Nuestros investigadores

María Dolores Lozano Escario

Laboratorio de Anatomía Patológica
Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Clínica Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Anatomía patológica, Citopatología molecular, Inmunopatología
Índice H
27, (WoS, 11/11/2020)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores (Autor de correspondencia); Landa, A. ; García Tobar, Laura; et al.
ISSN 8755-1039  Vol. 48  Nº 9  2020  págs. 827 - 832
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is rare and a highly aggressive neoplasm that typically involves the soft tissues of the abdomen or pelvis in children or young adults, showing a male predilection. Although it can occurs over a wide age range, the peak incidence is in the third decade of life. DSRCT usually shows widespread abdominal serosal involvement, and overall patient survival is poor. On the other hand, extra-abdominal DSRCT is very rare. DSRCT in major salivary glands has been reported, but it is extremely rare. In the majority of reported series diagnosis is made by the histological analysis of FFPE tissues together with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular analysis, particularly the demonstration of chromosomal translocation involving EWSR1. Very few cases have been diagnosed so far by Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) cytology. Moreover ancillary studies have been performed in all reported cases in FFPE samples. There is still controversy and lack of consensus regarding the suitability of cytological samples especially smears for immunocytochemical (ICC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), what makes its standardization difficult. We report a case of a primary DSRCT of parotid gland in a 17-year-old male diagnosed by FNA cytology. The cytomorphological diagnosis was coupled with ICC and FISH analysis performed on stained smears. We emphasize the feasibility and reliability of cytological smears for the application of immunocytochemical and molecular techniques.
Autores: Saieg, M. , (Autor de correspondencia); Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Perez-Machado, M.;
ISSN 8755-1039  Vol. 48  Nº 9  2020  págs. 819 - 820
Autores: Vigliar, E. ; Cepurnaite, R. ; Alcaraz-Mateos, E. ; et al.
ISSN 1934-662X  2020 
Background To the authors' knowledge, the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on cytopathology practices worldwide has not been investigated formally. In the current study, data from 41 respondents from 23 countries were reported. Methods Data regarding the activity of each cytopathology laboratory during 4 weeks of COVID-19 lockdown were collected and compared with those obtained during the corresponding period in 2019. The overall number and percentage of exfoliative and fine-needle aspiration cytology samples from each anatomic site were recorded. Differences in the malignancy and suspicious rates between the 2 periods were analyzed using a meta-analytical approach. Results Overall, the sample volume was lower compared with 2019 (104,319 samples vs 190,225 samples), with an average volume reduction of 45.3% (range, 0.1%-98.0%). The percentage of samples from the cervicovaginal tract, thyroid, and anorectal region was significantly reduced (P < .05). Conversely, the percentage of samples from the urinary tract, serous cavities, breast, lymph nodes, respiratory tract, salivary glands, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, and biliary tract increased (P < .05). An overall increase of 5.56% (95% CI, 3.77%-7.35%) in the malignancy rate in nongynecological samples during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed. When the suspicious category was included, the overall increase was 6.95% (95% CI, 4.63%-9.27%). Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a drastic reduction in the total number of cytology specimens regardless of anatomic site or specimen type. The rate of malignancy increased, reflecting the prioritization of patients with cancer who were considered to be at high risk. Prospective monitoring of the effect of delays in access to health services during the lockdown period is warranted.
Autores: Hurtado Pardo, Luis; Álvarez-Cienfuegos Suárez, Francisco Javier; Antoñanzas Pérez, Javier; et al.
ISSN 1130-0108  Vol. 112  Nº 2  2020  págs. 85 - 89
Objective: the objective of the present study was to analyze the characteristics of resected incidental lesions of the pancreas. Material and methods: a retrospective study was performed of pancreatectomies due to incidentalomas between 1995 and 2018. Results: one hundred pancreatectomies were performed due to incidental lesions; 64 (64%) were solid and 36 (36%) were cystic lesions. The cytological analysis agreed with the diagnosis in 67/71 (88.7%) cases. Thirty-six tumors were cystic, 48 were neuroendocrine and 16 were adenocarcinomas. Disease-free survival for patients with cystic, neuroendocrine tumors and adenocarcinomas was 100%, 79% and 57.7% (p < 0.04). Conclusion: pancreatic incidentalomas have a heterogeneous phenotype and should be treated in experienced centers
Autores: Morales Lozano, María Isabel; Erhard García, Álvaro; Lozano Escario, María Dolores; et al.
ISSN 2253-654X  Vol. 39  Nº 2  2020  págs. 102 - 103
Autores: Recalde Zamacona, Borja; García Tobar, Laura; Argueta Morales, Allan; et al.
Revista: THORAX
ISSN 1468-3296  Vol. 75  Nº 12  2020  págs. 1116 - 1118
In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome associated to SARS-CoV2 was reported in Wuhan, China. To date, little is known on histopathological findings in patients infected with the new SARS-CoV2. Lung histopathology shows features of acute and organising diffuse alveolar damage. Subtle cellular inflammatory infiltrate has been found in line with the cytokine storm theory. Medium-size vessel thrombi were frequent, but capillary thrombi were not present. Despite the elevation of biochemical markers of cardiac injury, little histopathological damage could be confirmed. Viral RNA from paraffin sections was detected at least in one organ in 90% patients.
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; García Tobar, Laura; Abengozar Muela, Marta; et al.
ISSN 0023-6837  Vol. 100  Nº Supl. 1  2020  págs. 392
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Abengozar Muela, Marta; Alvarez, M.; et al.
ISSN 0023-6837  Vol. 100  Nº Supl. 1  2020  págs. 391 - 392
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Abengozar Muela, Marta; Alvarez, M.; et al.
ISSN 0023-6837  Vol. 100  Nº Supl. 1  2020  págs. 390 - 391
Autores: Elgendy, M.; Fusco, Juan Pablo; Segura Ruiz, Victor; et al.
