Nuestros investigadores

Carlos Manuel Gamazo de la Rasilla

Líneas de investigación
Adyuvantes para vacunación o inmunoterapia
Índice H
37, (Scopus, 26/02/2019)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Brotons, Ana; Cenoz, S.; et al.
Revista: VACCINES
ISSN 2076-393X  Vol. 8  Nº 1  2020  págs. 11
Autores: Brotons, Ana; Gamazo, C; Martín-Arbella, N; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0022-3549  Vol. 108  Nº 7  2019  págs. 2421 - 2429
Peanut allergy is one of the most prevalent and severe of food allergies with no available cure. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of an oral immunotherapy based on the use of a roasted peanut extract encapsulated in nanoparticles with immunoadjuvant properties. For this, a polymer conjugate formed by the covalent binding of mannosamine to the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride was first synthetized and characterized. Then, the conjugate was used to prepare nanoparticles with an important capability to diffuse through the mucus layer and reach, in a large extent, the intestinal epithelium, including Peyer's patches. Their immunotherapeutic potential was evaluated in a model of presensitized CD1 mice to peanut. After completing therapy, mice underwent an intraperitoneal challenge with peanut extract. Nanoparticle-treatment was associated with both less serious anaphylaxis symptoms and higher survival rates than control, confirming the protective effect of this formulation against the challenge.
Autores: Erhard, Álvaro Armin; et al.
Revista: VACCINE
ISSN 0264-410X  Vol. 7  Nº 4  2019  págs. 159
Intradermal (ID) immunization is of increasing interest due to the easy accessibility and excellent immunogenic properties of the skin. Among ID immunization methods, dissolving microneedles (MNs) have appeared as an alternative to traditional hypodermic immunization, offering many advantages, such as being an easily administered method, with no need for health personnel, painless, and avoiding the use of needles and sharp wastage. In this study, an affordable and easy-to-produce MNs method was developed based on aqueous blends of 30% w/w poly (methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride). As an antigen model, a subunit vaccine candidate based on outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri was used. Both unloaded and antigen-loaded MNs were synthetized and characterized. The MNs were successfully validated in an in vitro Parafilm M skin model and in a pig skin ex vivo model. Biodistribution studies were performed in BALB/c mice using 99mTcO4- radiolabeled samples. Results indicated that the vesicle vaccine was successfully released from the MNs and targeted gastrointestinal tract after 6 h post-administration. In vivo immunization and protection studies were performed in BALB/c mice. Mice were intradermally immunized through ear skin with one single dose of 200 g antigenic complex, eliciting the production of specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA.
Autores: Quincoces, Gemma; Erhard, Álvaro Armin; Collantes M; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING
ISSN 1619-7070  Vol. 46  Nº SUPPL 1  2019  págs. S315 - S316
Autores: Brotons, Ana; Martín-Arbella, N; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG DELIVERY
ISSN 1742-5247  Vol. 15  Nº 7  2018  págs. 675 - 686
Introduction: Allergic diseases constitute one of the most common causes of chronic illness in developed countries. The main mechanism determining allergy is an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 response towards Th2. Areas covered: This review describes the mechanisms underlying the natural tolerance to food components and the development of an allergic response in sensitized individuals. Furthermore, therapeutic approaches proposed to manage these abnormal immunologic responses food are also presented and discussed. Expert opinion: In the past, management of food allergies has consisted of the education of patients to avoid the ingestion of the culprit food and to initiate the therapy (e.g. self-injectable epinephrine) in case of accidental ingestion. In recent years, sublingual/oral immunotherapies based on the continuous administration of small amounts of the allergen have been developed. However, the long periods of time needed to obtain significant desensitization and the generation of adverse effects, limit their use. In order to solve these drawbacks, strategies to induce tolerance are being studied, such as the use of either adjuvant immunotherapy in order to facilitate the reversion of the Th2 response towards Th1 or the use of monoclonal antibodies to block the main immunogenic elements.
Autores: Gamazo, C, (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
Revista: THERAPEUTIC DELIVERY
ISSN 2041-5990  Vol. 10  Nº 2  2018  págs. 63 - 80
Under many circumstances, prophylactic immunizations are considered as the only possible strategy to control infectious diseases. Considerable efforts are typically invested in immunogen selection but, erroneously, the route of administration is not usually a major concern despite the fact that it can strongly influence efficacy. The skin is now considered a key component of the lymphatic system with tremendous potential as a target for vaccination. The purpose of this review is to present the immunological basis of the skin-associated lymphoid tissue, so as to provide understanding of the skin vaccination strategies. Several strategies are currently being developed for the transcutaneous delivery of antigens. The classical, mechanical or chemical disruptions versus the newest approaches based on microneedles for antigen delivery through the skin are discussed herein.
Autores: Brotons, Ana; Gamazo, C; Martín-Arbella, N; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES
ISSN 0141-8130  Vol. 110  2018  págs. 328 - 335
The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential application of an original oral immunotherapy, based on the use of nanoparticles, against an experimentally induced peanut allergy. In this context, a roasted peanut extract, containing the main allergenic proteins, were encapsulated into poly(anhydride) nanoparticles. The resulting peanut-loaded nanoparticles (PE-NP) displayed a mean size of about 150nm and a significantly lower surface hydrophobicity than empty nanoparticles (NP). This low hydrophobicity correlated well with a higher in vitro diffusion in pig intestinal mucus than NP and an important in vivo capability to reach the intestinal epithelium and Peyer's patches. The immunotherapeutic capability of PE-NP was evaluated in a model of pre-sensitized CDI mice to peanut. After completing therapy of three doses of peanut extract, either free or encapsulated into nanoparticles, mice underwent an intraperitoneal challenge. Anaphylaxis was evaluated by means of assessment of symptom scores and mouse mast cell protease-1 levels (mMCPT-1). PE-NP treatment was associated with significant lower levels of mMCPT-1, and a significant survival rate after challenge, confirming the protective effect of this formulation against the challenge. In summary, this nanoparticle-based formulation might be a valuable strategy for peanut-specific immunotherapy.
