Nuestros investigadores

José Ignacio Riezu Boj

Centro de Investigación en Nutrición
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Nutrición, Obesidad, Epigenética, Genética, Metagenómica
Índice H
31, (WoS, 23/12/2020)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0029-6651  Vol. 79  Nº OCE2  2020  págs. E398 - E398
Autores: Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 12  Nº 5  2020  págs. 1260
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Some genetic variants might be involved in the progression of this disease. The study hypothesized that individuals with the rs7359397 T allele have a higher risk of developing severe stages of NAFLD compared with non-carriers where dietary intake according to genotypes could have a key role on the pathogenesis of the disease. SH2B1 genetic variant was genotyped in 110 overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. Imaging techniques, lipidomic analysis and blood liver biomarkers were performed. Body composition, general biochemical and dietary variables were also determined. The SH2B1 risk genotype was associated with higher HOMA-IR p = 0.001; and Fatty Liver Index (FLI) p = 0.032. Higher protein consumption (p = 0.028), less mono-unsaturated fatty acid and fiber intake (p = 0.045 and p = 0.049, respectively), was also referred to in risk allele genotype. Lipidomic analysis showed that T allele carriers presented a higher frequency of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (69.1% vs. 44.4%; p = 0.006). In the genotype risk group, adjusted logistic regression models indicated a higher risk of developing an advanced stage of NAFLD measured by FLI (OR 2.91) and ultrasonography (OR 4.15). Multinomial logistic regression models showed that risk allele carriers had higher liver fat accumulation risk (RRR 3.93) and an increased risk of NASH (RRR 7.88). Consequently, subjects carrying the T allele were associated with a higher risk of developing a severe stage of NAFLD. These results support the importance of considering genetic predisposition in combination with a healthy dietary pattern in the personalized evaluation and management of NAFLD.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O. ; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; et al.
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 111  Nº 2  2020  págs. 459 - 470
Background: Interindividual variability in weight loss and metabolic responses depends upon interactions between genetic, phenotypic, and environmental factors. Objective: We aimed to model an integrative (nutri) prototype based on genetic, phenotypic, and environmental information for the personalized prescription of energy-restricted diets with different macronutrient distribution. Methods: A 4-mo nutritional intervention was conducted in 305 overweight/obese volunteers involving 2 energy-restricted diets (30% restriction) with different macronutrient distribution: a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet (30% proteins, 30% lipids, and 40% carbohydrates) and a low-fat (LF) diet (22% lipids, 18% proteins, and 60% carbohydrates). A total of 201 subjects with good dietary adherence were genotyped for 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to energy homeostasis. Genotyping was performed by targeted next-generation sequencing. Two weighted genetic risk scores for the MHP (wGRS1) and LF (wGRS2) diets were computed using statistically relevant SNPs. Multiple linear regression models were performed to estimate percentage BMI decrease depending on the dietary macronutrient composition. Results: After energy restriction, both the MHP and LF diets induced similar significant decreases in adiposity, body composition, and blood pressure, and improved the lipid profile. Furthermore, statistically relevant differences in anthropometric and biochemical markers depending on sex and age were found. BMI decrease in the MHP diet was best predicted at similar to 28% (optimism-corrected adjusted R-2 = 0.279) by wGRS1 and age, whereas wGRS2 and baseline energy intake explained similar to 29% (optimism-corrected adjusted R-2 = 0.287) of BMI decrease variability in the LF diet. The incorporation of these predictive models into a decision algorithm allowed the personalized prescription of the MHP and LF diets. Conclusions: Different genetic, phenotypic, and exogenous factors predict BMI decreases depending on the administration of a hypocaloric MHP diet or an LF diet. This holistic approach may help to personalize dietary advice for the management of excessive body weight using precision nutrition variables. This trial was registered at as NCT02737267.
Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Salas-Perez, F. ; et al.
ISSN 0742-0528  Vol. 37  Nº 7  2020  págs.  1048-1058
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarkers that may provide important insight into the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Moreover, there is an association between chronotypical characteristics and MetS predisposition. Considering that expression of some miRNAs is circadian-rhythm-dependent, the aim of this study was to investigate the circulating miRNA profile in subjects with and without MetS in association with chronotype. The expression of 86 metabolic syndrome-related miRNAs was investigated in the plasma of 21 subjects with MetS and in 82 subjects without MetS using miRCURY LNA miRNA PCR System technology. Chronotype was assessed using the Horne and ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to explore the target genes and biological pathways regulated by the selected miRNAs. Subjects with MetS were more often evening chronotype compared to non-MetS controls. Additionally, four miRNAs (miR-140-3p, miR-150-5p, miR-375, and miR-29 c-3p) demonstrated interaction with MetS and chronotype. Interestingly, the target genes of these four miRNAs participate in pathways related to the circadian clock. In conclusion, we identified four circulating miRNAs whose circulating levels could interact with MetS and chronotype.
Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
ISSN 2076-2607  Vol. 8  Nº 6  2020  págs. 938
The gut microbiome has been recognized as a tool for understanding adiposity accumulation and for providing personalized nutrition advice for the management of obesity and accompanying metabolic complications. The genetic background is also involved in human energy homeostasis. In order to increase the value of nutrigenetic dietary advice, the interplay between genetics and microbiota must be investigated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and 95 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) searched in the literature. Oral mucosa and fecal samples from 360 normal weight, overweight and obese subjects were collected. Next generation genotyping of these 95 SNPs and fecal 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed with 10 SNPs statistically or marginally associated with body mass index (BMI). Several microbiome statistical analyses at family taxonomic level were applied (LEfSe, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, MetagenomeSeq and Random Forest), and Prevotellaceae family was found in all of them as one of the most important bacterial families associated with BMI and GRS. Thus, in this family it was further analyzed the interactive association between BMI and GRS with linear regression models. Interestingly, women with higher abundance of Prevotellaceae and higher GRS were more obese, compared to women with higher GRS and lower abundance of Prevotellaceae. These findings suggest relevant interrelationships between Prevotellaceae and the genetic background that may determine interindividual BMI differences in women, which opens the way to new precision nutrition-based treatments for obesity.
Autores: Ramos-López, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2020  págs. 33
This study aimed to nutrigenetically screen gene-diet and gene-metabolic interactions influencing insulin resistance (IR) phenotypes. A total of 232 obese or overweight adults were categorized by IR status: non-IR (HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance) index <= 2.5) and IR (HOMA-IR index > 2.5). A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed using 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms related to energy homeostasis, which were genotyped by a next generation sequencing system. Body composition, the metabolic profile and lifestyle variables were evaluated, where individuals with IR showed worse metabolic outcomes. Overall, 16 obesity-predisposing genetic variants were associated with IR (p < 0.10 in the multivariate model). The wGRS strongly associated with the HOMA-IR index (adj. R squared = 0.2705, p < 0.0001). Moreover, the wGRS positively interacted with dietary intake of cholesterol (P int. = 0.002), and with serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (P int. = 0.008) regarding IR status, whereas a negative interaction was found regarding adiponectin blood levels (P int. = 0.006). In conclusion, this study suggests that interactions between an adiposity-based wGRS with nutritional and metabolic/endocrine features influence IR phenotypes, which could facilitate the prescription of personalized nutrition recommendations for precision prevention and management of IR and diabetes.
Autores: Assmann, T. S. ; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 21  Nº 24  2020 
Background: The determinants that mediate the interactions between microRNAs and the gut microbiome impacting on obesity are scarcely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions between circulating microRNAs and gut microbiota composition in obesity. Method: The sample comprised 78 subjects with obesity (cases, body mass index (BMI): 30-40 kg/m(2)) and 25 eutrophic individuals (controls, BMI <= 25 kg/m(2)). The expression of 96 microRNAs was investigated in plasma of all individuals using miRCURY LNA miRNA Custom PCR Panels. Bacterial DNA sequencing was performed following the Illumina 16S protocol. The FDR correction was used for multiple comparison analyses. Results: A total of 26 circulating microRNAs and 12 bacterial species were found differentially expressed between cases and controls. Interestingly, an interaction among three miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-21-5p) with Bacteroides eggerthi and BMI levels was evidenced (r(2) = 0.148, p = 0.004). Moreover, these microRNAs regulate genes that participate in metabolism-related pathways, including fatty acid degradation, insulin signaling and glycerolipid metabolism. Conclusions: This study characterized an interaction between the abundance of 4 bacterial species and 14 circulating microRNAs in relation to obesity. Moreover, the current study also suggests that miRNAs may serve as a communication mechanism between the gut microbiome and human hosts.
Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
ISSN 1582-1838  Vol. 24  Nº 5  2020  págs. 2956 - 2967
Recent studies have revealed the critical role of several microRNAs (miRNAs) in energy homeostasis and metabolic processes and suggest that circulating miRNAs can be used as early predictors of weight loss in the design of precision nutrition. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate circulating adiposity-related miRNAs as biomarkers of the response to two specific weight loss dietary treatments. The expression of 86 miRNAs was investigated in plasma of 78 subjects with obesity randomized to two different diets [moderately high-protein diet (n = 38) and low-fat diet (n = 40)] and in 25 eutrophic controls (BMI <= 25 kg/m(2)). Bioinformatic analyses were performed to explore the target genes and biological pathways regulated by the dysregulated miRNAs. As results, 26 miRNAs were found differently expressed in eutrophic and volunteers with obesity. Moreover, 7 miRNAs (miR-130a-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-144-5p, miR-15a-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-29c-3p) were differentially expressed between responders and non-responders to a low-fat diet. Furthermore, after adjustment for basal glucose levels, 1-SD increase in miR-22-3p expression was associated with reduction in the risk of non-response to low-fat diet [OR = 0.181, 95% CI (0.084-0.947), P = .043]. Bioinformatic analyses evidenced that these 7 miRNAs regulate the expression of genes participating in important metabolic pathways. Conclusively, 7 circulating miRNAs related to adiposity could be used for predicting the response to a low-fat diet intervention prescribed to lose weight.