ISSN 0020-7136  Vol. 145  Nº 7  2019  págs. 1991 - 2001
Sunitinib is one of the most widely used targeted therapeutics for renal cell-cancer (RCC) but acquired resistance against targeted therapies remains a major clinical challenge. To dissect mechanisms of acquired resistance and unravel reliable predictive biomarkers for sunitinib in renal cell-cancer (RCC), we sequenced the exons of 409 tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes in paired tumor samples from an RCC patient, obtained at baseline and following development of acquired resistance to sunitinib. From newly arising mutations, we selected, using in-silico prediction models, 6 predicted to be deleterious, located in G6PD, LRP1B, SETD2, TET2, SYNE1 and DCC. Consistently, immunoblotting analysis of lysates derived from sunitinib-desensitized RCC cells and their parental counterparts showed marked differences in the levels and expression pattern of the proteins encoded by these genes. Our further analysis demonstrates essential roles for these proteins in mediating sunitinib cytotoxicity and shows that their loss of function render tumor cells resistant to sunitinib in vitro and in vivo. Finally, sunitinib resistance induced by continuous exposure or by inhibition of the 6 proteins was overcome by treatment with cabozantinib or a low-dose combination of lenvatinib and everolimus. Collectively, our results unravel novel markers of acquired resistance to sunitinib and clinically relevant approaches for overcoming this resistance in RCC.
Autores: Pisapia, P.; Malapelle, U.; Roma, G.; et al.
ISSN 1934-662X  Vol. 127  Nº 5  2019  págs. 285 - 296
Background Artificial genomic reference standards in a cytocentrifuge/cytospin format with well-annotated genomic data are useful for validating next-generation sequencing (NGS) on routine cytopreparations. Here, reference standards were optimized to be stained by different laboratories before DNA extraction and to contain a lower number of cells (2 x 10(5)). This was done to better reflect the clinical challenge of working with insufficient cytological material. Methods A total of 17 worldwide laboratories analyzed customized reference standard slides (slides A-D). Each laboratory applied its standard workflow. The sample slides were engineered to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) c.2235_2249del15 p.E746_A750delELREA, EGFR c.2369C>T p.T790M, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) c.38G>A p.G13D, and B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) c.1798_1799GT>AA p.V600K mutations at various allele frequencies (AFs). Results EGFR and KRAS mutation detection showed excellent interlaboratory reproducibility, especially on slides A and B (10% and 5% AFs). On slide C (1% AF), either the EGFR mutation or the KRAS mutation was undetected by 10 of the 17 laboratories (58.82%). A reassessment of the raw data in a second-look analysis highlighted the mutations (n = 10) that had been missed in the first-look analysis. BRAF c.1798_1799GT>AA p.V600K showed a lower concordance rate for mutation detection and AF quantification. Conclusions The data show that the detection of low-abundance mutations is still clinically challenging and may require a visual inspection of sequencing reads to detect. Genomic reference standards in a cytocentrifuge/cytospin format are a valid tool for regular quality assessment of laboratories performing molecular studies on cytology with low-AF mutations.
Autores: Datar, I.; Fernández de Sanmamed Gutiérrez, Miguel; Wang, J.; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 25  Nº 15  2019  págs. 4663 - 4673
Purpose: To determine the tumor tissue/cell distribution, functional associations, and clinical significance of PD-1, LAG3, and TIM-3 protein expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Experimental Design: Using multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence, we performed localized measurements of CD3, PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 protein in > 800 clinically annotated NSCLCs from three independent cohorts represented in tissue microarrays. Associations between the marker's expression and major genomic alterations were studied in The Cancer Genome Atlas NSCLC dataset. Using mass cytometry (CyTOF) analysis of leukocytes collected from 20 resected NSCLCs, we determined the levels, coexpression, and functional profile of PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 expressing immune cells. Finally, we measured the markers in baseline samples from 90 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1 axis blockers and known response to treatment. Results: PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 were detected in tumorinfiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from 55%, 41.5%, and 25.3% of NSCLC cases, respectively. These markers showed a prominent association with each other and limited association with major clinicopathologic variables and survival in patients not receiv-ing immunotherapy. Expression of the markers was lower in EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas and displayed limited association with tumor mutational burden. In single-cell CyTOF analysis, PD-1 and LAG-3 were predominantly localized on T-cell subsets/NKT cells, whereas TIM-3 expression was higher in NK cells and macrophages. Coexpression of PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 was associated with prominent T-cell activation (CD69/CD137), effector function (Granzyme-B), and proliferation (Ki-67), but also with elevated levels of proapoptotic markers (FAS/BIM). LAG-3 and TIM-3 were present in TIL subsets lacking PD-1 expression and showed a distinct functional profile. In baseline samples from 90 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1 axis blockers, elevated LAG-3 was significantly associated with shorter progressionfree survival. Conclusions: PD-1, LAG-3, and TIM-3 have distinct tissue/cell distribution, functional implications, and genomic correlates in human NSCLC. Expression of these immune inhibitory receptors in TILs is associated with prominent activation, but also with a proapoptotic T-cell phenotype. Elevated LAG-3 expression is associated with insensitivity to PD-1 axis blockade, suggesting independence of these immune evasion pathways.
Autores: Bates, M., (Autor de correspondencia); González Vázquez, Santiago; Bojórquez Gutiérrez, Alejandro Enrique; et al.