Autores: Camacho, Ana Isabel; Zúñiga-Ripa, Amaia; et al.
Revista: VACCINE
ISSN 0264-410X  Vol. 36  Nº 49  2018  págs. 7509 - 7519
Disruption of one or more components of the Tol-Pal system, involved in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, has been proposed as a method to increase the yield obtained from natural production of outer membrane vesicles (OMV). We present a new OMV-based product, obtained from genetically modified Shigella flexneri 2a with a non-polar deletion in tolR and heat-inactivated (HT-Delta tolR). The S. flexneri Delta tolR strain lead to a higher release of vesicles, more than 8-times when compared to the yield obtained from chemically inactivated wild type strain. S. flexneri mutant strain appeared to be more sensitive to different chemical compounds, including antibiotics, bile salts or human complement and it was also less virulent in both in vitro and in vivo assays. The mutation produced some changes in the LPS O-chain and protein expression. S. flexneri Delta tolR was enriched in long and very long LPS O-chain and expressed a different pattern of surface proteins or lipoproteins. In vitro toxicity and activation properties were determined in Raw 267.4 macrophage cell line. HT-Delta tolR antigenic complex was non-cytotoxic and activation markers, such as MHC-II or CD40, were highly expressed during incubation with this product. Finally, preliminary studies on the antibody response elicited by HT-Delta tolR demonstrated a robust and diverse response in mice. Considering these promising results, HT-Delta toIR antigenic extract appears as a new potential vaccine candidate to face shigellosis.
Autores: Araújo Pereira, M.; de Siqueira Ferraz-Carvalho, R.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0939-6411  Vol. 127  2018  págs. 51 - 60
Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy. Traditional allergen immunotherapy presents several clinical drawbacks that can be reduced by using nanoparticles-basedallergen-delivery systems, modulating the immune response towards a protective one. In this context, the goal of this work was to assess the potential of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NP) for cashew nut oral immunization. Cashew nut allergens-loaded nanoparticles (CNE-NP) were prepared by solvent displacement method. After nanoparticles characterization, oral immunomodulation ability was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that CNE-NP induced a higher Th1/Th2 ratio in comparison with animals immunized with free cashew nut proteins. Indeed, a decrease in splenic Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and an enhancement of pro-Th1 (IL-12 and IFN-¿) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was observed. Furthermore, mice orally immunized with CNE-NP presented an increased expansion of CD4+ T regulatory cells, such as CD4+Foxp3+ and CD4+LAP+, in the mesenteric lymph nodes. In conclusion, oral immunization with a single dose of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with cashew nut proteins leaded to a pro-Th1 and Treg immune response. Furthermore, their immunomodulatory properties could be introduced as a new approach for management of cashew nut allergy.
Autores: Berzosa, M.; et al.
Revista: VACCINES
ISSN 2076-393X  Vol. 5  Nº 4  2017 
The immunology of pregnancy is an evolving consequence of multiple reciprocal interactions between the maternal and the fetal-placental systems. The immune response must warrant the pregnancy outcome (including tolerance to paternal antigens), but at the same time, efficiently respond to pathogenic challenges. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. This review aims to give an overview of the current rationale on the maternal vaccination strategies for the protection of the newborn pig against ETEC. Newborn piglets are immunodeficient and naturally dependent on the maternal immunity transferred by colostrum for protectiona maternal immunity that can be obtained by vaccinating the sow during pregnancy. Our current knowledge of the interactions between the pathogen strategies, virulence factors, and the host immune system is aiding the better design of vaccination strategies in this particular and challenging host status. Challenges include the need for better induction of immunity at the mucosal level with the appropriate use of adjuvants, able to induce the most appropriate and long-lasting protective immune response. These include nanoparticle-based adjuvants for oral immunization. Experiences can be extrapolated to other species, including humans.
Autores: Gamazo, C, (Autor de correspondencia); D'Amelio, Carmen Mariana ; Gastaminza, Gabriel; et al.
Revista: HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS
ISSN 2164-5515  Vol. 13  Nº 10  2017  págs. 2416-27
Allergic diseases are reaching epidemic proportions in developed countries. In particular, food allergy is increasing in prevalence and severity, thus becoming an important socioeconomic burden. Numerous cell types and cell populations, which form an intricate and balanced network, are involved in an immune response. This balance is occasionally disturbed, leading to the onset of different diseases, such as allergic diseases. Antihistamines and corticosteroids provide some degree of relief from the symptoms of allergic conditions. However, the only treatment that can revert the disease is immunotherapy. Nevertheless, specific immunotherapy has at least 2 major drawbacks: it is time-consuming, and it can produce local and even systemic allergic side effects. Immunotherapy's potential goes beyond our current knowledge of the immune response; nevertheless, we can still design strategies to reach a safer immune modulation for treating allergies. This review deals with the use of adjuvants to reduce the undesirable side effects associated with specific allergen immunotherapy. For example, nanoparticles used as immunoadjuvants are offering promising results in preclinical assays.