Autores: Santos, J. L., (Autor de correspondencia); Krause, B. J. ; Cataldo, L. R.; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 12  Nº 9  2020  págs. 2790
Methylation in CpG sites of the PPARGC1A gene (encoding PGC1-alpha) has been associated with adiposity, insulin secretion/sensitivity indexes and type 2 diabetes. We assessed the association between the methylation profile of the PPARGC1A gene promoter gene in leukocytes with insulin secretion/sensitivity indexes in normoglycemic women. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an abbreviated version of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were carried out in n = 57 Chilean nondiabetic women with measurements of plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. Bisulfite-treated DNA from leukocytes was evaluated for methylation levels in six CpG sites of the proximal promoter of the PPARGC1A gene by pyrosequencing (positions -816, -783, -652, -617, -521 and -515). A strong correlation between the DNA methylation percentage of different CpG sites of the PPARGC1A promoter in leukocytes was found, suggesting an integrated epigenetic control of this region. We found a positive association between the methylation levels of the CpG site -783 with the insulin sensitivity Matsuda composite index (rho = 0.31; p = 0.02) derived from the OGTT. The CpG hypomethylation in the promoter position -783 of the PPARGC1A gene in leukocytes may represent a biomarker of reduced insulin sensitivity after the ingestion of glucose.
Autores: Salas-Perez, F.; Assmann, TS; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  Nº Supl. 2  2019  págs. 53 - 54
Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  2019  págs. 43 - 44
Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  Nº Supl. 2  2019  págs. 18 - 18
Autores: Rodriguez-Lozada, C.; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2019  págs. E1206
Current evidence proposes diet quality as a modifiable risk factor for mental or emotional impairments. However, additional studies are required to investigate the effect of dietary patterns and weight loss on improving psychological symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of energy-restriction, prescribed to overweight and obese participants, on anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as the potential predictive value of some baseline psychological features on weight loss. Overweight and obese participants (n = 305) were randomly assigned for 16 weeks to two hypocaloric diets with different macronutrient distribution: a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet and a low-fat (LF) diet. Anthropometrical, clinical, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The nutritional intervention evidenced that weight loss has a beneficial effect on trait anxiety score in women (beta = 0.24, p = 0.03), depression score in all population (beta = 0.15, p = 0.02), particularly in women (beta = 0.22, p = 0.03) and in subjects who followed the LF diet (beta = 0.22, p = 0.04). Moreover, weight loss could be predicted by anxiety status at baseline, mainly in women and in those who were prescribed a LF diet. This trial suggests that weight loss triggers an improvement in psychological traits, and that anxiety symptoms could predict those volunteers that benefit most from a balanced calorie-restricted intervention, which will contribute to individualized precision nutrition.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1664-8021  Vol. 10  2019 
Aim: To analyze the influence of genetics and interactions with environmental factors on adiposity outcomes [waist circumference reduction (WCR) and total body fat loss (TFATL)] in response to energy-restricted diets in subjects with excessive body weight. Materials and Methods: Two hypocaloric diets (30% energy restriction) were prescribed to overweight/obese subjects during 16 weeks, which had different targeted macronutrient distribution: a low-fat (LF) diet (22% energy from lipids) and a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet (30% energy from proteins). At the end of the trial, a total of 201 participants (LF diet = 105; MHP diet = 96) who presented good/regular dietary adherence were genotyped for 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with weight loss through next-generation sequencing from oral samples. Four unweighted (uGRS) and four weighted (wGRS) genetic risk scores were computed using statistically relevant SNPs for each outcome by diet. Predictions of WCR and TFATL by diet were modeled through recognized multiple linear regression models including genetic (single SNPs, uGRS, and wGRS), phenotypic (age, sex, and WC, or TFAT at baseline), and environment variables (physical activity level and energy intake at baselines) as well as eventual interactions between genes and environmental factors. Results: Overall, 26 different SNPs were associated with differential adiposity outcomes, 9 with WCR and 17 with TFATL, most of which were specific for each dietary intervention. In addition to conventional predictors (age, sex, lifestyle, and adiposity status at baseline), the calculated uGRS/wGRS and interactions with environmental factors were major contributors of adiposity responses. Thus, variances in TFATL-LF diet, TFATL-MHP diet, WCR-LF diet, and WCR-MHP diet were predicted by approximately 38% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.3792), 32% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.3208), 22% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.2208), and 21% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.2081), respectively. Conclusions: Different genetic variants and interactions with environmental factors modulate the differential individual responses to MHP and LF dietary interventions. These insights and models may help to optimize personalized nutritional strategies for modeling the prevention and management of excessive adiposity through precision nutrition approaches taking into account not only genetic information but also the lifestyle/clinical factors that interplay in addition to age and sex.
Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Santos, J. L., (Autor de correspondencia); Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 20  Nº 12  2019 
Hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Since few studies have addressed the relation between DNA methylation patterns with elaborated surrogates of insulin secretion/sensitivity based on the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between DNA methylation and an insulin sensitivity index based on IVGTT (calculated insulin sensitivity index (CSi)) in peripheral white blood cells from 57 non-diabetic female volunteers. The CSi and acute insulin response (AIR) indexes, as well as the disposition index (DI = CSi x AIR), were estimated from abbreviated IVGTT in 49 apparently healthy Chilean women. Methylation levels were assessed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. After a statistical probe filtering, the two top CpGs whose methylation was associated with CSi were cg04615668 and cg07263235, located in the catenin delta 2 (CTNND2) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes, respectively. Both CpGs conjointly predicted insulin sensitivity status with an area under the curve of 0.90. Additionally, cg04615668 correlated with homeostasis model assessment insulin-sensitivity (HOMA-S) and AIR, whereas cg07263235 was associated with plasma creatinine and DI. These results add further insights into the epigenetic regulation of insulin sensitivity and associated complications, pointing the CTNND2 and LPL genes as potential underlying epigenetic biomarkers for future risk of insulin-related diseases.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0163-5581  Vol. 71  Nº 5  2019  págs. 840 - 851
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for the onset and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to analyze the association of DNA methylation signatures at HCC pathway genes with obesity and related metabolic disturbances. A population of 474 adults within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was included. DNA methylation levels were measured in white blood cells by microarray. The identification and discrimination of HCC pathway genes were performed using KEGG and PathDIP databases. Anthropometry measurements, the blood metabolic profile, and clinical data were analyzed. The methylation patterns of 20 CpG sites at HCC pathway genes strongly correlated with BMI (FDR <0.0001). These genes encompassed GADD45A, MTOR, FRAT2, E2F3, WNT7B, FRAT1, LRP5, DPF3, GSTA2, APC, MYC, WNT10B, ARID1B, AKT1, GSTA1, WNT5A, CDK4, GAB1, TCF7, which statistically contributed to the regulation of the HCC pathway (P = 2.10e-07). The main biological process where these genes were implicated included uncontrolled cell proliferation, DNA damage, increased survival, and altered oncogenic expression. Interestingly, 9 out of 20 BMI-associated CpGs also correlated with waist circumference and HOMA-IR index. In conclusion, pathway analysis revealed potential associations of DNA methylation signatures at HCC pathway genes with adiposity and insulin resistance phenotypes.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 2042-0188  Vol. 10  2019  págs. 1 - 12
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 14  2019  págs. 11
BACKGROUND: Olfaction is an important sense influencing food preferences, appetite, and eating behaviors. This hypothesis-driven study aimed to assess associations between olfactory pathway gene methylation signatures, obesity features, and dietary intakes. METHODS: A nutriepigenomic analysis was conducted in 474 adults from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project. Anthropometric measurements, clinical data, and serum metabolic profiles of the study population were obtained from structured databases of the MENA cohorts. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. DNA methylation was measured in circulating white blood cells by microarray (Infinium Human Methylation 450¿K BeadChips). FDR values (p <¿0.0001) were used to select those CpGs that showed the best correlation with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Pathway analyses involving the characterization of genes involved in the olfactory transduction system were performed using KEGG and pathDIP reference databases. RESULTS: Overall, 15 CpG sites at olfactory pathway genes were associated with BMI (p <¿0.0001) and WC (p <¿0.0001) after adjustments for potential confounding factors. Together, methylation levels at the15 CpG sites accounted for 22% and 20% of the variability in BMI and WC (r 2 =¿0.219, p <¿0.001, and r 2 =¿0.204, p <¿0.001, respectively). These genes encompassed olfactory receptors (OR4D2, OR51A7, OR2T34, and OR2Y1) and several downstream signaling molecules (SLC8A1, ANO2, PDE2A, CALML3, GNG7, CALML6, PRKG1, and CAMK2D), which significantly regulated odor detection and signal transduction processes within the complete olfactory cascade, as revealed by pathway enrichment analyses (p =¿1.94¿×¿10-10). Moreover, OR4D2 and OR2Y1 gene methylation patterns strongly correlated with daily intakes of total energy (p <¿0.0001), carbohydrates (p <¿0.0001), protein (p <¿0.0001), and fat (p <¿0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest novel relationships between olfactory pathway gene methylation signatures, obesity indices, and dietary intakes.