ISSN 1130-0108  Vol. 111  Nº 5  2019  págs. 345 - 350
Background and objectives: there are few published data on the use of EUS guided fine-needle aspiration in secondary pancreatic lesions. We describe the largest series published so far in a European country. Patients and methods: a retrospective review of the cases identified in our institution from 2004 to 2016 has been recorded. The clinical data are described, comparing the latency period from the primary tumor diagnosis to the detection of the pancreatic metastasis and the survival of patients according to the cytological diagnosis. Results: forty-four patients were diagnosed with pancreatic metastasis using EUS guided fine needle aspiration. Ancillary cytological studies were performed in 28 (63.6%). The most common primary tumor sites were kidney and lung. Thirty-four patients (77.3%) had a previous history of malignancy, with a latency period ranging from 6 months to 18.8 years. Patients diagnosed with primary renal carcinoma had a significantly longer latency period and longer survival compared to those with primary lung cancer. In 13 patients, EUS was either the only technique that detected the PM or showed a greater number of intrapancreatic lesions. These metastases were significantly smaller than those diagnosed by other imaging studies (11.9 +/- 4.1 mm vs 30.7 +/- 19.8 mm, p < 0.001). Conclusions: EUS guided fine-needle aspiration plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of pancreatic metastases and may have a major clinical impact. Patients with renal cell carcinoma could benefit from long-term follow-up with EUS.
Autores: Subtil Íñigo, José Carlos; Alcázar Zambrano, Juan Luis (Autor de correspondencia); Betes Ibáñez, María Teresa; et al.
ISSN 0278-4297  Vol. 38  Nº 3  2019  págs. 761 - 765
Objectives To assess the feasibility of gastrointestinal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for histologic confirmation of cancer recurrence in women with gynecologic cancer. Methods This work was a retrospective cohort study comprising 46 consecutive women treated for gynecologic cancer and suspected of having a deep pelvic or abdominal recurrence on ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging, evaluated at our institution from January 2010 to December 2017. Primary cancer was ovarian (n = 22), cervical (n = 13), endometrial (n = 4), sarcoma (n = 4), and other (n = 3). All women underwent EUS examinations for locating the lesion and guiding FNA. The results of FNA (benign/malignant) were assessed. Procedure-related complications were recorded. Results The patients' mean age was 57.8 years. A total of 66 procedures were performed. Eleven women underwent 2 procedures; 2 women underwent 3 procedures; and 1 woman underwent 6 procedures at different times during the study period. In 1 case, no lesion was detected on the EUS assessment, and in 2 cases, FNA was not successful. Most lesions were located in the retroperitoneum or involved the intestine. Fine-needle aspiration could be performed in 63 cases (94.5%). Cytologic samples were adequate in 62 of 63 (98.4%). Recurrence was confirmed in 56 cases (90.3%) and ruled out in 6 (9.7%). No patient had any complication related to the procedure. Conclusions Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA is a minimally invasive, feasible, and safe technique for confirming pelvic/abdominal recurrence of gynecologic cancer.
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Abengozar Muela, Marta; Echeveste, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1934-662X  Vol. 127  Nº 7  2019  págs. 470 - 480
Background Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), is used to select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 therapy. The current study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of PD-L1 immunostaining and quantitation on direct Papanicolaou-stained cytological smears compared with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples (cytological cell blocks and surgical resection specimens) in NSCLC cases using 2 commercially available assays: the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx assay (Agilent Technologies/Dako, Carpinteria, CA, USA) and the Ventana SP263 Assay (Ventana Medical Systems Inc, Tucson, Arizona). Methods PD-L1 immunostaining using either both or one of the assays was tested in 117 sets of paired samples obtained from 62 NSCLC cases. The tumor proportion score was reported in every case following the recommendations of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Results In 57 sets of samples, both PD-L1 assays were used. Due to the availability of samples, only 1 assay was performed in 3 sets of samples and in 2 cases, only cytology smears were used and tested for both assays. A total of 113 sets of paired samples finally were evaluated; 4 cases could not be studied due to intense nonspecific background staining. A significant concordance between the 2 assays on cytological smears was found. Concordance between paired cytological smears and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples was observed in 97.3% of the cases. Conclusions The quantification of PD-L1 expression on direct Papanicolaou-stained cytology smears is feasible and reliable for both PD-L1 assays.
Autores: Conde, E. ; Hernandez, S.; Martinez, R.; et al.
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 14  Nº 12  2019  págs. 2120 - 2132
Introduction: The ROS1 gene rearrangement has become an important biomarker in NSCLC. The College of American Pathologists/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/Association for Molecular Pathology testing guidelines support the use of ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a screening test, followed by confirmation with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or a molecular test in all positive results. We have evaluated a novel anti-ROS1 IHC antibody (SP384) in a large multicenter series to obtain real-world data. Methods: A total of 43 ROS1 FISH-positive and 193 ROS1 FISH-negative NSCLC samples were studied. All specimens were screened by using two antibodies (clone D4D6 from Cell Signaling Technology and clone SP384 from Ventana Medical Systems), and the different interpretation criteria were compared with break-apart FISH (Vysis). FISH-positive samples were also analyzed with next-generation sequencing (Oncomine Dx Target Test Panel, Thermo Fisher Scientific). Results: An H-score of 150 or higher or the presence of at least 70% of tumor cells with an intensity of staining of 2thorn or higher by the SP384 clone was the optimal cutoff value (both with 93% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The D4D6 clone showed similar results, with an H-score of at least 100 (91% sensitivity and 100% specificity). ROS1 expression in normal lung was more frequent with use of the SP384 clone (p < 0.0001). The ezrin gene (EZR)-ROS1 variant was associated with membranous staining and an isolated green signal FISH pattern (p = 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). Conclusions: The new SP384 ROS1 IHC clone showed excellent sensitivity without compromising specificity, so it is another excellent analytical option for the proposed testing algorithm. (C) 2019 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Autores: Villalba Esparza, María; Expósito Rincón, Francisco; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN 2077-0383  Vol. 8  Nº 12  2019  págs. E2134
Relapse rates in surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are between 30% and 45% within five years of diagnosis, which shows the clinical need to identify those patients at high risk of recurrence. The eighth TNM staging system recently refined the classification of NSCLC patients and their associated prognosis, but molecular biomarkers could improve the heterogeneous outcomes found within each stage. Here, using two independent cohorts (MDA and CIMA-CUN) and the eighth TNM classification, we show that TMPRSS4 protein expression is an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC, particularly for patients at stage I: relapse-free survival (RFS) HR, 2.42 (95% CI, 1.47-3.99), p < 0.001; overall survival (OS) HR, 1.99 (95% CI, 1.25-3.16), p = 0.004). In stage IA, high levels of this protein remained associated with worse prognosis (p = 0.002 for RFS and p = 0.001 for OS). As TMPRSS4 expression is epigenetically regulated, methylation status could be used in circulating tumor DNA from liquid biopsies to monitor patients. We developed a digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) method to quantify absolute copy numbers of methylated and unmethylated CpGs within the TMPRSS4 and SHOX2 (as control) promoters in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. In case-control studies, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 hypomethylation can be used as a diagnostic tool in early stages, with an AUROC of 0.72 (p = 0.008; 91% specificity and 52% sensitivity) for BAL and 0.73 (p = 0.015; 65% specificity and 90% sensitivity) for plasma, in early stages. In conclusion, TMPRSS4 protein expression can be used to stratify patients at high risk of relapse/death in very early stages NSCLC patients. Moreover, analysis of TMPRSS4 methylation status by ddPCR in blood and BAL is feasible and could serve as a non-invasive biomarker to monitor surgically resected patients.
