when administrated in combination with chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the role of complement activation in the antitumor mechanism of this therapeutic drug. Results: EGFR-expressing lung cancer cell lines were able to bind cetuximab and initiate complement activation by the classical pathway, irrespective of the mutational status of EGFR. This activation led to deposition of complement components and increase in complement-mediated cell death. The influence of complement activation on the activity of cetuximab in vivo was evaluated in xenografts of A549 lung cancer cells on nude mice. A549 cells express wild-type EGFR and have a KRAS mutation. Cetuximab activity against A549 xenografts was highly dependent on complement activation, since complement depletion completely abrogated the antitumor efficacy of cetuximab. Moreover, cetuximab activity was significantly higher on A549 cells in which a complement inhibitor, factor H, was genetically downregulated. Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that the in vivo antitumor activity of cetuximab can be associated with a complement-mediated immune response. These results may have important implications for the development of new cetuximab-based therapeutic strategies and for the identification of markers that predict clinical response.
Autores: Pio Osés, Rubén; García López, José Javier; Corrales Pecino, Leticia; et al.
Revista: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention
ISSN   1055-9965  Vol.   19    10  2010  págs.   2655 - 2672
Autores: Pio Osés, Rubén (Autor de correspondencia); Blanco Barrenechea, David; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN   1471-2164  Vol.   11  2010  págs.   352
Background: Microarrays strategies, which allow for the characterization of thousands of alternative splice forms in a single test, can be applied to identify differential alternative splicing events. In this study, a novel splice array approach was developed, including the design of a high-density oligonucleotide array, a labeling procedure, and an algorithm to identify splice events. Results: The array consisted of exon probes and thermodynamically balanced junction probes. Suboptimal probes were tagged and considered in the final analysis. An unbiased labeling protocol was developed using random primers. The algorithm used to distinguish changes in expression from changes in splicing was calibrated using internal non-spliced control sequences. The performance of this splice array was validated with artificial constructs for CDC6, VEGF, and PCBP4 isoforms. The platform was then applied to the analysis of differential splice forms in lung cancer samples compared to matched normal lung tissue. Overexpression of splice isoforms was identified for genes encoding CEACAM1, FHL-1, MLPH, and SUSD2. None of these splicing isoforms had been previously associated with lung cancer. Conclusions: This methodology enables the detection of alternative splicing events in complex biological samples, providing a powerful tool to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer and other pathologies.
Autores: Artaechevarria Artieda, Xabier; Blanco Barrenechea, David; Pérez-Martín, D; et al.
Revista: European Radiology
ISSN   0938-7994  Vol.   20    11  2010  págs.   2600 - 2608
Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of using automatic quantitative analysis of breath hold gated micro-CT images to detect and monitor disease in a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and to compare image-based measurements with pulmonary function tests and histomorphometry. Material and methods Forty-nine A/J mice were used, divided into control and inflammation groups. Chronic inflammation was induced by silica aspiration. Fourteen animals were imaged at baseline, and 4, 14, and 34 weeks after silica aspiration, using micro-CT synchronized with ventilator-induced breath holds. Lung input impedance was measured as well using forced oscillation techniques. Five additional animals from each group were killed after micro-CT for comparison with histomorphometry. Results At all time points, micro-CT measurements show statistically significant differences between the two groups, while first differences in functional test parameters appear at 14 weeks. Micro-CT measurements correlate well with histomorphometry and discriminate diseased and healthy groups better than functional tests. Conclusion Longitudinal studies using breath hold gated micro-CT are feasible on the silica-induced model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and automatic measurements from micro-CT images correlate well with histomorphometry, being more sensitive than functional tests to detect lung damage in this model.
Autores: Hernández Martínez, Igor; Moreno Arribas, José; Zandueta Pascual, Carolina; et al.
Revista: Oncogene
ISSN   0950-9232  Vol.   29    26  2010  págs.   3758 - 3769
ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) are transmembrane proteins involved in a variety of physiological processes and tumorigenesis. Recently, ADAM8 has been associated with poor prognosis of lung cancer. However, its contribution to tumorigenesis in the context of lung cancer metastasis remains unknown. Native ADAM8 expression levels were lower in lung cancer cell lines. In contrast, we identified and characterized two novel spliced isoforms encoding truncated proteins, Delta18a and Delta14', which were present in several tumor cell lines and not in normal cells. Overexpression of Delta18a protein resulted in enhanced invasive activity in vitro. ADAM8 and its Delta14' isoform expression levels were markedly increased in lung cancer cells, in conditions mimicking tumor microenvironment. Moreover, addition of supernatants from Delta14'-overexpressing cells resulted in a significant increase in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase+ cells in osteoclast cultures in vitro. These findings were associated with increased pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 protein levels. Furthermore, lung cancer cells overexpressing Delta14' increased prometastatic activity with a high tumor burden and increased osteolysis in a murine model of bone metastasis. Thus, the expression of truncated forms of ADAM8 by the lung cancer cells may result in the specific upregulation of their invasive and osteoclastogenic activities in the bone microenvironment. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of tumor-induced osteolysis in metastatic bone colonization.