Autores: Braz, L.; Grenhad, A.; Ferreira, D.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES
ISSN 0141-8130  Vol. 96  2017  págs. 786 - 797
This work proposes the design of nanoparticles based on locus bean gum (LBG) and chitosan to be used as oral immunoadjuvant for vaccination purposes. LBG-based nanoparticles were prepared by mild polyelectrolyte complexation between chitosan (CS) and a synthesized LBG sulfate derivative (LBGS). Morphological characterization suggested that nanoparticles present a solid and compact structure with spherical-like shape. Sizes around 180-200nm and a positive surface charge between +9mV and +14mV were obtained. CS/LBGS nanoparticles did not affect cell viability of Caco-2 cells after 3h and 24h of exposure when tested at concentrations up to 1.0mg/mL. Two model antigens (a particulate acellular extract HE of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and ovalbumin as soluble antigen) were associated to CS/LBGS nanoparticles with efficiencies around 26% for ovalbumin and 32% for HE, which resulted in loading capacities up to 12%. The process did not affect the antigenicity of the associated antigens. BALB/c mice were orally immunized with ovalbumin-loaded nanoparticles (100¿g), and results indicate an adjuvant effect of the CS/LBGS nanoparticles, eliciting a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Thus, CS/LBGS nanoparticles are promising as antigen mucosal delivery strategy, with particular interest for oral administration.
Autores: Pastor, Y.; Camacho, Ana Isabel; Gil, Ana Gloria; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
ISSN 0022-2615  Vol. 66  Nº 7  2017  págs. 946 - 958
Purpose. The aim of this study was to develop an immunogenic protective product against Shigella flexneri by employing a simple and safe heat treatment-based strategy. Methodology. The physicochemical characteristics of naturally produced (OMV) and heat-induced (HT) outer-membrane vesicles from S. flexneri were examined, including a comparison of the protein content of the products. Toxicological and biodistribution studies, and a preliminary experiment to examine the protective effectiveness of HT in a murine model of S. flexneri infection, were also included. Results. This method simultaneously achieves complete bacterial inactivation and the production of the HT vaccine product, leading to a safe working process. The obtained HT complex presented a similar morphology (electron microscopy) and chemical composition to the classical OMV, although it was enriched in some immunogens, such as lipoproteins, OmpA or OmpC, among others. The HT formulation was not toxic and biodistribution studies performed in mice demonstrated that the vaccine product remained in the small intestine after nasal administration. Finally, a single dose of HT administered nasally was able to protect mice against S. flexneri 2a. Conclusion. The convenient and safe manufacturing process, and the preliminary biological evaluation, support the use of the self-adjuvanted HT complex as a new vaccine candidate to face shigellosis. Further development is required, such as additional immune analyses, to evaluate whether this new subunit vaccine can be useful in achieving full protection against Shigella.
Autores: Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF DRUG DELIVERY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ISSN 1773-2247  Vol. 42  2017  págs. 207 - 214
This work describes the development of a nanoemulsion composition suitable for the topical administration of vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles. The application onto bare skin of outer membrane antigens from Salmonella enterica (size between 20 and 100 nm), included in a nanoemulsion, induced a clear specific antibody response. In contrast to other semisolid formulations used (i.e. simple and polyethyleneglycol ointments), the occlusive effect provided by the nanoemulsion together with the penetration enhancer effect of Labrasol® and Plurol® oleique, increased antigen uptake by epidermal and transfollicular routes. Nevertheless, when the antigenic complex was loaded into poly(anhydride) nanoparticles and then incorporated in the nanoemulsion, the specific IgG response in serum was significantly lower. These results suggest that the higher size of nanoparticles (about 230 nm) and their non-deformable nature could hamper the arrival of the antigen to the immunological inducer sites when administered on the skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that these bacterial vesicles were able to penetrate the skin reaching the dermis only when antigens were administered in the form of nanoemulsion. Further research will determine the full potential of this formulation for topical application of this specific type of vaccines.
Autores: González-Navarro, CJ; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: NANOMEDICINE-NANOTECHNOLOGY BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
ISSN 1549-9634  Vol. 13  Nº 1  2017  págs. 103 - 110
Zein nanoparticles were evaluated as nanocarriers to promote the oral bioavailability of quercetin and, thus, improve its anti-inflammatory effect on a mouse model of induced endotoxemia. For this purpose, the flavonoid and 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin were encapsulated in zein nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles displayed a mean size of about 300nm and the payload was calculated to be close to 70¿g/mg nanoparticle. The release of quercetin from zein nanoparticles followed a zero-order kinetic. After oral administration, nanoparticles provided high and sustained levels of quercetin in plasma and the relative oral bioavailability was calculated to be approx. 60%. Animals treated with quercetin-loaded nanoparticles (1 dose every two days; 1week) presented endotoxic symptoms less severe than those observed in animals treated with the oral solution of the flavonoid (1 dose every day; 1week). This was further corroborated by the significantly low circulating TNF-alpha in the quercetin-loaded nanoparticles treated mice.
Autores: Gamazo, C; Garcia-Azpiroz, M.; et al.
Revista: IMMUNOTHERAPY
ISSN 1750-743X  Vol. 9  Nº 15  2017  págs. 1205 - 1218
Background: Peanut allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis and food-related death. However, there is currently no approved immunotherapy treatment. Hence, this warrants the need for relevant and convenient animal models to test for adequate immunotherapies. Materials & methods: In this study, we compared three mouse strains: CD1, BALB/c and C57, to select a model of peanut allergy. After that, we conducted then a therapeutic study using an immunogenic peanut extract encapsulated in nanoparticles made with polymer Gantrez((R)) following the solvent displacement method. Results & conclusion: After implementing a dosing schedule with oral commercial peanut butter, the antibody responses, cytokine profiles and, above all, the anaphylaxis induced after a challenge with peanut proteins, showed that the outbred CD1 strain was the most susceptible to peanut sensitization. CD1 sensitized mice were orally immunized with three doses of the nanoparticle formulation capable of protecting them against the severe anaphylactic symptoms induced by the peanut challenge.