Autores: Martín Romano, Patricia (Autor de correspondencia); Pérez Solans, Belén; Cano Rafart, David; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 14  Nº 5  2019  págs. e0215970
Background Perioperative chemotherapy (CT) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced gastric (GC) or gastroesophageal junction cancer (GEJC) has been shown to improve survival compared to an exclusive surgical approach. However, most patients retain a poor prognosis due to important relapse rates. Population pharmacokinetic-pharma-codynamic (PK/PD) modeling may allow identifying at risk-patients. We aimed to develop a mechanistic PK/PD model to characterize the relationship between the type of neoadjuvant therapy, histopathologic response and survival times in locally advanced GC and GEJC patients. Methods Patients with locally advanced GC and GEJC treated with neoadjuvant CT with or without preoperative CRT were analyzed. Clinical response was assessed by CT-scan and EUS. Pathologic response was defined as a reduction on pTNM stage compared to baseline cTNM. Metastasis development risk and overall survival (OS) were described using the population approach with NONMEM 7.3. Model evaluation was performed through predictive checks. Results A low correlation was observed between clinical and pathologic TNM stage for both T (R = 0.32) and N (R = 0.19) categories. A low correlation between clinical and pathologic response was noticed (R = -0.29). The OS model adequately described the observed survival rates. Disease recurrence, cTNM stage >= 3 and linitis plastica absence, were correlated to a higher risk of death. Conclusion Our model adequately described clinical response profiles, though pathologic response could not be predicted. Although the risk of disease recurrence and survival were linked, the identification of alternative approaches aimed to tailor therapeutic strategies to the individual patient risk warrants further research.
Autores: Martin-Cardona, A.; Fernandez-Esparrach, G.; Subtil Íñigo, José Carlos; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 14  Nº 6  2019  págs. e0216658
Background There are limited data about the role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA), by fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) or biopsy (EUS-FNB), in the evaluation of the adrenal glands (AG). The primary aim was to assess the diagnostic yield and safety. The secondary aims were the malignancy predictors, and to create a predictive model of malignancy. Methods This was a retrospective nationwide study involving all Spanish hospitals experienced in EUS-TA of AGs. Inclusion period was from April-2003 to April-2016. Inclusion criteria: all consecutive cases that underwent EUS-TA of AGs. EUS and cytopathology findings were evaluated. Statistical analyses: diagnostic accuracy of echoendoscopist's suspicion using cytology by EUS-TA, as gold standard; multivariate logistic regression model to predict tumor malignancy. Results A total of 204 EUS-TA of AGs were evaluated. Primary tumor locations were lung70%, others19%, and unknown 11% AG samples were adequate for cytological diagnosis in 91%, and confirmed malignancy in 60%. Diagnostic accuracy of the endosonographer's suspicion was 68%. The most common technique was: a 22-G (65%) and cytological needle (75%) with suction -syringe (66%). No serious adverse events were described. The variables most associated with malignancy were size>30mm (OR2.27; 95%Cl, 1.16-4.05), heterogeneous echo pattern (OR2.11; 95%Cl, 1.1-3.9), variegated AG shape (OR2.46; 95%Cl, 1-6.24), and endosonographer suspicion (OR17.46; 95%Cl, 6.2-58.5). The best variables for a predictive multivariate logistic model of malignancy were age, sex, echo-pattern, and AG-shape. Conclusions EUS-TA of the AGs is a safe, minimally invasive procedure, allowing an excellent diagnostic yield. These results suggest the possibility of developing a pre-EUS procedure predictive malignancy model.
Autores: Bertoglio, P. ; Cattoni, M.; Nachira, D.; et al.
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 14  Nº 10  2019  págs. S895 - S896
Autores: De Andrea, Carlos Eduardo; Abengozar Muela, Marta; García Ros, David; et al.
ISSN 0023-6837  Vol. 99  Nº Supl. 1  2019  págs. 1820
Autores: Campo Ezquibela, Aránzazu; Olmos, P. E. Y.; Ocón de Miguel, María del Mar; et al.
ISSN 0903-1936  Vol. 54  Nº Supl. 63  2019 
Autores: De Andrea, Carlos Eduardo; Villalba Esparza, María; Expósito Rincón, Francisco; et al.