Autores: Ezponda Itoiz, Teresa; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; et al.
Revista: Clinical cancer research
ISSN   1078-0432  Vol.   16    16  2010  págs.   4113 - 4125
PURPOSE: SF2/ASF is a splicing factor recently described as an oncoprotein. In the present work, we examined the role of SF2/ASF in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and analyzed the molecular mechanisms involved in SF2/ASF-related carcinogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: SF2/ASF protein levels were analyzed in 81 NSCLC patients by immunohistochemistry. SF2/ASF downregulation cellular models were generated using small interfering RNAs, and the effects on proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated. Survivin and SF2/ASF expression in lung tumors was analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Survival curves and log-rank test were used to identify the association between the expression of the proteins and time to progression. RESULTS: Overexpression of SF2/ASF was found in most human primary NSCLC tumors. In vitro downregulation of SF2/ASF induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines. This effect was associated with a reduction in the expression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein widely upregulated in cancer. In fact, SF2/ASF specifically bound survivin mRNA and enhanced its translation, via a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway-dependent mechanism, through the phosphorylation and inactivation of the translational repressor 4E-BP1. Moreover, SF2/ASF promoted the stability of survivin mRNA. A strong correlation was observed between the expression of SF2/ASF and survivin in tumor biopsies from NSCLC patients, supporting the concept that survivin expression levels are controlled by SF2/ASF. Furthermore, combined expression of these proteins was associated with prognosis. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel data on the mTORC1- and survivin-dependent mechanisms of SF2/ASF-related carcinogenic
Autores: Catena, R.; Larzábal Primo, Leyre; Larrayoz Ilundain, Marta; et al.
ISSN   1476-4598  Vol.   9    320  2010  págs.   1 - 14
Background: Different isoforms of VEGF-A (mainly VEGF(121), VEGF(165) and VEGF(189)) have been shown to display particular angiogenic properties in the generation of a functional tumor vasculature. Recently, a novel class of VEGF-A isoforms, designated as VEGF(xxx)b, generated through alternative splicing, have been described. Previous studies have suggested that these isoforms may inhibit angiogenesis. In the present work we have produced recombinant VEGF(121/165)b proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris and constructed vectors to overexpress these isoforms and assess their angiogenic potential. Results: Recombinant VEGF(121/165)b proteins generated either in yeasts or mammalian cells activated VEGFR2 and its downstream effector ERK1/2, although to a lesser extent than VEGF(165). Furthermore, treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF(121/165)b increased cell proliferation compared to untreated cells, although such stimulation was lower than that induced by VEGF165. Moreover, in vivo angiogenesis assays confirmed angiogenesis stimulation by VEGF(121/165)b isoforms. A549 and PC 3 cells overexpressing VEGF(121)b or VEGF(165)b (or carrying the PCDNA3.1 empty vector, as control) and xenotransplanted into nude mice showed increased tumor volume and angiogenesis compared to controls. To assess whether the VEGF(xxx)b isoforms are differentially expressed in tumors compared to healthy tissues, immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on a breast cancer tissue microarray. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in both VEGF(xxx)b and total VEGF-A protein expression in infiltrating ductal carcinomas compared to normal breasts was observed. A positive significant correlation (r = 0.404, p = 0.033) between VEGF(xxx)b and total VEGF-A was found. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that VEGF(121/165)b are not anti-angiogenic, but weakly angiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A. In addition, VEGF(xxx)b isoforms are up-regulated in breast cancer in comparison with non malignant breast tissues. These results are to be taken into account when considering a possible use of VEGF(121/165)b-based therapies in patients.
Autores: Montuenga Badía, Luis; Bodegas Frías, María Elena; De Andrea, Carlos Eduardo; et al.
Libro: Técnicas en histología y biología celular
2014  págs.   35 - 60
Autores: Esteban Ruiz, F. J.; Calvo González, Alfonso; Montuenga Badía, Luis
Libro: Técnicas en histología y biología celular
2014  págs.   85 - 101
Autores: Montuenga Badía, Luis; García Corchón, María Carmen; Zudaire Ripa, María Isabel; et al.
Libro: Técnicas en histología y biología celular
2014  págs.   127 - 154
Autores: Montuenga Badía, Luis; Bodegas Frías, María Elena; De Andrea, Carlos Eduardo; et al.
Libro: Técnicas en histología y biología celular
2014  págs.   61 - 84