Autores: Sabaeifard, P.; Abdi-Ali, A.; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
ISSN 0022-2615  Vol. 66  Nº 2  2017  págs. 137 - 148
Purpose. Amikacin is one of the most effective antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, but because of its high toxicity, the use of this antibiotic has been clinically limited. In the present study, amikacin was successfully loaded into a new formulation of nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50 : 50 in order to enhance the treatment efficacy. The synthetized amikacin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with high drug loading and stability were used to eliminate P. aeruginosa cells in planktonic and biofilm states. Methodology. P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm susceptibility studies were done using the minimum biofilm eradication concentration assay. The association of fluorescently labeled amikacin-loaded nanoparticles (A-NPs) with mouse monocyte macrophage cells (RAW 264.7), and the nanoparticles ability to interact and eradicate the bacterial cells even in the form of biofilms, was investigated using Flow cytometric studies and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results. Flow cytometric studies showed that these NPs were able to interact with planktonic and biofilm bacterial cells. Moreover, following 1 h of incubation of A-NPs with 1-day-old biofilm, it was found that particles penetrate through the entire biofilm thickness. Live/dead fluorescent staining followed by CLSM analysis showed that the A-NPs were more effective than free drug in biofilm eradication. Conclusion. The good antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of A-NPs, in addition to their ability to enter macrophages without any cytotoxicity for these cells, make them a potential candidate to treat P. aeruginosa infections.
Autores: Sabaeifard, P.; Abdi-Ali, A.; Soudi, M. R.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0928-0987  Vol. 93  2016  págs. 392 - 398
Amikacin is a very effective aminoglycoside antibiotic but according to its high toxicity, the use of this antibiotic has been limited. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize amikacin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were synthetized using a solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique with different ratio of PLGA 50:50 (Resomer 502H) to drug (100:3.5, 80:3.5 and 60:3.5), two different concentrations of stabilizer (pluronic F68) (0.5% or 1%) and varied g forces to recover the final products. The most efficient formulation based on drug loading (26.0±1.3mug/mg nanoparticle) and encapsulation efficiency (76.8±3.8%) was the one obtained with 100:3.5 PLGA:drug and 0.5% luronic F68, recovered by 20,000*g for 20min. Drug release kinetic study indicated that about 50% of the encapsulated drug was released during the first hour of incubation in phospahte buffer, pH7.4, 37°C, 120rpm. Using different cell viability/cytotoxicity assays, the optimized formulation showed no toxicity against RAW macrophages after 2 and 24h of exposure. Furthermore, released drug was active and maintained its bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. These results support the effective utilization of the PLGA nanoparticle formulation for amikacin in further in vivo studies.
Autores: Ramos-Membrive, Rocio; Camacho, Ana Isabel; Quinoces, G.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING
ISSN 1619-7070  Vol. 43  2016  págs. S467 - S467
Autores: Gamazo, C; Martín-Arbella, N; Brotons, A.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0939-6411  Vol. 96  2015  págs. 454 - 463
Dealing with mucosal delivery systems means dealing with mucus. The name mucosa comes from mucus, a dense fluid enriched in glycoproteins, such as mucin, which main function is to protect the delicate mucosal epithelium. Mucus provides a barrier against physiological chemical and physical aggressors (i.e., host secreted digestive products such as bile acids and enzymes, food particles) but also against the potentially noxious microbiota and their products. Intestinal mucosa covers 400 m2 in the human host, and, as a consequence, is the major portal of entry of the majority of known pathogens. But, in turn, some microorganisms have evolved many different approaches to circumvent this barrier, a direct consequence of natural co-evolution. The understanding of these mechanisms (known as virulence factors) used to interact and/or disrupt mucosal barriers should instruct us to a rational design of nanoparticulate delivery systems intended for oral vaccination and immunotherapy. This review deals with this mimetic approach to obtain nanocarriers capable to reach the epithelial cells after oral delivery and, in parallel, induce strong and long-lasting immune and protective responses.
Autores:  et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0021-8561  Vol. 63  Nº 23  2015  págs. 5603 - 5611
Resveratrol offers pleiotropic health benefits including a reported ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production. The aim of this work was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate a resveratrol nanoparticulate formulation based on zein. For this purpose, the oral bioavailability of the encapsulated polyphenol as well as its anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of endotoxic shock was studied. The resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles displayed a mean size of 307 +/- 3 nm, with a negative zeta potential (-51.1 +/- 1.55 mV), and a polyphenol loading of 80.2 +/- 3.26 mu g/mg. In vitro, the release of resveratrol from the nanoparticles was found to be pH independent and adjusted well to the Peppas-Sahlin kinetic model, suggesting a mechanism based on the combination of diffusion and erosion of the nanoparticle matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that zein-based nanoparticles provided high and prolonged plasma levels of the polyphenol for at least 48 h. The oral bioavailability of resveratrol when administered in these nanoparticles increased up to 50% (19.2-fold higher than for the control solution of the polyphenol). Furthermore, nanoparticles administered daily for 7 days at 15 mg/kg were able to diminish the endotoxic symptoms induced in mice by the intraperitoneal administration of LPS (i.e., hypothermia, piloerection, and stillness). In addition, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were slightly lower (approximately 15%) than those observed in the control.