ISSN 0023-6837  Vol. 99  Nº Supl. 1  2019 
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Echeveste, José Ignacio; Abengozar Muela, Marta; et al.
ISSN 0003-9985  Vol. 142  Nº 3  2018  págs. 291 - 298
CONTEXT: - The rapid advances in targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) make the optimization and implementation of cytology specimens for molecular testing a priority. Up to 70% of patients with NSCLC are diagnosed at advanced stages and tissue biopsies often cannot be taken. Although cytology samples provide high-quality material for molecular testing, molecular cytopathology is not yet well known or widely used. OBJECTIVE: - To report the many advances in molecular cytopathology and the suitability and utility of cytology samples in molecular and genetic testing of NSCLC. DATA SOURCES: - Data sources comprised published peer-reviewed literature and personal experience of the authors. CONCLUSIONS: - Molecular testing can be performed on cytologic specimens, especially on direct smears. Rapid on-site evaluation by cytopathologists has improved the adequacy and the management of cytology samples for molecular testing. Mutational profiling of NSCLC using next-generation sequencing can be performed on cytology samples from very small amounts of DNA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assays on cytology specimens, including stained direct smear, offer some distinct advantages over their histologic counterpart, and are used to detect ALK and ROS1 rearrangements in NSCLC. Cytology specimens allow assessment of the entire tumor cell nucleus, avoiding signal loss from truncation artifacts. The use of cytology samples for assessing programmed death ligand-1 protein expression is currently being developed. Protocols for bisulfite conversion and DNA droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assays have been optimized for cytology smear to investigate aberrant DNA methylation of several NSCLC-related genes
Autores: Martinez-Terroba, E.; Behrens, C.; de Miguel, F. J.; et al.
ISSN 0022-3417  Vol. 245  Nº 4  2018  págs. 421 - 432
Each of the pathological stages (I-IIIa) of surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer has hidden biological heterogeneity, manifested as heterogeneous outcomes within each stage. Thus, the finding of robust and precise molecular classifiers with which to assess individual patient risk is an unmet medical need. Here, we identified and validated the clinical utility of a new prognostic signature based on three proteins (BRCA1, QKI, and SLC2A1) to stratify early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients according to their risk of recurrence or death. Patients were staged according to the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) staging criteria (8th edition, 2018). A test cohort (n=239) was used to assess the value of this new prognostic index (PI) based on the three proteins. The prognostic signature was developed by Cox regression with the use of stringent statistical criteria (TRIPOD: Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis). The model resulted in a highly significant predictor of 5-year outcome for disease-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p<0.001). The prognostic ability of the model was externally validated in an independent multi-institutional cohort of patients (n=114, p=0.021). We also demonstrated that this molecular classifier adds relevant information to the gold standard TNM-based pathological staging, with a highly significant improvement of the likelihood ratio. We subsequently developed a combined PI including both the molecular and the pathological data that improved the risk stratification in both cohorts (p <= 0.001). Moreover, the signature may help to select stage I-IIA patients who might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. In summary, this protein-based signature accurately identifies those patients with a high risk of recurrence and death, and adds further prognostic information to the TNM-based clinical staging, even when the new IASLC 8th edition staging criteria are applied. More importantly, it may be a valuable tool for selecting patients for adjuvant therapy. Copyright (C) 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Arean-Cuns, C., (Autor de correspondencia); Mercado-Gutierrez, M.; Paniello-Alastruey, I. ; et al.
ISSN 0945-6317  Vol. 473  Nº 5  2018  págs. 599 - 606
Globally, cervical cancer (CC) screening is moving from cytology-based to HPV screening or a combination of both (co-testing). Most HPV-positive women clear the virus and do not develop relevant disease. Additional triage approaches are needed to reduce unnecessary colposcopy referrals. The p16/Ki67 dual stain cytology test (DSCT) is one of the most promising, but it has not (yet) been included as a recommendation in European guidelines. Previous studies in Spain on this issue are lacking. We studied the performance of p16/Ki67 DSCT for the triage of HPV-positive women in Navarra to detect precursor lesions (PLs) and CC compared to cytology only. We selected 1865 HPV-positive women with p16/Ki67 DSCT results and 304 women with an available biopsy result. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the p16/Ki67 DSCT to detect underlying PLs and CC compared to cytology were calculated, using the biopsy as the gold standard. Cytology and p16/Ki67 DSCT showed similar sensitivity (99.0% vs. 98.0%), but cytology had significantly lower specificity (6.9 vs. 39.1%). Of the CIN2+/HPV+ women, triage using cytology only would have resulted in 40.2% true PLs and CC, while using p16/Ki67 DSCT this was 98.0% qualifying the women for colposcopy referral. Our results show that p16/Ki67 DSCT detects more than twice as many true PLs and CC than cytology only in this population. Thus, this test can be considered as an important additional tool in HPV testing-based screening strategies, to avoid unnecessary colposcopy referrals and to reduce health care costs.
Autores: Fusco, Juan Pablo; Pita, G.; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN 2045-7634  Vol. 7  Nº 7  2018  págs. 3474 - 3483
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may modulate individual susceptibility to carcinogens. We designed a genome-wide association study to characterize individuals presenting extreme phenotypes of high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and we validated our results. We hypothesized that this strategy would enrich the frequencies of the alleles that contribute to the observed traits. We genotyped 2.37 million SNPs in 95 extreme phenotype individuals, that is: heavy smokers that either developed NSCLC at an early age (extreme cases); or did not present NSCLC at an advanced age (extreme controls), selected from a discovery set (n=3631). We validated significant SNPs in 133 additional subjects with extreme phenotypes selected from databases including >39,000 individuals. Two SNPs were validated: rs12660420 (p(combined)=5.66x10(-5); ORcombined=2.80), mapping to a noncoding transcript exon of PDE10A; and rs6835978 (p(combined)=1.02x10(-4); ORcombined=2.57), an intronic variant in ATP10D. We assessed the relevance of both proteins in early-stage NSCLC. PDE10A and ATP10D mRNA expressions correlated with survival in 821 stage I-II NSCLC patients (p=0.01 and p<0.0001). PDE10A protein expression correlated with survival in 149 patients with stage I-II NSCLC (p=0.002). In conclusion, we validated two variants associated with extreme phenotypes of high and low risk of developing tobacco-induced NSCLC. Our findings may allow to identify individuals presenting high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced NSCLC and to characterize molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and resistance to develop NSCLC.