Autores: Salas-Perez, F. ; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
Revista: AGING-US
ISSN 1945-4589  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2019  págs. 1874 - 1899
Aging is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation (DNAm) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of physiological responses that can vary along lifespan. The aim of this research was to analyze the association between leukocyte DNAm in genes involved in longevity and the occurrence of obesity and related metabolic alterations in an adult population. Subjects from the MENA cohort (n=474) were categorized according to age (<45 vs 45>) and the presence of metabolic alterations: increased waist circumference, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The methylation levels of 58 CpG sites located at genes involved in longevity-regulating pathways were strongly correlated (FDRadjusted< 0.0001) with BMI. Fifteen of them were differentially methylated (p<0.05) between younger and older subjects that exhibited at least one metabolic alteration. Six of these CpG sites, located at MTOR (cg08862778), ULK1 (cg07199894), ADCY6 (cg11658986), IGF1R (cg01284192), CREB5 (cg11301281), and RELA (cg08128650), were common to the metabolic traits, and CREB5, RELA, and ULK1 were statistically associated with age. In summary, leukocyte DNAm levels of several CpG sites located at genes involved in longevity-regulating pathways were associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits, suggesting a role of DNAm in aging-related metabolic alterations.
Autores: Cuevas-Sierra, A.; Ramos-López, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 2161-8313  Vol. 10  Nº Suppl.1   2019  págs. S17 - S30
Diverse evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is involved in the development of obesity and associated comorbidities. It has been reported that the composition of the gut microbiota differs in obese and lean subjects, suggesting that microbiota dysbiosis can contribute to changes in body weight. However, the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota participates in energy homeostasis are unclear. Gut microbiota can be modulated positively or negatively by different lifestyle and dietary factors. Interestingly, complex interactions between genetic background, gut microbiota, and diet have also been reported concerning the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome features. Moreover, microbial metabolites can induce epigenetic modifications (i.e., changes in DNA methylation and micro-RNA expression), with potential implications for health status and susceptibility to obesity. Also, microbial products, such as short-chain fatty acids or membrane proteins, may affect host metabolism by regulating appetite, lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, inflammation, and other functions. Metabolomic approaches are being used to identify new postbiotics with biological activity in the host, allowing discovery of new targets and tools for incorporation into personalized therapies. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relations between the human gut microbiota and the onset and development of obesity. These scientific insights are paving the way to understanding the complex relation between obesity and microbiota. Among novel approaches, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiome transplantation could be useful to restore gut dysbiosis.
Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Santos, J. L.; et al.
ISSN 1664-2392  Vol. 10  2019 
The distribution of adipose tissue is influenced by gender and by age, shifting from subcutaneous to visceral depots with longevity, increasing the development of several aging-related diseases and manifestations such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. Epigenetics might have an important role in aging processes. The aim of this research was to investigate the interactions between aging and epigenetic processes and the role of visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia. Two different study samples of 366 and 269 adult participants were analyzed. Anthropometric, biochemical (including the triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index), and blood pressure measurements were assessed following standardized methods. Body composition measurements by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were also performed for the second sample. Methylation data were assessed by Infinium Human Methylation BeadChip (Illumina) in peripheral white blood cells. Epigenetic age acceleration was calculated using the methods DNAmAge (AgeAcc) and GrimAge (AgeAccGrim). Age acceleration (AgeAccGrim) showed better correlations than AgeAcc with most of the measured variables (waist circumference, glucose, HOMA-IR, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and TyG index) for the first sample. In the second sample, all the previous correlations were confirmed, except for HOMA-IR. In addition, many of the anthropometricalmeasurements assessed by DXA and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also statistically associated with AgeAccGrim. Associations separated by sex showed statistically significant correlations between AgeAccGrim and HDL-cholesterol or CRP in women, whereas, in men, the association was with visceral adipose tissue mass DXA, triglycerides and TyG index. Linear regression models (model 1 included visceral adipose tissuemass DXA and TyGindex andmodel 2 included HDL-cholesterol and CRP) showed a significant association for men concerning visceral adipose tissue mass DXA and TyG index, while HDL-cholesterol and CRP were associated in women. Moreover, structural equation modeling showed that the TyG index was mediating the majority of the visceral adipose tissue mass action on age acceleration. Collectively, these findings showed that there are different mechanisms affecting epigenetic age acceleration depending on sex. The identified relationships between epigenetic age acceleration and disease markers will contribute to the understanding of the development of age-related diseases.
Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ramos-Lopez, O.; et al.
Revista: GENES
ISSN 2073-4425  Vol. 10  Nº 6  2019 
Epigenetic signatures such as DNA methylation may be associated with specific obesity traits in different tissues. The onset and development of some obesity-related complications are often linked to visceral fat accumulation. The aim of this study was to explore DNA methylation levels in peripheral white blood cells to identify epigenetic methylation marks associated with waist circumference (WC). DNA methylation levels were assessed using Infinium Human Methylation 450K and MethylationEPIC beadchip (Illumina) to search for putative associations with WC values of 473 participants from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project. Statistical analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were employed for assessing the relationship between methylation and WC. A total of 669 CpGs were statistically associated with WC (FDR < 0.05, slope >= |0.1|). From these CpGs, 375 CpGs evidenced a differential methylation pattern between females with WC <= 88 and > 88 cm, and 95 CpGs between males with WC <= 102 and > 102 cm. These differentially methylated CpGs are located in genes related to inflammation and obesity according to IPA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the top four significant differentially methylated CpGs separated by sex discriminated individuals with presence or absence of abdominal fat. ROC curves of all the CpGs from females and one CpG from males were validated in an independent sample (n = 161). These methylation results add further insights about the relationships between obesity, adiposity-associated comorbidities, and DNA methylation where inflammation processes may be involved.
Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ramos-Lopez, O.; et al.
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2019 
Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk. An epigenetic phenomena such as DNA methylation might be involved in the onset and development of systemic IR. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic DNA methylation levels in peripheral white blood cells with the objective of identifying epigenetic signatures associated with IR measured by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) following an epigenome-wide association study approach. DNA methylation levels were assessed using Infinium Methylation Assay (Illumina), and were associated with HOMA-IR values of participants from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project, finding statistical associations for at least 798 CpGs. A stringent statistical analysis revealed that 478 of them showed a differential methylation pattern between individuals with HOMA-IR <= 3 and > 3. ROC curves of top four CpGs out of 478 allowed differentiating individuals between both groups (AUC approximate to 0.88). This study demonstrated the association between DNA methylation in some specific CpGs and HOMA-IR values that will help to the understanding and in the development of new strategies for personalized approaches to predict and prevent IR-associated diseases.
Autores: Marín-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 2  2019  págs. 322
The relevance of sleep patterns in the onset or evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep characteristics and hepatic status indicators in obese people with NAFLD compared to normal weight non-NAFLD controls. Ninety-four overweight or obese patients with NAFLD and 40 non-NAFLD normal weight controls assessed by abdominal ultrasonography were enrolled. Hepatic status evaluation considered liver stiffness determined by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse elastography (ARFI) and transaminases. Additionally, anthropometric measurements, clinical characteristics, and biochemical profiles were determined. Sleep features were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hepatic status parameters, anthropometric measurements, and clinical and biochemical markers differed significantly in NAFLD subjects compared to controls, as well as sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance score, and sleep quality score. In the NAFLD group, a higher prevalence of short sleep duration (p = 0.005) and poor sleep quality (p = 0.041) were found. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for NAFLD considering sleep disturbance was 1.59 (1.11¿2.28). Regression models that included either sleep disturbance or sleep quality predicted up to 20.3% and 20.4% of the variability of liver stiffness, respectively, and after adjusting for potential confounders. Current findings suggest that sleep disruption may be contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD as well as the alteration of the liver may be affecting sleep patterns. Consequently, sleep characteristics may be added to the list of modifiable behaviors to consider in health promotion strategies and in the prevention and management of NAFLD.
Autores: Barron-Cabrera, E. ; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Gonzalez-Becerra, K.; et al.
ISSN 2504-3161  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2019  págs. 25 - 44
Background: Chronic diseases arise as a consequence of an unhealthy lifestyle primarily characterized by physical inactivity and unbalanced diets. Regular physical activity can improve health, and there is consistent evidence that these improvements may be the result of epigenetic modifications. Objective: To identify epigenetic modificationsas outcomes of exercise interventions related to specific metabolic alterations. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) methodology for manuscript research and preparation was followed using PubMed and EBSCO databases for literature review. Out of 2,638 articles identified, only 34 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results: The sections of the review were organized by metabolic alterations in which studies were grouped according to healthy, diseased, and trained individuals. Resistance exercise in humans induced epigenetic changes in pathways associated with energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity, contributing to healthy skeletal muscle. Endurance exercise also caused modifications in biomarkers associated to metabolic alterations through changes in DNA methylation and the expression of specific miRNAs. However, both resistance and endurance exercise are necessary to obtain a better physiological adaptation and a combination of both seems to be needed to properly tackle the increasing prevalence of non-communicable pathologies. Conclusion: Given the heterogeneity and complexity of the existing literature, it is currently not possible to propose a specific recommendation about the type, intensity, or duration of exercise that could be beneficial for different subsets of the population (healthy, diseased, and/or trained). Nevertheless, this review highlights the importance of exercise for health and shows the need to perform more research in this emerging area to identify epigenetic biomarkers that could serve as indicators of exercise adaptations.