Autores: Gamazo, C; Bussmann, H.; Giemsa, S.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 496  Nº 2  2015  págs. 922 - 930
Understanding how nanoparticles are formed and how those processes ultimately determine the nanoparticles¿ properties and their impact on their capture by immune cells is key in vaccination studies. Accordingly, we wanted to evaluate how the previously described poly (anhydride)-based nanoparticles of the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (NP) interact with macrophages, and how this process depends on the physicochemical properties derived from the method of preparation. First, we studied the influence of the desolvation and drying processes used to obtain the nanoparticles. NP prepared by the desolvation of the polymers in acetone with a mixture of ethanol and water yielded higher mean diameters than those obtained in the presence of water (250 nm vs. 180 nm). In addition, nanoparticles dried by lyophilization presented higher negative zeta potentials than those dried by spray-drying (¿47 mV vs. ¿35 mV). Second, the influence of the NP formulation on the phagocytosis by J774 murine macrophage-like cell line was investigated. The data indicated that NPs prepared in the presence of water were at least three-times more efficiently internalized by cells than NPs prepared with the mixture of ethanol and water. Besides, lyophilized nanoparticles appeared to be more efficiently taken up by J744 cells than those dried by spray-drying. To further understand the specific mechanisms involved in the cellular internalization of NPs, different pharmacological inhibitors
Autores: Gamazo, C; Ochoa, Javier; et al.
Revista: METHODS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
ISSN 1064-3745  Vol. 1225  2015  págs. 139 - 149
Autores: Marc, M. A.; Gamazo, C;
Revista: EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG DELIVERY
ISSN 1742-5247  Vol. 12  Nº 12  2015  págs. 1851 - 1865
Gene vaccines are an interesting and emerging alternative for the prevention of infectious diseases, as well as in the treatment of other pathologies including cancer, allergies, autoimmune diseases, or even drug dependencies. When applied to the target organism, these vaccines induce the expression of encoded antigens and elicit the corresponding immune response, with the potential ability of being able to induce antibody-, helper T cell-, and cytotoxic T cell-mediated immune responses. Areas covered: Special attention is paid to the variety of adjuvants that may be co-administered to enhance and/or to modulate immune responses, and to the methods of delivery. Finally, this article reviews the efficacy data of gene vaccines against infectious diseases released from current clinical trials. Expert opinion: Taken together, this approach will have a major impact on future strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases. Better-designed nucleic acid constructs, novel delivery technologies, as well as the clarification of the mechanisms for antigen presentation will improve the potential applications of this vaccination strategy against microbial pathogens.
Autores: Gamazo, C; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Ferrer, Marta; et al.
Revista: IMMUNOTHERAPY
ISSN 1750-743X  Vol. 6  Nº 7  2014  págs. 885-897
Allergic diseases are one of the most prevalent diseases, reaching epidemic proportions in developed countries. An allergic reaction occurs after contact with an environmental protein, such as inhalants allergens (pollen, animal dander, house dust mites), or food proteins. This response is known as part of the type 2 immunity that is counterbalanced by Type 1 immunity and Tregs. Widely used allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) is a long term treatment to induce such switch from Th2 to Th1 response. However, conventional IT requires multiple allergen injections over a long period of time and is not free of risk of producing allergic reactions. As a consequence, new safer and faster immunotherapeutic methods are required. This review deals with allergen IT using nanoparticles as allergen delivery system that will allow a different way of administration, reduce dose and diminish allergen exposure to IgE bound to mast cells or basophils.
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Camacho, Ana Isabel; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL AND VACCINE IMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 1556-6811  Vol. 21  Nº 8  2014  págs. 1106 - 1112
In the last decade, peanut allergy has increased substantially. Significant differences in the prevalence among different countries are attributed to the type of thermal processing. In spite of the high prevalence and the severe reaction induced by peanuts, there is no immunotherapy available. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential application of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) as immunoadjuvants for peanut oral immunotherapy. NPs loaded with raw or roasted peanut proteins were prepared by a solvent displacement method and dried by either lyophilization or spray-drying. After physicochemical characterization, their adjuvant capacity was evaluated after oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice. All nanoparticle formulations induced a balanced T(H)1 and T(H)2 antibody response, accompanied by low specific IgE induction. In addition, oral immunization with spray-dried NPs loaded with peanut proteins was associated with a significant decrease in splenic T(H)2 cytokines (interleukin 4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-6) and enhancement of both T(H)1 (gamma interferon [IFN-¿]) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines. In conclusion, oral immunization with poly(anhydride) NPs, particularly spray-dried formulations, led to a pro-T(H)1 immune response.
Autores: Camacho, Ana Isabel; Irache, Juan M.; Gamazo, C;
Revista: EXPERT REVIEW OF VACCINES
ISSN 1476-0584  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2013  págs. 43 - 55
The burden of dysentery due to shigellosis among children in the developing world is still a major concern. A safe and efficacious vaccine against this disease is a priority, since no licensed vaccine is available. This review provides an update of vaccine achievements focusing on subunit vaccine strategies and the forthcoming strategies surrounding this approach. In particular, this review explores several aspects of the pathogenesis of shigellosis and the elicited immune response as being the basis of vaccine requirements. The use of appropriate Shigella antigens, together with the right adjuvants, may offer safety, efficacy and more convenient delivery methods for massive worldwide vaccination campaigns.
Autores: Camacho, Ana Isabel; Irache, Juan M.; et al.
Revista: METHODS
ISSN 1046-2023  Vol. 60  Nº 3  2013  págs. 264 - 268
Shigellosis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea worldwide with more than 165 million cases annually. Hence, a vaccine against this disease is a priority, but no licensed vaccine is still available. Considering target population as well as intrinsic risks of live attenuated vaccines, non-living strategies appear as the most promising candidates. Remarkably, the preservation of antigenic properties is a major concern since inactivation methods of bacteria affect these qualities. We previously reported the use of a subcellular antigen complex for vaccination against shigellosis, based on outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Shigella flexneri. Now, we describe in more detail the employment of binary ethylenimine (BEI) for inactivation of Shigella and its subsequent effect on the antigenic conservation of the vaccinal product. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of BEI treatment to completely inactivate Shigella cells without disturbing the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the OMVs. Thus, OMVs harvested after BEI inactivation were able to protect mice against an experimental infection with S. flexneri.