Autores: Keppens, C. ; Palma, J. F.; Das, P.. M.; et al.
ISSN 1525-1578  Vol. 20  Nº 4  2018  págs. 483 - 494
Molecular testing of EGFR is required to predict the response likelihood to targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA in plasma may complement limitations of tumor tissue. This study evaluated the interlaboratory performance and reproducibility of a real-time PCR EGFR mutation test (cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2) to detect EGFR variants in plasma. Fourteen laboratories received two identical panels of 27 single-blinded plasma samples. Samples were wild type or spiked with plasmid DNA to contain seven common EGFR variants at six predefined concentrations from 50 to 5000 copies per milliliter. The circulating tumor DNA was extracted by a cell-free circulating DNA sample preparation kit (cobas cfDNA Sample Preparation Kit), followed by duplicate analysis with the real-time PCR EGFR mutation test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA). Lowest sensitivities were obtained for the c.2156G>C p.(Gly719Ala) and c.2573T>G p.(Leu858Arg) variants for the lowest target copies. For all other variants, sensitivities varied between 96.3% and 100.0%. All specificities were 98.8% to 100.0%. Coefficients of variation indicated good intralaboratory and interlaboratory repeatability and reproducibility but increased for decreasing concentrations. Prediction models revealed a significant correlation for all variants between the predefined copy number and the observed semiquantitative index values, which reflect the samples' plasma mutation load. This study demonstrates an overall robust performance of the real-time PCR EGFR mutation test kit in plasma. Prediction models may be applied to estimate the plasma mutation load for diagnostic or research purposes.
Autores: Grisanti Vollbracht, Fabiana Lucrecia; García García, Berta; Morales Lozano, María Isabel; et al.
ISSN 2253-654X  Vol. 37  Nº Supl 1  2018  págs. 87
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Abengozar Muela, Marta; Labiano Miravalles, Tania; et al.
ISSN 0893-3952  Vol. 31  Nº Supl. 2  2018  págs. 158
Autores: Conde, E.; Hernandez, S.; Martinez, R.; et al.
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 13  Nº 10  2018  págs. S553 - S554
Autores: Pisapia, P.; Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Vigliar, E.; et al.
ISSN 1934-662X  2017 
Cytologic sampling is the mainstay of diagnosing advanced lung cancer. Moreover, to select patients for personalized first-line or second-line treatment, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangements are tested on cytologic preparations. Commercially available fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assays have primarily been used for the identification of cells harboring ALK or ROS1 gene fusions on histologic rather than cytologic preparations. However, it is now recognized that FISH and ICC also can be applied on cytologic samples provided the cytopathologist is aware that FISH and ICC results are not always concordant and that the performance of ICC largely depends on antibody clones, signal detection systems, and scoring systems. Notably, the routine clinical use of FISH and ICC may be replaced by emerging next-generation sequencing and digital, color-coded barcode technologies, which have the advantage of simultaneously evaluating ALK, ROS1, and EGFR alterations in a single analysis. Although their use in clinical cytologic practice remains to be fully established, it is conceivable that this technology will replace both FISH and ICC analyses in future diagnostic algorithms. Here, the authors review studies devoted to testing ALK and ROS1 on cytology specimens in an attempt to provide an update for the cytopathologist regarding current and evolving practice.
Autores: Biermann, K., (Autor de correspondencia); Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Hebert-Magee, S.; et al.
ISSN 2303-9027  Vol. 6  Nº Supl. 3  2017  págs. S95 - S98
Autores: Elgendy, M. ; Abdel-Aziz, AK. ; Renne, S. L.; et al.
ISSN 0021-9738  Vol. 127  Nº 1  2017  págs. 153 - 168
Most patients who initially respond to treatment with the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib eventually relapse. Therefore, developing a deeper understanding of the contribution of sunitinib's numerous targets to the clinical response or to resistance is crucial. Here, we have shown that cancer cells respond to clinically relevant doses of sunitinib by enhancing the stability of the antiapoptotic protein MCL-1 and inducing mTORC1 signaling, thus evoking little cytotoxicity. Inhibition of MCL-1 or mTORC1 signaling sensitized cells to clinically relevant doses of sunitinib in vitro and was synergistic with sunitinib in impairing tumor growth in vivo, indicating that these responses are triggered as prosurvival mechanisms that enable cells to tolerate the cytotoxic effects of sunitinib. Furthermore, higher doses of sunitinib were cytotoxic, triggered a decline in MCL-1 levels, and inhibited mTORC1 signaling. Mechanistically, we determined that sunitinib modulates MCL-1 stability by affecting its proteasomal degradation. Dual modulation of MCL-1 stability at different dose ranges of sunitinib was due to differential effects on ERK and GSK3 beta activity, and the latter also accounted for dual modulation of mTORC1 activity. Finally, comparison of patient samples prior to and following sunitinib treatment suggested that increases in MCL-1 levels and mTORC1 activity correlate with resistance to sunitinib in patients.
Autores: Mercado Gutiérrez, M. R.; Arean Cuns, C.; Gómez Dorronsoro, M. L.; et al.