Autores: Gonzalez-Becerra, K.; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Barron-Cabrera, E. ; et al.
ISSN 1476-511X  Vol. 18  Nº 1  2019 
Background Chronic illnesses like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases, are worldwide major causes of morbidity and mortality. These pathological conditions involve interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Recent advances in nutriepigenomics are contributing to clarify the role of some nutritional factors, including dietary fatty acids in gene expression regulation. This systematic review assesses currently available information concerning the role of the different fatty acids on epigenetic mechanisms that affect the development of chronic diseases or induce protective effects on metabolic alterations. Methods A targeted search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline databases using the keywords "fatty acids and epigenetic". The data were analyzed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results Consumption fatty acids like n-3 PUFA: EPA and DHA, and MUFA: oleic and palmitoleic acid was associated with an improvement of metabolic alterations. On the other hand, fatty acids that have been associated with the presence or development of obesity, T2D, pro-inflammatory profile, atherosclerosis and IR were n-6 PUFA, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and trans fatty acids (elaidic), have been also linked with epigenetic changes. Conclusions Fatty acids can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms and consequently result in positive or negative impacts on metabolic outcomes.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O. ; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0014-2972  Vol. 48  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. 40 - 41
Autores: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 6  2018  págs. E789
The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan) were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 28  Nº 2  2018  págs. 165 - 172
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A precise nutrigenetic management of hypercholesterolemia involves the understanding of the interactions between the individual's genotype and dietary intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the response to two dietary energy-restricted interventions on cholesterol changes in carriers of two ADRB2 polymorphisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 4-month nutritional intervention was conducted involving two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns. A total of 107 unrelated overweight/obese individuals were genotyped for two ADRB2 non-synonymous polymorphisms: Arg16Gly (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714). Genotyping was performed by next-generation sequencing and haplotypes were phenotypically screened. Anthropometric measurements and the biochemical profile were assessed by conventional methods. Both diets induced cholesterol decreases at the end of both nutritional interventions. Interestingly, phenotypical differences were observed according to the Arg16Gly polymorphism. Within the MHP group, Gly16Gly homozygotes had lower reductions in total cholesterol (-6.5 mg/dL vs. -24.2 mg/dL, p = 0.009), LDL-c levels (-1.4 mg/dL vs. -16.5 mg/dL, p = 0.005), and non-HDL-c (-4.5 mg/dL vs. -21.5 mg/dL, p = 0.008) than Arg16 allele carriers. Conversely, within the LF group, Gly16Gly homozygotes underwent similar falls in total cholesterol (-18.5 mg/dL vs. -18.7 mg/dL, ns), LDL-c levels (-9.7 mg/dL vs. -13.1 mg/dL, ns), and non-HDL-c (-15.3 mg/dL vs. -15.7 mg/dL, ns) than Arg16 allele carriers. The Gln27Glu polymorphism and the Gly16/Glu27 haplotype showed similar, but not greater effects. CONCLUSIONS: An energy-restricted LF diet could be more beneficial than a MHP diet to reduce serum cholesterol, LDL-c, and non-HDL-c among Gly16Gly genotype carriers. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: Identifier: NCT02737267.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 2314-436X  2018 
Background and Aim. Individual lipid phenotypes including circulating total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides (TG) determinations are influenced by gene-environment interactions. The aim of this study was to predict blood lipid level (TC, LDL-c, HDL-c, and TG) variability using genetic and lifestyle data in subjects with excessive body weight-for-height. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 304 unrelated overweight/obese adults of self-reported European ancestry. A total of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to obesity and weight loss were analyzed by a targeted next-generation sequencing system. Relevant genotypes of each SNP were coded as 0 (nonrisk) and 1 (risk). Four genetic risk scores (GRS) for each lipid phenotype were calculated by adding the risk genotypes. Information concerning lifestyle (diet, physical activity, alcohol drinking, and smoking) was obtained using validated questionnaires. Total body fat (TFAT) and visceral fat (VFAT) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Overall, 45 obesity-related genetic variants were associated with some of the studied blood lipids. In addition to conventional factors (age, sex, dietary intakes, and alcohol consumption), the calculated GRS significantly contributed to explain their corresponding plasma lipid trait. Thus, HDL-c, TG, TC, and LDL-c serum concentrations were predicted by approximately 28% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0 28), 25% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0 25), 24% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0 24), and 21% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.21), respectively. Interestingly, GRS were the greatest contributors to TC (squared partial correlation (PC2) = 0.18) and LDL-c (PC2 = 0.18) features. Likewise, VFAT and GRS had a higher impact on HDL-c (PC2 = 0.09 and PC2 = 0.06, respectively) and TG levels (PC2 = 0.20 and PC2 = 0.07, respectively) than the rest of variables. Conclusions. Besides known lifestyle influences, some obesity-related genetic variants could help to predict blood lipid phenotypes.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1096-7192  Vol. 123  Nº 1  2018  págs. 50 - 58
A sustained activation of the unfolded protein response and the subsequent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been involved in the onset and severity of several metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of DNA methylation signatures at ER stress genes with adiposity traits and related metabolic disorders. An epigenomic analysis within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was conducted in an adult population (n=474). DNA methylation status in peripheral white blood cells was analyzed by a microarray approach. KEGG database was used to the characterization and discrimination of genes involved in the "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway". Anthropometric measurements and plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed. A total of 15 CpG sites at genes participating in ER pathway were strongly correlated with BMI after adjusted linear regression analyses (p<0.0001). These included cg08188400 (MAP2K7), cg20541779 (CASP12), cg24776411 (EIF2AK1), cg14190817 (HSPA5), cg21376454 (ERN1), cg06666486 (EIF2AK1), cg03211481 (DNAJC1), cg18357645 (OS9), cg05801879 (MBTPS1), cg20964082 (ERO1LB), cg17300868 (NFE2L2), cg03384128 (EIF2AK4), cg02712587 (EIF2AK4), cg04972384 (SELS), cg02240686 (EIF2AK2). Noteworthy, most of them were implicated in ER stress (p=2.9E-09). However, only methylation levels at cg20964082 (ERO1LB), cg17300868 (NFE2L2), cg05801879 (MBTPS1), and cg03384128 (EIF2AK4) also correlated with total fat mass. Interestingly, significant associations between methylation patterns at cg20964082 (ERO1LB) and cg17300868 (NFE2L2) and insulin and HOMA-IR index were found, whereas cg05801879 (MBTPS1) and cg03384128 (EIF2AK4) were correlated with triglyceride levels. This study suggests associations of methylation signatures at ER stress genes with adiposity and insulin resistance, as revealed by discriminative pathway analyses.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 2162-3279  Vol. 8  Nº 8  2018 
Introduction: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter that regulates the rewarding and motivational processes underlying food intake and eating behaviors. This study hypothesized associations of DNA methylation signatures at genes modulating DA signaling with obesity features, metabolic profiles, and dietary intake. Methods: An adult population within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association project was included (n = 473). DNA methylation levels in white blood cells were measured by microarray (450K). Differentially methylated genes were mapped within the dopaminergic synapse pathway using the KEGG reference database (map04728). Subsequently, network enrichment analyses were run in the pathDIP portal. Associations of methylation patterns with anthropometric markers of general (BMI) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference), the blood metabolic profile, and daily dietary intakes were screened. Results: After applying a correction for multiple comparisons, 12 CpG sites were strongly associated (p < 0.0001) with BMI: cg03489495 (ITPR3), cg22851378 (PPP2R2D), cg04021127 (PPP2R2D), cg22441882 (SLC18A1), cg03045635 (DRD5), cg23341970 (ITPR2), cg13051970 (DDC), cg08943004 (SLC6A3), cg20557710 (CACNA1C), cg24085522 (GNAL), cg16846691 (ITPR2), and cg09691393 (SLC6A3). Moreover, average methylation levels of these genes differed according to the presence or absence of abdominal obesity. Pathway analyses revealed a statistically significant contribution of the aforementioned genes to dopaminergic synapse transmission (p = 4.78E-08). Furthermore, SLC18A1 and SLC6A3 gene methylation signatures correlated with total energy (p < 0.001) and carbohydrate (p < 0.001) intakes. Conclusions: The results of this investigation reveal that methylation status on DA signaling genes may underlie epigenetic mechanisms contributing to carbohydrate and calorie consumption and fat deposition.
Autores: Ramos-López, O.; Samblas García, Mirian; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1525-6073  Vol. 35  Nº 7  2018  págs. 969-981
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0899-9007  Vol. 47  2018  págs. 83 - 89
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two PPARGCIA gene polymorphisms on metabolic outcomes in response to two energy-restricted diets. Methods: A 4-mo nutritional intervention was conducted that involved two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns. Unrelated subjects with excessive weight were genotyped for two PPARGCIA polymorphisms: Rs8192678 (Gly482Ser) and rs3755863 (G > A). Genotyping was performed by next-generation sequencing and haplotypes were screened. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were assessed with standardized methods. Results: Different cholesterol outcomes were observed by diet and Gly482Ser genotype. The Gly482 Gly homozygotes after an LF diet had lower reductions in total cholesterol (-9 mg/dL vs. -27 mg/dL; P = 0.017) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (-5 mg/dL vs. -18 mg/dL; P = 0.016) than the subjects who were carriers of 482 Ser allele. However, this finding was not recorded in the MHP group where Gly482 Gly homozygotes underwent similar cholesterol decreases as the 482 Ser allele carriers. Likewise, all genotype carriers had significant reductions in the frequencies of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >= 200 mg/dL) except for Gly482 Gly homozygotes in the LF group. Meanwhile, the rs3755863 polymorphism and PPARGCIA haplotypes showed borderline effects with regard to cholesterol decreases. Conclusions: An energy-restricted MHP diet might be more beneficial than an LF diet to reduce serum cholesterol among subjects who are carriers of the PPARGCIA Gly482Gly genotype. The analysis of this genetic variant might be the basis for a precise. nutrigenetic management of hypercholesterolemia based on genetic makeup.