Autores: Camacho, Ana Isabel; Irache, Juan M.; de Souza, J.; et al.
Revista: VACCINE
ISSN 0264-410X  Vol. 31  Nº 32  2013  págs. 3288 - 3294
Shigellosis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea worldwide with more than 130 million cases annually. Hence, the research of an effective vaccine is still a priority. Unfortunately, a safe and efficacious vaccine is not available yet. We have previously demonstrated the capacity of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) to protect mice against an experimental infection with Shigella flexneri. Now, we present results on the capacity of this antigenic complex to confer a longer-term protection by oral or nasal routes when encapsulated into nanoparticles. OMVs were encapsulated in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NP) prepared by a solvent displacement method with the copolymer poly methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride. OMVs loaded into nanoparticles (NP-OMVs) were homogeneous and spherical in shape, with a size of 148nm (PdI=0.2). BALB/c mice were immunized with OMVs either free or encapsulated in nanoparticles by nasal (20¿g or 10¿g of OMVs) or oral route (100¿g or 50¿g of OMVs). All immunized animals remained in good health after administration. Challenge infection was performed intranasally on week 8th with a lethal dose of 5×10(7)CFU/mouse of S. flexneri 2a. The number of dead mice after challenge was recorded daily. Results confirmed the value of OMVs as a vaccine. By oral route, the OMV-vaccine was able to protect independently either the dose or the formulation. When vaccine was delivered by nasal route, encapsulation into NPs resulted beneficial in increasing protection from 40% up to 100% when low dose was administered. These results are extraordinary promising and put in relevance the positive effect of nanoencapsulation of the OMV subcellular vaccine.
Autores: Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 57  Nº 7  2013  págs. 3326 - 3333
The clinical management of human brucellosis is still challenging and demands in vitro active antibiotics capable of targeting the pathogen-harboring intracellular compartments. A sustained release of the antibiotic at the site of infection would make it possible to reduce the number of required doses and thus the treatment-associated toxicity. In this study, a hydrophobically modified gentamicin, gentamicin-AOT [AOT is bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt], was either microstructured or encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. The efficacy of the formulations developed was studied both in vitro and in vivo. Gentamicin formulations reduced Brucella infection in experimentally infected THP-1 monocytes (>2-log10 unit reduction) when using clinically relevant concentrations (18 mg/liter). Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that gentamicin-AOT-loaded nanoparticles efficiently targeted the drug both to the liver and the spleen and maintained an antibiotic therapeutic concentration for up to 4 days in both organs. This resulted in an improved efficacy of the antibiotic in experimentally infected mice. Thus, while 14 doses of free gentamicin did not alter the course of the infection, only 4 doses of gentamicin-AOT-loaded nanoparticles reduced the splenic infection by 3.23 logs and eliminated it from 50% of the infected mice with no evidence of adverse toxic effects. These results strongly suggest that PLGA nanoparticles containing chemically modified hydrophobic gentamicin may be a promising alternative for the treatment of human brucellosis.
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Gamazo, C;
Revista: EXPERT REVIEW OF VACCINES
ISSN 1476-0584  Vol. 11  Nº 1  2012  págs. 87 - 95
Ovine brucellosis is a very contagious zoonotic disease distributed worldwide and constitutes a very important zoosanitary and economic problem. The control of the disease includes animal vaccination and slaughter of infected flocks. However, the commercially available vaccine in most countries is based on the attenuated strain Brucella melitensis Rev 1, which presents important safety drawbacks. This review is focused on the most recent and promising acellular vaccine proposals.
Autores: Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Lemaire, S; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0305-7453  Vol. 67  Nº 9  2012  págs. 2158-2164
The aim of this study was to investigate different hydrophobic gentamicin formulations [gentamicin-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (GEN-AOT), microstructured GEN-AOT (PCA GEN-AOT) and GEN-AOT-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs)] in view of improving its therapeutic index against intracellular bacteria. The intracellular accumulation, subcellular distribution and intracellular activity of GEN-AOT and NPs in different monocyticmacrophagic cell lines were studied. Human THP-1 and murine J774 phagocytic cells were incubated with GEN-AOT formulations at relevant extracellular concentrations [from 1 MIC to 18 mg/L (human C-max)], and their intracellular accumulation, subcellular distribution and toxicity were evaluated and compared with those of conventional unmodified gentamicin. Intracellular activity of the formulations was determined against bacteria showing different subcellular localizations, namely Staphylococcus aureus (phagolysosomes) and Listeria monocytogenes (cytosol). GEN-AOT formulations accumulated 2-fold (GEN-AOT) to 8-fold (GEN-AOT NPs) more than gentamicin in phagocytic cells, with a predominant subcellular localization in the soluble fraction (cytosol) and with no significant cellular toxicity. NP formulations allowed gentamicin to exert its intracellular activity after shorter incubation times and/or at lower concentrations. With an extracellular concentration of 10 MIC, a 1 log(10) decrease in S. aureus intracellular inoculum was obtained after 12 h instead of 24 h for NPs versus free gentamicin, and a static effect was observed against L. monocytogenes at 24 h with NPs, while free gentamicin was ineffective. GEN-AOT formulations yielded a high cellular accumulation, especially in the cytosol, which resulted in improved efficacy against both intracellular S. aureus and L. monocytogenes.