ISSN 1135-5727  Vol. 91  2017  págs. UNSP e201702018
Background: Cervical carcinoma (CC) is the second cause of death among women aged 15 and 44 in Spain. CC is linked to hig-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and its prevalence varies according age and geographical region. The awereness of the latter is essential for public health prevention efforts. The aim was to study the age related in HR-HPV genotypes in cytologies with squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). Methods: From a total of 67,935 ginecologic cytologies over a four-year period, we selected cytologic specimens with SIL. We used the Cervista r test to detect HR-HPV DNA. Women were classified into two groups under 35 and over 35 years old. Proportions were estimated with confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI). Results: HR-HPV prevalence was 59,7%; 64,6% in women under 35 years old. HR-HPV species alpha 9 type 16 (HR-HPV 16) and alpha 5 type 51 (HR-HPV 51) were the most prevalent (60,9% and 51,7%). High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (H-SIL) were twice as high in women under 35 years (6,5 vs. 3,7%). 88,8% of H-SIL was associated HR-HPV 16, which increases the probability of H-SIL against Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (L-SIL) regardless of age. Conclusions: In our population HR-HPV 16 was associated to H-SIL whereas HR-HPV specie alpha 7 type 18 and HR-HPV 51 to L-SIL regardless of age. The high prevalence of HR-HPV 51 in Navarra ' s population (51,7%), suggests that local vaccination programs be re-assessed.
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Aguirre Colomo, María Mercedes; Echarri Elosegui, Concepción María Esther; et al.
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2017  págs. S519 - S520
Autores: Datar, I. ; Sanmamed, M. F.; Choi, J. ; et al.
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  2017  págs. 5 - 5
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Mejías Sosa, Luis Daniel; Abengozar Muela, Marta; et al.
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 12  Nº 1  2017  págs. S503 - S503
Autores: Alegre Martínez, Estíbaliz; Fusco, Juan Pablo; Restituto Aranguibel, Patricia; et al.
ISSN 1010-4283  Vol. 37  Nº 10  2016  págs. 13687 - 13694
Mutation analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is essential for treatment selection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Analysis is usually performed in tumor samples. We evaluated the clinical utility of EGFR analysis in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from patients under treatment with EGFR inhibitors. We selected 36 patients with NSCLC and EGFR-activating mutations. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during treatment with EGFR inhibitors. Wild-type EGFR, L858R, delE746-A750, and T790M mutations were quantified in cfDNA by droplet digital PCR. Stage IV patients had higher total circulating EGFR copy levels than stage I (3523 vs. 1003 copies/mL; p < 0.01). There was high agreement for activating mutations between baseline cfDNA and tumor samples, especially for L858R mutation (kappa index = 0.679; p = 0.001). In 34 % of advanced NSCLC patients, we detected mutations in cfDNA not previously detected in tumor samples and double mutations in 17 %. Patients with baseline total EGFR copy levels above the median presented decreased overall survival (OS) (341 vs. 870 days, p < 0.05) and progression-free survival (PFS) (238 vs. 783 days; p < 0.05) compared with those with total EGFR copy levels below the median. Patients with baseline concentrations of activating mutations above the median (94 copies/mL) had lower OS (317 vs. 805 days; p < 0.05) and PFS (195 vs. 724 days; p < 0.05). During follow-up, T790M resistance mutation was detected in 53 % of patients. Total and mutated EGFR analysis in cfDNA seems a relevant tool to characterize the molecular profile and prognosis of NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations.
Autores: García Velloso, María José; Bastarrika Alemán, Gorka; de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; et al.
ISSN 0169-5002  Vol. 97  2016  págs. 81-86
A major drawback of lung cancer screening programs is the high frequency of false-positive findings on computed tomography (CT). We investigated the accuracy of selective 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) scan in assessing radiologically indeterminate lung nodules detected in lung cancer screening. Methods: FDG PET/CT was performed to characterize 64 baseline lung nodules >10 mm and 36 incidence nodules detected on low-dose CT screening in asymptomatic current or former smokers (83 men, age range 40¿83 years) at high risk for lung cancer. CT images were acquired without intravenous contrast. Nodules were analyzed by size, density, and metabolic activity and visual scored on a 5-point scale for FDG uptake. Nodules were classified as negative for malignancy when no FDG uptake was observed, or positive when focal uptake was observed in the visual analysis, and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured. Final diagnosis was based on histopathological evaluation or at least 24 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 100 nodules were included. The prevalence of lung cancer was 1%. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of visual analysis to detect malignancy were 84%, 95%, 91%, and 91%, respectively, with an accuracy of 91% (AUC 0.893). FDG PET/CT accurately detected 31 malignant tumors (diameters 9¿42 mm, SUVmax range 0.6¿14.2) and was falsely negative in 6 patients. With SUVmax threshold
Autores: Berrocal, A.; Espinosa, E.; Marín, S.; et al.
ISSN 1167-1122  Vol. 25  Nº 5  2015  págs. 392 - 403
Advanced melanoma is a relatively uncommon condition whose therapeutic management has undergone major changes over the past four years. The present article aims to establish recommendations for the management of these patients based on the best available evidence reached by consensus of a group of professionals familiar in the treatment of these patients. These professionals, belonging to Spanish Multidisciplinary Melanoma Group, reviewed the diagnostic process and the incorporation of new techniques of molecular diagnosis of advanced disease; treatment and monitoring of stage III both as adjuvant locoregional treatments have been addressed, as well as new therapies for stage IV. We have reviewed the palliative treatment alternatives for disseminated disease, such as surgery, radiotherapy or non-cytotoxic systemic treatments. Finally, we have also reviewed the most relevant toxicities of new drugs and their management in clinical practice.