Autores: Arpon, A.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Laja, A.; et al.
ISSN 1750-1911  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2018  págs. 91 - 103
Aim: To analyze whether preterm newborns show differences in methylation patterns in comparison to full-term newborns in white blood cells. Patients & methods: Anthropometrical, biochemical features and methylation levels of preterm newborns (n = 24) and full-term newborns (n = 22) recruited in La Paz University Hospital (Spain) were assessed at 12 months of gestational age, whereas Bayley Scale of Infant Development was evaluated at 24/36 months. Results: From all the statistically significant CpGs, methylation levels of cg00997378 (SLC6A3 gene) showed the highest differences (p < 0.0001), being associated with prematurity risk factors. Conclusion: SLC6A3 methylation, previously related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, neuronal function and behavior, might be a potential epigenetic biomarker with value in the early diagnosis and management of neurodevelopmental diseases in newborns.
Autores: Arpón, A.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2018 
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 2162-3945  Vol. 7  Nº 2  2018  págs. 137 - 142
Unresolved ER stress is involved in the onset and progression of several obesity-related metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Different epigenetic modifications may regulate ER stress response and consequently disease risks. These epigenetic phenomena encompass DNA and histone methylation patterns in ER stress genes and downstream signaling molecules, as well as microRNA expression. Our results suggest potential associations of methylation signatures at ER regulatory genes in white blood cells with an abdominal/central obesity marker (waist circumference), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Interestingly, most of these genes were implicated in ER stress, as revealed by pathway enrichment analysis. Together, these findings add knowledge into the current understanding of relationships between obesity and accompanying complications with epigenetics and ER stress. Here, we comment about the implication of ER stress in central/abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, with an emphasis on the role that epigenetics may play on these pathological processes.
Autores: Arpón, A.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 73  Nº 3  2017  págs. 445 - 455
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells. A subset of 36 individuals was selected within the Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea (PREDIMED)-Navarra study, a randomised, controlled, parallel trial with three groups of intervention in high cardiovascular risk volunteers, two with a MedDiet and one low-fat control group. Changes in methylation between baseline and 5 years were studied. DNA methylation arrays were analysed by several robust statistical tests and functional classifications. Eight genes related to inflammation and immunocompetence (EEF2, COL18A1, IL4I1, LEPR, PLAGL1, IFRD1, MAPKAPK2, PPARGC1B) were finally selected as changes in their methylation levels correlated with adherence to MedDiet and because they presented sensitivity related to a high variability in methylation changes. Additionally, EEF2 methylation levels positively correlated with concentrations of TNF-alph
Autores: Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 36  2017  págs. 178 - 185
This study aims to assess methylation modifications in blood cell genes induced by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation, and their potential relationship with metabolic risk biomarkers. Healthy overweight/obese women were assigned to 4 experimental groups (control or groups supplemented with 1.3 g EPA/day, 0.3 g LA/day, or both), all followed a 10-week hypocaloric diet. White blood cells DNA was hybridized in Human-450K-methylation microarray. Differentially methylated CpGs (post-pre) were identified in supplemented groups, including CpG regions from NCK2, FITM2, TRRAP, RPTOR and CREBBP genes. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), LA upregulated NCK2, TRRAP and RPTOR mRNA, which negatively associated with changes in body weight and fat mass. Changes in cg10320884 (TRRAP) methylation site negatively correlated with changes in TRRAP mRNA in PBMC, and positively with Framingham score. Further studies are needed to better characterize the potential involvement of epigenetics in the actions of LA and EPA. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Allayee, H.; et al.
ISSN 1661-6499  Vol. 10  Nº 1 - 2  2017  págs. 43 - 62
Chronic diseases, including obesity, are major causes of morbidity and mortality in most countries. The adverse impacts of obesity and associated comorbidities on health remain a major concern due to the lack of effective interventions for prevention and management. Precision nutrition is an emerging therapeutic approach that takes into account an individual's genetic and epigenetic information, as well as age, gender, or particular physiopathological status. Advances in genomic sciences are contributing to a better understanding of the role of genetic variants and epigenetic signatures as well as gene expression patterns in the development of diverse chronic conditions, and how they may modify therapeutic responses. This knowledge has led to the search for genetic and epigenetic biomarkers to predict the risk of developing chronic diseases and personalizing their prevention and treatment. Additionally, original nutritional interventions based on nutrients and bioactive dietary compounds that can modify epigenetic marks and gene expression have been implemented. Although caution must be exercised, these scientific insights are paving the way for the design of innovative strategies for the control of chronic diseases accompanying obesity. This document provides a number of examples of the huge potential of understanding nutrigenetic, nutrigenomic, and nutriepigenetic roles in precision nutrition.
Autores: Fernandez-Poma, S. M.; Salas Benito, Diego; Lozano Moreda, Teresa; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 77  Nº 13  2017  págs. 3672 - 3684
Recent studies have found that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) expressing PD-1 can recognize autologous tumor cells, suggesting that cells derived from PD-1(+) TILs can be used in adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT). However, no study thus far has evaluated the antitumor activity of PD-1-selected TILs in vivo. In two mouse models of solid tumors, we show that PD-1 allows identification and isolationof tumor-specific TILs without previous knowledge of their antigen specificities. Importantly, despite the high proportion of tumor-reactive T cells present in bulk CD8 TILs before expansion, only T-cell products derived fromsorted PD-1(+), but not from PD-1(-) or bulk CD8 TILs, specifically recognized tumor cells. The fold expansion of PD-1(+) CD8 TILs was 10 times lower than that of PD-1(-) cells, suggesting that outgrowth of PD-1(-) cells was the limiting factor in the tumor specificity of cells derived from bulk CD8 TILs. The highly differentiated state of PD-1(+) cells was likely the main cause hampering ex vivo expansion of this subset. Moreover, PD-1 precisely identified marrow-infiltrating, myeloma-specific T cells in a mouse model of multiple myeloma. In vivo, only cells expanded from PD-1(+) CD8 TILs contained tumor progression, and their efficacy was enhanced by PDL-1 blockade. Overall, our data provide a rationale for the use of PD-1-selected TILs in ACT. (C) 2017 AACR.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Samblas, M.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0271-5317  Vol. 50  2017  págs. 53 - 62
Folate deficiency has been putatively implicated in the onset of diverse metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, by altering epigenetic processes on key regulatory genes. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is involved in the regulation of critical metabolic processes such as adiposity and glucose homeostasis. This study hypothesized associations between low folate intakes and lower methylation levels of the CAMKK2 gene, with the presence of metabolic alterations in subjects with obesity. A cross-sectional ancillary study was conducted in obese subjects (n=47) from the RESMENA study (Spain). Fat mass was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake and metabolic profile were assessed by validated methods. DNA methylation and gene expression in peripheral white blood cells were analyzed by microarray approaches. A total of 51 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites were associated with folate intake (false discovery rate values < 0.0001), including one located in the 5' untranslated region of the CAMKK2 gene (Illumina ID, cg16942632), which was selected and separately analyzed. Subjects with total folate intake lower than 300¿g/d showed more fat mass (especially trunk fat), as well as statistically higher levels of glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, cortisol, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 than those consuming at least or more than 300¿g/d. Of note, folate deficiency was related to lower CAMKK2 methylation. Interestingly, CAMKK2 methylation negatively correlated with the HOMA-IR index. Furthermore, CAMKK2 expression directly correlated with HOMA-IR values. In summary, this study suggests associations between low folate intakes, lower CAMKK2 gene methylation, and insulin resistance in obese individuals.
Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Arpón, A.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0195-6663  Vol. 120  2017  págs. 230 - 239
Individual differences in taste perception may influence appetite, dietary intakes, and subsequently, disease risk. Correlations of DNA methylation patterns at taste transducing genes with BMI and dietary intakes were studied. A nutriepigenomic analysis within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was conducted in 474 adults. DNA methylation in peripheral white blood cells was analyzed by a microarray approach. KEGG pathway analyses were performed concerning the characterization and discrimination of genes involved in the taste transduction pathway. Adjusted FDR values (p < 0.0001) were used to select those CpGs that showed best correlation with BMI. A total of 29 CpGs at taste transducing genes met the FDR criteria. However, only 12 CpGs remained statistically significant after linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. These included cg15743657 (TAS1R2), cg02743674 (TRPM5), cg01790523 (SCN9A), cg15947487 (CALHM1), cg11658986 (ADCY6), cg04149773 (ADCY6), cg02841941 (P2RY1), cg02315111 (P2RX2), cg08273233 (HTR1E), cg14523238 (GABBR2), cg12315353 (GABBR1) and cg05579652 (CACNA1C). Interestingly, most of them were implicated in the sweet taste signaling pathway, except CACNA1C (sour taste). In addition, TAS1R2 methylation at cg15743657 was strongly correlated with total energy (p < 0.0001) and carbohydrate intakes (p < 0.0001). This study suggests that methylation in genes related to sweet taste could be an epigenetic mechanism associated with obesity.
Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 73  Nº 3  2016  págs. 465 - 474
Epigenetics has an important role in the regulation of metabolic adaptation to environmental modifications. In this sense, the determination of epigenetic changes in non-invasive samples during the development of metabolic diseases could play an important role in the procedures in primary healthcare practice. To help translate the knowledge of epigenetics to public health practice, the present study aims to explore the parallelism of methylation levels between white blood cells and buccal samples in relation to obesity and associated disorders. Blood and buccal swap samples were collected from a subsample of the Spanish cohort of the Food4Me study. Infinium HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis was carried out for the determination of methylation levels. Standard deviation for ß values method and concordance correlation analysis were used to select those CpG which showed best parallelism between samples. A total of 277 CpGs met the criteria and were selected for an enrichment analysis and a correlation analysis with anthropometrical and clinical parameters. From those selected CpGs, four presented high associations with BMI (cg01055691 in GAP43; r = -0.92 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.89 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample), HOMA-IR (cg00095677 in ATP2A3; r = 0.82 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.8 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample) and leptin (cg14464133 in ADARB2; r = -0.9182 and rho = -0.94 for blood; r = -0.893 and rho = -0.79 for buccal sample). These findings demonstrate the potential application of non-invasive buccal samples in the identification of surrogate epigenetic biomarkers and identify methylation sites in GAP43, ATP2A3 and ADARB2 genes as potential targets in relation to overweight management and insulin sensibility.
Autores: Zabaleta Azpiroz, Aintzane; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Larrea Leoz, María Esther; et al.
ISSN 0146-6615  Vol. 88  Nº 5  2016  págs. 843 - 851
Viral clearance during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the induction of potent antiviral T-cell responses. Since dendritic cells (DC) are essential in the activation of primary T-cell responses, gene expression was analyzed in DC from patients during acute HCV infection. By using microarrays, gene expression was compared in resting and activated peripheral blood plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC) DC from acute HCV resolving patients (AR) and from patients who become chronically infected (ANR), as well as in healthy individuals (CTRL) and chronically-infected patients (CHR). For pDC, a high number of upregulated genes was found in AR patients, irrespective of DC stimulation. However, for mDC, most evident differences were detected after DC stimulation, again corresponding to upregulated genes in AR patients. Divergent behavior of ANR was also observed when analyzing DC from CTRL and CHR, with ANR patients clustering again apart from these groups. These differences corresponded to metabolism-associated genes and genes belonging to pathways relevant for DC activation and cytokine responses. Thus, upregulation of relevant genes in DC during acute HCV infection may determine viral clearance, suggesting that dysfunctional DC may be responsible for the lack of efficient T-cell responses which lead to chronic HCV infection.
Autores: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
ISSN 2161-3311  Vol. 4  Nº 4  2015  págs. 330 - 339
Epigenetic signatures, which can sometimes be transgenerationally inherited, include DNA methylation, histone covalent modifications, or chromatin folding, as well as microRNAs and other mechanisms that can regulate gene expression without altering the underlying genomic sequence. Maternal malnutrition during perinatal periods has been involved, through fetal or developmental programming, in the susceptibility to excessive adiposity and other non-communicable chronic diseases. Epigenetic encrypts in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, which are affected by nutrition, sedentarism, and age among other factors, can be also reflected in the blood cells. Relationships between obesity and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression have been repeatedly reported, for example. It has been suggested that the obesity status may be mediated by epigenetic marks and that the response to a hypocaloric diet could be related to the methylation profiles of specific gene promoters. This review is focused on the importance of epigenetic regulation, with emphasis on DNA methylation, in the etiology and development of obesity, presenting some target epiobesogenic genes that might be used as biomarkers of weight loss success and weight regain and for preventive and personalized nutrition.
Autores: Zabaleta Azpiroz, Aintzane; D'Avola, Delia; Echeverria Beistegui, Itziar; et al.
ISSN 2329-0501  Vol. 2  2015  págs. 15006
The lack of antiviral cellular immune responses in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection suggests that T-cell vaccines may provide therapeutic benefit. Due to the central role that dendritic cells (DC) play in the activation of T-cell responses, our aim was to carry out a therapeutic vaccination clinical trial in HCV patients using DC. Five patients with chronic HCV infection were vaccinated with three doses of 5¿×¿10(6) or 10(7) autologous DC transduced with a recombinant adenovirus encoding NS3 using the adapter protein CFh40L, which facilitates DC transduction and maturation. No significant adverse effects were recorded after vaccination. Treatment caused no changes in serum liver enzymes nor in viral load. Vaccination induced weak but consistent expansion of T-cell responses against NS3 and adenoviral antigens. Patients' DC, as opposed to murine DC or DC from healthy subjects, secreted high IL-10 levels after transduction, inducing the activation of IL-10-producing T cells. IL-10 blockade during vaccine preparation restored its ability to stimulate anti-NS3 Th1 responses. Thus, vaccination with adenovirus-transduced DC is safe and induces weak antiviral immune responses. IL-10 associated with vaccine preparation may be partly responsible for these effects, suggesting that future vaccines should consider concomitant inhibition of this cytokine
Autores: Lozano Moreda, Teresa; Villanueva Legarda, Lorea; Durántez Delgado, María del Carmen; et al.
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 195  Nº 7  2015  págs. 3180 - 3189
Regulatory T cell (Treg) activity is modulated by a cooperative complex between the transcription factor NFAT and FOXP3, a lineage specification factor for Tregs. FOXP3/NFAT interaction is required to repress expression of IL-2, upregulate expression of the Treg markers CTLA4 and CD25, and confer suppressor function to Tregs. However, FOXP3 is expressed transiently in conventional CD4+ T cells upon TCR stimulation and may lead to T cell hyporesponsiveness. We found that a short synthetic peptide able to inhibit FOXP3/NFAT interaction impaired suppressor activity of conventional Tregs in vitro. Specific inhibition of FOXP3/NFAT interaction with this inhibitory peptide revealed that FOXP3 downregulates NFAT-driven promoter activity of CD40L and IL-17. Inhibition of FOXP3/NFAT interaction upregulated CD40L expression on effector T cells and enhanced T cell proliferation and IL-2, IFN-¿, IL-6, or IL-17 production in response to TCR stimulation. The inhibitory peptide impaired effector T cell conversion into induced Tregs in the presence of TGF-ß. Moreover, in vivo peptide administration showed antitumor efficacy in mice bearing Hepa129 or TC1 tumor cells when combined with sorafenib or with an antitumor vaccine, respectively. Our results suggest that inhibition of NFAT/FOXP3 interaction might improve antitumor immunotherapies.
Autores: Larrea Leoz, María Esther (Autor de correspondencia); Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Aldabe Arregui, Rafael; et al.
Revista: GUT
ISSN 0017-5749  Vol. 63  Nº 4  2014  págs. 665 - 673
Background IL-7 and IL-15 are produced by hepatocytes and are critical for the expansion and function of CD8 T cells. IL-15 needs to be presented by IL-15R¿ for efficient stimulation of CD8 T cells. Methods We analysed the hepatic levels of IL-7, IL-15, IL-15R¿ and interferon regulatory factors (IRF) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (78% genotype 1) and the role of IRF1 and IRF2 on IL-7 and IL-15R¿ expression in Huh7 cells with or without hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon. Results Hepatic expression of both IL-7 and IL-15R¿, but not of IL-15, was reduced in CHC. These patients exhibited decreased hepatic IRF2 messenger RNA levels and diminished IRF2 staining in hepatocyte nuclei. We found that IRF2 controls basal expression of both IL-7 and IL-15R¿ in Huh7 cells. IRF2, but not IRF1, is downregulated in cells with HCV genotype 1b replicon and this was accompanied by decreased expression of IL-7 and IL-15R¿, a defect reversed by overexpressing IRF2. Treating Huh7 cells with IFN¿ plus oncostatin M increased IL-7 and IL-15R¿ mRNA more intensely than either cytokine alone. This effect was mediated by strong upregulation of IRF1 triggered by the combined treatment. Induction of IRF1, IL-7 and IL-15R¿ by IFN¿ plus oncostatin M was dampened in replicon cells but the combination was more effective than either cytokine alone. Conclusions HCV genotype 1 infection downregulates IRF2 in hepatocytes attenuating hepatocellular expression of IL-7 and IL-15R¿. Our data reveal a new mechanism by which HCV abrogates specific T-cell responses and point to a novel therapeutic approach to stimulate anti-HCV immunity.