Autores: De Souza Rebouças , J; Ferrer, Marta; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
ISSN 1110-7243  2012  págs. 474605
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Camacho, Ana Isabel; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0939-6411  Vol. 82  Nº 2  2012  págs. 241-249
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is based on the administration of allergens with the main disadvantage of inducing an allergic reaction. Within this context, we report the generation of an adjuvant and allergen-delivery system for peanut allergen immunotherapy with reduced IgE induction. Therefore, we prepared and characterized poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins using the solvent displacement method, with some modifications in the manufacturing process. The precipitation of polymer was performed with either a mixture of ethanol and water or water. The resultant nanoparticles were dried by either freeze-drying or spray-drying, respectively. Poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins were successfully developed, achieving both high encapsulation efficiency (70-80%) and manufacturing yield (60-80%). After intradermal immunization of mice (C57Bl/6) with peanut proteins incorporated into poly(anhydride) nanoparticles, a strong mixed T(H)1/T(H)2-type immune response was observed. Furthermore, we also provide, to our knowledge for the first time, clear evidence of the influence of formulation design on the immunostimulatory properties of nanoparticles. Taken together, our findings indicate that poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are efficient stimulators of immune responses and promising adjuvants and allergen-delivery systems applied for immunotherapy. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Ferrer, Marta; Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology
ISSN 1018-9068  Vol. 22  Nº Suppl 1  2012  págs. 7 - 15
Autores: Da Costa Martins, Raquel Maria ; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 162  Nº 3  2012  págs. 553 - 560
The use of sub-unit vaccines can solve some drawbacks associated with traditional attenuated or inactivated ones. However, in order to improve their immunogenicity, these vaccines needs to be associated to an appropriate adjuvant which, adequately selected, may also offer an alternative pathway for administration. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protection offered by the hot saline complex extracted from Brucella ovis (HS) encapsulated in mannosylated nanoparticles (MAN-NP-HS) when instilled conjunctivally in mice. Nanoparticles displayed a size of 300 nm and the antigen loading was close to 30 mu g per mg nanoparticle. Importantly, encapsulated HS maintained its protein profile, structural integrity and antigenicity during and after the preparative process of nanoparticles. The ocular immunization was performed on BALB/c mice. Eight weeks after vaccination animals were challenged with B. ovis, and 3 weeks later, were slaughtered for bacteriological examinations. Animals immunized with MAN-NP-HS displayed a 3-log reduction in spleen CFU compared with unvaccinated animals. This degree of protection was significantly higher than that observed for the commercial vaccine (Rev1) subcutaneously administered. Interestingly, the mucosal IgA response induced by MAN-NP-HS was found to be much more intense than that offered by Rev1 and prolonged in time. Furthermore, the elicited IL-2, IL-4 and.-IFN levels showed good correlation with the degree of protection. On the other hand, biodistribution studies in animals were performed with nanoparticles labelled with either (99m)technetium or rhodamine B isothiocyanate. The biodistribution revealed that, after instillation, MAN-NP-HS moved from the palpebral area to the nasal region and, the gastrointestinal tract. This profile of distribution was different to that observed for free (TcO4)-Tc-99m-colloids, which remained for at least 24 h in the site of administration. In summary, mannosylated nanoparticles appear to be a safe and suitable adjuvant for conjunctival vaccination. (C) 2012 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Camacho, Ana Isabel; Da Costa Martins, Raquel Maria ; et al.
Revista: Vaccine
ISSN 0264-410X  Vol. 41  Nº 29  2011  págs. 7130 - 7135
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY
ISSN 0304-4017  Vol. 180  Nº 1-2  2011  págs. 47 - 71
Nanomedicine can be defined as the application of nanotechnology to the prevention and treatment of diseases as well as for diagnosis purposes. In this context, the development of various types of drug-carrier nanodevices offers new strategies for targeted drug delivery, minimising the secondary effects and the toxicity associated to drug widespread to healthy organs or cells. This review is divided in two different parts. The first one summarizes the main types of nanomedicines developed in the past few decades, including drug nanocrystals, polymer therapeutics, lipid-nanosized and polymeric-nanosized drug delivery systems. The second part of our review is devoted, more specifically, to the presentation of polymeric nanoparticles. Here, we discuss various aspects of nanoparticle formulation, characterization, behaviour in the body and some of their potential applications. More particularly we present some approaches for the treatment of cancer, treatment of infectious diseases and the potential of these nanoparticles as adjuvants for vaccination purposes.
Autores: Elizondo, E.; Sala, S.; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; et al.
Revista: PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
ISSN 0724-8741  Vol. 28  Nº 2  2011  págs. 309 - 321
PURPOSE: To investigate, for the first time, the viability of compressed antisolvent methodologies for the preparation of drug-loaded particles of the biodegradable and bioadhesive polymer poly (methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA), utilizing gentamicin (Gm) as a model drug. METHODS: Precipitation with a Compressed Antisolvent (PCA) method was used for the preparation of PVM/MA particles loaded with gentamicin. Before encapsulation, gentamicin was modified into a hydrophobic complex, GmAOT, by exchanging its sulphate ions with an anionic surfactant. GmAOT:PVM/MA composites were fully characterized in terms of size, morphology, composition, drug distribution, phase composition, in vitro activity and drug release. RESULTS: Homogeneous nanostructured microparticles of PVM/MA loaded with high and uniformly distributed quantities of GmAOT were obtained by PCA. The drug loading factors could be tuned at will, improving up to ten times the loadings obtained by other precipitation techniques. Gentamicin retained its bioactivity after being processed, and, according to its release profiles, after an initial burst it experienced a sustained release over 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Compressed antisolvent methods are suitable technologies for the one-step preparation of highly loaded nanostructured PVM/MA matrices with promising application in the delivery of low bioavailable drugs.
Autores: Camacho, Ana Isabel; et al.