Autores: Melero Bermejo, Ignacio; Quetglas Más, José Ignacio; Reboredo Prol, María de las Mercedes; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 75  Nº 3  2014  págs. 497 - 507
Host responses are increasingly considered important for the efficacious response to experimental cancer therapies that employ viral vectors, but little is known about the specific nature of host responses required. In this study, we investigated the role of host type I interferons (IFN-I) in the efficacy of virally delivered therapeutic genes. Specifically, we used a Semliki Forest virus encoding IL12 (SFV-IL12) based on its promise as an RNA viral vector for cancer treatment. Intratumoral injection of SFV-IL12 induced production of IFN-I as detected in serum. IFN-I production was abolished in mice deficient for the IFN beta transcriptional regulator IPS-1 and partially attenuated in mice deficient for the IFN beta signaling protein TRIF. Use of bone marrow chimeric hosts established that both hematopoietic and stromal cells were involved in IFN-I production. Macrophages, plasmacytoid, and conventional dendritic cells were each implicated based on cell depletion experiments. Further, mice deficient in the IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) abolished the therapeutic activity of SFV-IL12, as did a specific antibody-mediated blockade of IFNAR signaling. Reduced efficacy was not caused by an impairment in IL12 expression, because IFNAR-deficient mice expressed the viral IL12 transgene even more strongly than wild-type (WT) hosts. Chimeric host analysis for the IFNAR involvement established a strict requirement in hematopoietic cells. Notably, although tumor-specific CD8 T lymphocytes expand
Autores: Fernández Suárez, Diana; Celorrio Navarro, Marta; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0197-4580  Vol. 35  Nº 11  2014  págs. 2603 - 2616
Changes in cannabinoid receptor expression and concentration of endocannabinoids have been described in Parkinson's disease; however, it remains unclear whether they contribute to, or result from, the disease process. To evaluate whether targeting the endocannabinoid system could provide potential benefits in the treatment of the disease, the effect of a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor that prevents degradation of 2-arachidonyl-glycerol was tested in mice treated chronically with probenecid and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTPp). Chronic administration of the compound, JZL184 (8 mg/kg), prevented MPTPp-induced motor impairment and preserved the nigrostriatal pathway. Furthermore, none of the hypokinetic effects associated with cannabinoid receptor agonism were observed. In the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta, MPTPp animals treated with JZL184 exhibited astroglial and microglial phenotypic changes that were accompanied by increases in TGFß messenger RNA expression and in glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA and protein levels. JZL184 induced an increase in ß-catenin translocation to the nucleus, implicating the Wnt/catenin pathway. Together, these results demonstrate a potent neuroprotective effect of JZL184 on the nigrostriatal pathway of parkinsonian animals, likely involving restorative astroglia and microglia activation and the release of neuroprotective and antiinflammatory molecules.
Autores: Hervas Stubbs, Sandra; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Mancheño, U.; et al.
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 193  Nº 3  2014  págs. 1151 - 1161
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are considered to be the principal type-I IFN (IFN-I) source in response to viruses, whereas the contribution of conventional DCs (cDCs) has been underestimated because, on a per-cell basis, they are not considered professional IFN-I-producing cells. We have investigated their respective roles in the IFN-I response required for CTL activation. Using a nonreplicative virus, baculovirus, we show that despite the high IFN-I-producing abilities of pDCs, in vivo cDCs but not pDCs are the pivotal IFN-I producers upon viral injection, as demonstrated by selective pDC or cDC depletion. The pathway involved in the virus-triggered IFN-I response is dependent on TLR9/MyD88 in pDCs and on stimulator of IFN genes (STING) in cDCs. Importantly, STING is the key molecule for the systemic baculovirus-induced IFN-I response required for CTL priming. The supremacy of cDCs over pDCs in fostering the IFN-I response required for CTL activation was also verified in the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model, in which IFN-ß promoter stimulator 1 plays the role of STING. However, when the TLR-independent virus-triggered IFN-I production is impaired, the pDC-induced IFNs-I have a primary impact on CTL activation, as shown by the detrimental effect of pDC depletion and IFN-I signaling blockade on the residual lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-triggered CTL response detected in IFN-ß promoter stimulator 1(-/-) mice. Our findings reveal that cDCs play a major role in the TLR-independent virus-triggered IFN-I production required for CTL priming, whereas pDC-induced IFNs-I are dispensable but become relevant when the TLR-independent IFN-I response is impaired.
Autores: Larrea Leoz, María Esther (Autor de correspondencia); Echeverria Beistegui, Itziar; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 60  Nº 3  2014  págs. 482 - 489
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oncostatin M (OSM) is an inflammatory cytokine which interacts with a heterodimeric receptor formed by gp130 and either OSMRß or LIFR. Here we have analysed OSM and its receptors in livers with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and studied the factors that regulate this system. METHODS: OSM, OSM receptors and OSM-target molecules were studied by immunohistochemistry and/or qPCR analysis in livers from CHC patients and controls. We determined the production of OSM by CD40L-stimulated antigen presenting cells (APC) and its biological effects on HuH7 cells containing HCV replicon (HuH7 Core-3'). RESULTS: OSM was upregulated in livers with CHC and its production was mapped to CD11c+ cells. OSM levels correlated directly with inflammatory activity and CD40L expression. In vitro studies showed that OSM is released by APC upon interaction with activated CD4+ T cells in a CD40L-dependent manner. Culture of HuH7 Core-3' cells with supernatant from CD40L-stimulated APC repressed HCV replication and induced IL-7 and IL-15R¿. These effects were dampened by antibodies blocking OSM or gp130 and by silencing OSMRß. In CHC livers OSMRß and LIFR were significantly downregulated and their values correlated with those of OSM-induced molecules. Experiments in HuH7 cells showed that impaired STAT3 signaling and exposure to TGFß1, two findings in CHC, are factors involved in repressing OSMRß and LIFR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: OSM is a cytokine possessing vigorous antiviral and immunostimulatory properties which is released by APC upon interaction with CD40L present on activated CD4+ T cells. In livers with CHC, OSM is overexpressed but its biological activity appears to be hampered because of downregulation of its receptor subunits.
Autores: Moreno Luqui, Daniel; Balasiddaiah, A.; Lamas Longarela, Óscar; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 8  Nº 9  2013  págs. e74948
It has been shown that the liver of immunodeficient mice can be efficiently repopulated with human hepatocytes when subjected to chronic hepatocellular damage. Mice with such chimeric livers represent useful reagents for medical and clinical studies. However all previously reported models of humanized livers are difficult to implement as they involve cross-breeding of immunodeficient mice with mice exhibiting genetic alterations causing sustained hepatic injury. In this paper we attempted to create chimeric livers by inducing persistent hepatocellular damage in immunodeficient Rag2(-/-) gamma c(-/-) mice using an adenovirus encoding herpes virus thymidine kinase (AdTk) and two consecutive doses of ganciclovir (GCV). We found that this treatment resulted in hepatocellular damage persisting for at least 10 weeks and enabled efficient engraftment and proliferation within the liver of either human or allogenic hepatocytes. Interestingly, while the nodules generated from the transplanted mouse hepatocytes were well vascularized, the human hepatocytes experienced progressive depolarization and exhibited reduced numbers of murine endothelial cells inside the nodules. In conclusion, AdTk/GCV-induced liver damage licenses the liver of immunodeficient mice for allogenic and xenogenic hepatocyte repopulation. This approach represents a simple alternative strategy for chimeric liver generation using immunodeficient mice without additional genetic manipulation of the germ line.
Autores: De Andrés X; Ramírez H; Bertolotti L; et al.
ISSN 0165-2427  Vol. 152  Nº 3-4  2013  págs. 277-88
A single broadly reactive standard ELISA is commonly applied to control small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) spread, but type specific ELISA strategies are gaining interest in areas with highly prevalent and heterogeneous SRLV infections. Short (15-residue) synthetic peptides (n=60) were designed in this study using deduced amino acid sequence profiles of SRLV circulating in sheep from North Central Spain and SRLV described previously. The corresponding ELISAs and two standard ELISAs were employed to analyze sera from sheep flocks either controlled or infected with different SRLV genotypes. Two outbreaks, showing SRLV-induced arthritis (genotype B2) and encephalitis (genotype A), were represented among the infected flocks. The ELISA results revealed that none of the assays detected all the infected animals in the global population analyzed, the assay performance varying according to the genetic type of the strain circulating in the area and the test antigen. Five of the six highly reactive (57-62%) single peptide ELISAs were further assessed, revealing that the ELISA based on peptide 98M (type A ENV-SU5, consensus from the neurological outbreak) detected positives in the majority of the type-A specific sera tested (Se: 86%; Sp: 98%) and not in the arthritic type B outbreak. ENV-TM ELISAs based on peptides 126M1 (Se: 82%; Sp: 95%) and 126M2 0,65 0.77 (Se: 68%; Sp: 88%) detected preferentially caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV, type B) and visna/maedi (VMV, type A) virus infections respectively, which may help to perform a preliminary CAEV vs. VMV-like typing of the flock. The use of particular peptide ELISAs and standard tests individually or combined may be useful in the different areas under study, to determine disease progression, diagnose/type infection and prevent its spread.
Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Gomez-Martin C; de la Mata M; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 59  Nº 1  2013  págs. 81-88
Background & Aims: Tremelimumab is a monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory co-receptor that interferes with T cell activation and proliferation. The purpose of this pilot clinical trial was to test the antitumor and antiviral effect of tremelimumab in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; and to study the safety of its administration to cirrhotic patients. Methods: Tremelimumab at a dose of 15 mg/kg IV every 90 days was administered until tumor progression or severe toxicity. Twenty patients were assessable for toxicity and viral response and 17 were assessable for tumor response. Most patients were in the advanced stage and 43% had an altered liver function (Child-Pugh class B). Results: A good safety profile was recorded and no patient needed steroids because of severe immune-mediated adverse events. Some patients had a transient albeit intense elevation of transaminases after the first dose, but not following subsequent cycles. Partial response rate was 17.6% and disease control rate was 76.4%. Time to progression was 6.48 months (95% CI 3.95-9.14). A significant drop in viral load was observed while new emerging variants of the hypervariable region 1 of HCV replaced the predominant variants present before therapy, particularly in those patients with a more prominent drop in viral load. This antiviral effect was associated with an enhanced specific anti-HCV immune response. Conclusions: Tremelimumab safety profile and antitumor and antiviral activity, in patients with advanced HCC developed on HCV-induced liver cirrhosis, support further investigation. (C) 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Otano Andrés, Itziar; Suárez Amarán, Lester; Dotor, J.; et al.