Revista: Vaccine
ISSN 0264-410X  Vol. 29  Nº 46  2011  págs. 8222 - 8229
Autores: Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Elizondo , E.; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: ACTA BIOMATERIALIA
ISSN 1742-7061  Vol. 7  Nº 4  2011  págs. 1599 - 1608
Autores: Porfire, Alina S.; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 390  Nº 1  2010  págs. 37 - 44
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL AND VACCINE IMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 1556-6811  Vol. 17  Nº 9  2010  págs. 1356 - 1362
The mechanisms that underlie the potent Th1-adjuvant capacity of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated. Traditionally, polymer NPs have been considered delivery systems that promote a closer interaction between antigen and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Our results revealed that poly(anhydride) NPs also act as agonists of various Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, -4, and -5), triggering a Th1-profile cytokine release (gamma interferon [IFN-gamma], 478 pg/ml versus 39.6 pg/ml from negative control; interleukin-12 [IL-12], 40 pg/ml versus 7.2 pg/ml from negative control) and, after incubation with dendritic cells, inducing a 2.5- to 3.5-fold increase of CD54 and CD86 costimulatory molecule expression. Furthermore, in vivo studies suggest that NPs actively elicit a CD8(+) T-cell response. Immunization with empty NPs resulted in a significant delay in the mean survival date (from day 7 until day 23 postchallenge) and a protection level of 30% after challenge against a lethal dose of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Taken together, our results provide a better understanding of how NPs act as active Th1 adjuvants in immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy through TLR exploitation.
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Salman, Hesham; Gómez, Sara; et al.
Revista: FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE (SCHOLAR EDITION)
ISSN 1945-0516  Vol. 2  2010  págs. 876 - 890
In the last years, many efforts have been directed toward the enhancement of vaccine delivery by using polymeric nanoparticles as adjuvants for mucosal immunization. However, conventional nanoparticles usually display a low capability to target specific sites within the gut and, thus, the elicited immune responses are not as high as necessary to offer the adequate protection to the host. To overcome these drawbacks, one possible strategy can be the association of nanoparticles with compounds involved in the colonization process of microorganisms. In this biomimetic context, two different examples are shown. In both cases, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles were coated with either flagellin from Salmonella Enteritidis or mannosamine. When administered by the oral route both types of ligand-coated nanoparticles induced stronger and more balanced serum titers of IgG2a and IgG1 than control nanoparticles which induced a typical Th2 response. This Th1 response enhancement may be related to the high tropism of both flagellin- and mannosylated-nanoparticles to the ileum and uptake by Peyer's patches rich in antigen presenting cells.
Autores: Salman, Hesham; Da Costa Martins, Raquel Maria ; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF DRUG DELIVERY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ISSN 1773-2247  Vol. 20  Nº 5  2010  págs. 353 - 359
Autores: Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Gamazo, C; Ariza, Javier; et al.
Revista: FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE-LANDMARK
ISSN 1093-9946  Vol. 15  2010  págs. 397 - 417
Autores: Da Costa Martins, Raquel Maria ; Irache, Juan M.; Blasco, Jose M.; et al.
Revista: Vaccine
ISSN 0264-410X  Vol. 28  Nº 17  2010  págs. 3038 - 3046
Autores: Ferrer, Marta; Gamazo, C; Irache, Juan M.; et al.
Revista: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
ISSN 0091-6749  Vol. 125  Nº 2 Supl.1  2010  págs. AB 220
RATIONALE: In order to develop a suitable peanut allergen immunotherapy we need to depict the immune response to different forms of the same allergen. METHODS: We analyzed protein content and allergen distribution in four different types of peanut extract: crude, crude delipidated, roasted and roasted delipidated. We then identified in the same extracts allergen components using SDS-PAGE technique. Furthermore, we immunized six week-old C57BL/6 mice, intradermal or orally with each extract. Serum and fece samples were obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after immunization and measured peanut specific IgG1 and IgG2 through indirect ELISA. RESULTS: Protein content in crude peanut extract was 30% higher than roasted extract. No differences were observed in protein content between lipid and non-lipid extract. When allergens were studied, we only observed a significant increase in Arah3 in roasted peanut extract. Regarding the immune response, all four extracts induced a Th2 response (IgG1) through both administration routes. Intradermal sensitization induced higher IgG1 and IgG2 levels than oral sensitization. Maximum IgG1 and IgG2 peak was reached on the 3rd and 4rd week. Roasted delipidated extract induced a significant stronger immune reaction than the other extracts. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response seems to be more dependent on the allergen rather than the route of administration. Roasting peanut increases significantly in both intradermal and oral route its allergen potency.
Autores: Gamazo, C; Ochoa, Javier; et al.
Libro:  Salmonella: Methods and Protocols
Vol. 1225  2015  págs. 139 - 149
A simple procedure for obtaining protective antigens from Gram-negative bacteria and their encapsulation into immunomodulatory nanoparticles is described. A heat treatment in saline solution of whole bacteria rendered the release of small membrane vesicles containing outer membrane components and also superficial appendages, such as fractions of fimbriae and flagella. The immunogenicity of these antigens may be improved after encapsulation into poly(anhydride) nanoparticles made from the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (Gantrez AN®).
Autores: Gamazo, C; Irache, Juan M.;
Libro:   Molecular Vaccines
Vol. 2  2014  págs. 603 - 622
Animals, including humans, have evolved a sophisticated mucosal immune system. By understanding mucosal immune activation, we can rationally design adjuvants to elicit a long-lasting protective immune response. In this chapter we will discuss about what is known about mucosal immunity and oral adjuvants. In particular, we will specially focus on polymeric nanoparticles as mucosal adjuvants that have been developed to stimulate lifelong memory for vaccination purposes
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Camacho, Ana Isabel; Gamazo, C;
Libro:  Mucosal Delivery of Biopharmaceuticals
2013  págs. 379 - 406
Autores: Gamazo, C; Irache, Juan M.;
Libro:  Nanostructured biomaterials for overcoming biological barriers
2012  págs. 91 - 113