Revista: Hepatology
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 56  Nº 2  2012  págs. 474 - 483
Autores: Glaria, I; Reina, R; Ramirez, H; et al.
Revista: Veterinary Microbiology
ISSN 0378-1135  Vol. 155  Nº 2-4  2012  págs. 137 - 146
An extensive outbreak characterized by the appearance of neurological symptoms in small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infected sheep has been identified in Spain, but the genetic characteristics of the strain involved and differential diagnostic tools for this outbreak remain unexplored. In this work, 23 Visna-affected naturally infected animals from the outbreak, 11 arthritic animals (both groups presenting anti-Visna/Maedi virus serum antibodies), and 100 seronegative animals were used. Eight of the Visna-affected animals were further studied post-mortem by immunohistochemistry. All had lesions in spinal cord, being the most affected part of the central nervous system in six of them. A representative strain of the outbreak was isolated. Together with other proviral sequences from the outbreak the virus was assigned to genotype A2/A3. In vitro culture of the isolate revealed that viral production was slow/low in fibroblast-like cells but it was high in blood monocyte-derived macrophages. The long terminal repeat (LTR) of the viral genome of this isolate lacked an U3-duplication, but its promoter activity in fibroblast-like cells was normal compared to other strains. Thus, viral production could not be inferred from the LTR promoter activity in this isolate. Analysis of the viral immunodominant epitopes among SRLV sequences of the outbreak and other known sequences allowed the design of a synthetic SU peptide ELISA that detected the Visna affected animals, representing a tool of epidemiological interest to control viral spread of this highly pathogenic strain.
Autores: Hervas Stubbs, Sandra; Mancheño, U; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 189  Nº 7  2012  págs.  3299 - 3310
Autores: Corrales, L; Ajona, D; Rafail, S; et al.
Revista: The Journal of Immunology
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 189  Nº 9  2012  págs. 4674 - 4683
The complement system contributes to various immune and inflammatory diseases, including cancer. In this study, we investigated the capacity of lung cancer cells to activate complement and characterized the consequences of complement activation on tumor progression. We focused our study on the production and role of the anaphylatoxin C5a, a potent immune mediator generated after complement activation. We first measured the capacity of lung cancer cell lines to deposit C5 and release C5a. C5 deposition, after incubation with normal human serum, was higher in lung cancer cell lines than in nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells. Notably, lung malignant cells produced complement C5a even in the absence of serum. We also found a significant increase of C5a in plasma from patients with non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that the local production of C5a is followed by its systemic diffusion. The contribution of C5a to lung cancer growth in vivo was evaluated in the Lewis lung cancer model. Syngeneic tumors of 3LL cells grew slower in mice treated with an antagonist of the C5a receptor. C5a did not modify 3LL cell proliferation in vitro but induced endothelial cell chemotaxis and blood-vessels formation. C5a also contributed to the immunosuppressive microenvironment required for tumor growth. In particular, blockade of C5a receptor significantly reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells and immunomodulators ARG1, CTLA-4, IL-6, IL-10, LAG3, and PDL1 (B7H1). In conclusion, lung cancer cells have the capacity to generate C5a, a molecule that creates a favorable tumor microenvironment for lung cancer progression.
Autores: Tuñón, MJ; San Miguel, B; Crespo, I; et al.
ISSN 0022-538X  Vol. 85  Nº 24  2011  págs. 13124 - 13132
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes lethal fulminant hepatitis closely resembling acute liver failure (ALF) in humans. In this study, we investigated whether cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a cytokine with hepatoprotective properties, could attenuate liver damage and prolong survival in virus-induced ALF. Twenty-four rabbits were infected with 2 x 10(4) hemagglutination units of RHDV. Twelve received five doses of CT-1 (100 mu g/kg) starting at 12 h postinfection (hpi) (the first three doses every 6 h and then two additional doses at 48 and 72 hpi), while the rest received saline. The animals were analyzed for survival, serum biochemistry, and viral load. Another cohort (n = 22) was infected and treated similarly, but animals were sacrificed at 30 and 36 hpi to analyze liver histology, viral load, and the expression of factors implicated in liver damage and repair. All infected rabbits that received saline died by 60 hpi, while 67% of the CT-1-treated animals survived until the end of the study. Treated animals showed improved liver function and histology, while the viral loads were similar. In the livers of CT-1-treated rabbits we observed reduction of oxidative stress, diminished PARP1/2 and JNK activation, and decreased inflammatory reaction, as reflected by reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, Toll-like receptor 4, VCAM-1, and MMP-9. In addition, CT-1-treated rabbits exhibited marked upregulation of TIMP-1 and increased expression of cytoprotective and proregenerative growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor B, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, and c-Met. In conclusion, in a lethal form of acute viral hepatitis, CT-1 increases animal survival by attenuating inflammation and activating cytoprotective mechanisms, thus representing a promising therapy for ALF of viral origin.
Autores: Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Larrea Leoz, María Esther; Aldabe Arregui, Rafael; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 54  Nº 3  2011  págs. 422 - 431
Autores: Aranda Vega, Fernando; Llopiz Khatchikian, Diana Isabel; Diaz-Valdés Farray, Nancy; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 71  Nº 9  2011  págs. 3214 - 3224
Autores: Diaz-Valdés Farray, Nancy; Basagoiti Fermin, María; Dotor de las Herrerías, Javier; et al.
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 71  Nº 3  2011  págs. 812 - 821
Autores: Echeverria Beistegui, Itziar; Pereboev, A; Silva Vergara, Leire María; et al.
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 1  Nº 54  2011  págs. 28 - 37
Autores: Arribillaga Arangoa, Laura; Dotor de las Herrerías, Javier; Basagoiti Fermin, María; et al.
ISSN 1043-4666  Vol. 53  Nº 3  2011  págs. 327 - 333
Autores: Diaz-Valdés Farray, Nancy; Manterola Careaga, Lorea; Belsúe Urquizu, Virginia; et al.
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 53  Nº 1  2011  págs. 23 - 31
Autores: Schröder, Paul C; Segura Ruiz, Victor; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
Revista: Functional & Integrative Genomics
ISSN 1438-793X  Vol. 11  Nº 3  2011  págs. 419 - 429
Autores: Durántez Delgado, María del Carmen; Fayolle, C; Casares Lagar, Noelia; et al.
Revista: VACCINE
ISSN 0264-410X  Vol. 28  Nº 44  2010  págs. 7146-7154
Staphylococcus epidermidis releases a complex of at least four peptides, termed phenol-soluble modulins (PSM), which stimulate macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines via activation of TLR2 signalling pathway. We demonstrated that covalent linkage of PSM peptides to an antigen facilitate its capture by dendritic cells and, in combination with different TLR ligands, can favour the in vivo induction of strong and persistent antigen-specific immune responses. Treatment of mice grafted with HPV16-E7-expressing tumor cells (TC-1)with poly(l: C) and a peptide containing alpha Mod linked to the H-2D(b)-restricted cytotoxic T-cell epitope E7(49-57) from HPV16-E7 protein allowed complete tumor regression in 100% of the animals. Surprisingly, this immunomodulatory property of modulin-derived peptides was TLR2 independent and partially dependent upon the EGF-receptor signalling pathway. Our results suggest that alpha or gamma modulin peptides may serve as a suitable antigen carrier for the development of anti-tumoral or anti-viral vaccines. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Casares Lagar, Noelia; Rudilla Salvador, Francesc; Arribillaga Arangoa, Laura; et al.
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 185  Nº 9  2010  págs. 5150 - 5159
Immunosuppressive activity of regulatory T cells (Treg) may contribute to the progression of cancer or infectious diseases by preventing the induction of specific immune responses. Using a phage-displayed random peptide library, we identified a 15-mer synthetic peptide, P60, able to bind to forkhead/winged helix transcription factor 3 (FOXP3), a factor required for development and function of Treg. P60 enters the cells, inhibits FOXP3 nuclear translocation, and reduces its ability to suppress the transcription factors NF-¿B and NFAT. In vitro, P60 inhibited murine and human-derived Treg and improved effector T cell stimulation. P60 administration to newborn mice induced a lymphoproliferative autoimmune syndrome resembling the reported pathology in scurfy mice lacking functional Foxp3. However, P60 did not cause toxic effects in adult mice and, when given to BALB/c mice immunized with the cytotoxic T cell epitope AH1 from CT26 tumor cells, it induced protection against tumor implantation. Similarly, P60 improved the antiviral efficacy of a recombinant adenovirus expressing NS3 protein from hepatitis C virus. Functional inhibition of Treg by the FOXP3-inhibitory peptide P60 constitutes a strategy to enhance antitumor and antiviral immunotherapies.
Autores: Hervas Stubbs, Sandra; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; González, I; et al.
Revista: European Journal of Immunology
ISSN 0014-2980  Vol. 40  Nº 12  2010  págs. 3389 - 3402



Métodos instrumentales en bioquímica y biología molecular II (F.Ciencias). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Ciencias.

Métodos instrumentales en bioquímica y biología molecular I (F.Ciencias). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Ciencias.