Autores: Aramburu, A.; Zudaire Ripa, María Isabel; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN 1471-2164  Vol. 16  2015  págs. 752
Background: The development of a more refined prognostic methodology for early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an unmet clinical need. An accurate prognostic tool might help to select patients at early stages for adjuvant therapies. Results: A new integrated bioinformatics searching strategy, that combines gene copy number alterations and expression, together with clinical parameters was applied to derive two prognostic genomic signatures. The proposed methodology combines data from patients with and without clinical data with a priori information on the ability of a gene to be a prognostic marker. Two initial candidate sets of 513 and 150 genes for lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, were generated by identifying genes which have both: a) significant correlation between copy number and gene expression, and b) significant prognostic value at the gene expression level in external databases. From these candidates, two panels of 7 (ADC) and 5 (SCC) genes were further identified via semi-supervised learning. These panels, together with clinical data (stage, age and sex), were used to construct the ADC and SCC hazard scores combining clinical and genomic data. The signatures were validated in two independent datasets (n = 73 for ADC, n = 97 for SCC), confirming that the prognostic value of both clinical-genomic models is robust, statistically significant (P = 0.008 for ADC and P = 0.019 for SCC) and outperforms both the clinical models (P = 0.060 for ADC and P = 0.121 for SCC) and the genomic models applied separately (P = 0.350 for ADC and P = 0.269 for SCC). Conclusion: The present work provides a methodology to generate a robust signature using copy number data that can be potentially used to any cancer. Using it, we found new prognostic scores based on tumor DNA that, jointly with clinical information, are able to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with early-stage ADC and SCC.
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Labiano Miravalles, Tania; Echeveste, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1934-662X  Vol. 123  Nº 4  2015  págs. 230 - 236
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing to determine gene mutation status is now the recommended standard of care for patients with advanced or metastatic Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because the majority of patients with NSCLC present with metastatic disease, minimally invasive procedures are necessary for diagnosis, staging, and molecular analysis. However, the resulting samples have perceived limitations in the oncology community, and most commercially available tests have not been validated for these sample types. The current study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of determining epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation status in fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) and core-needle biopsies (CNBs) after staining with Papanicolaou or hematoxylin and eosin, respectively. METHODS: Gene mutation status was determined in 140 NSCLC tumor samples with proprietary tests for EGFR and KRAS mutations (cobas tests) followed by Sanger sequencing of exons 18 through 21 of the EGFR gene and exon 2 of the KRAS gene. The results were analyzed based on FNA (n¿=¿91) or CNB (n¿=¿49) sampling. RESULTS: The cobas tests yielded valid results in the majority of FNA and CNB samples for both EGFR (97.9%) and KRAS (93.6%). Moreover, valid results were obtained for 90% of samples that had DNA concentrations below the values recommended by the manufacturer. For samples with valid results from both cobas testing and Sanger sequencing, 95.7% and 93% agreement were observed for EGFR status and KRAS status, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Gene mutation testing can be successfully performed on cytology and CNB samples, expanding the potential of personalized cancer treatment to patients who have limited tissue samples.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; Pastor, M. D.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 10  Nº 3  2015  págs. e0119878
Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI
Autores: Sánchez Salcedo, Pablo Antonio; Berto Botella, Juan Antonio; de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; et al.
ISSN 0300-2896  Vol. 51  Nº 4  2015  págs. 169 - 176
The experience in Spain's longest lung cancer screening program is comparable to what has been described in the rest of Europe, and confirms the feasibility and efficacy of lung cancer screening using LDCT.
Autores: Alfaro Alegría, Carlos; Echeveste, José Ignacio; Rodríguez Ruiz, María Esperanza; et al.
ISSN 2162-4011  Vol. 4  Nº 12  2015  págs. e1054597
CD137 (4-1BB) is a surface marker discovered on activated T lymphocytes. However, its expression pattern is broader and has also been described on activated NK cells, B-cells and myeloid cells including mature dendritic cells. In this study, we have immunostained for CD137 on paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues including tonsils, lymph nodes, ectopic tertiary lymphoid tissue in Hashimoto thyroiditis and cancer. Surprisingly, immunostaining mainly decorates intrafollicular lymphocytes in the tissues analyzed, with only scattered staining in interfollicular areas. Moreover, pathologic lymphoid follicles in follicular lymphoma and tertiary lymphoid tissue associated to non-small cell lung cancer showed a similar pattern of immunostaining. Multicolor flow cytometry demonstrated that CD137 expression was restricted to CD4+ CXCR5+ follicular T helper lymphocytes in tonsils and lymph nodes. Short term culture of lymph node cell suspensions in the presence of an agonist anti-CD137 mAb or CD137-ligand results in the functional upregulation of TFH cells, including CD40L surface expression and cytokine production, in three out of six cases. As a consequence, immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies, anti-CD137 mAb such as urelumab and PF-05082566 should be expected to primarily act on this lymphocyte subset, thus modifying ongoing humoral immune responses.
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Labiano Miravalles, Tania; Zudaire Ripa, María Isabel; et al.
ISSN 1066-8969  Vol. 23  Nº 2  2015  págs. 111 - 115
As a result of therapeutic advances, a revolution is taking place in the lung cancer field with major implications for pathologic diagnosis and tissue management. We report a case of a non-small cell lung carcinoma patient with coexistence of EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 rearrangements that responded to EGFR inhibitors and in which the development of a new resistance mutation in exon 20 of EGFR-determined treatment resistance. All the molecular determinations were performed in cytological samples. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported with these characteristics, and the 11th case described with coexistence of EGFR mutations and ALK-EML4 rearrangements. The EGFR L858R mutation in exon 21 was found at diagnosis, and the patient presented a 4-year response to erlotinib. On progression, the T790M resistance mutation in the EGFR exon 20 was also confirmed in cytological samples. At this point, fluorescence in situ hybridization also detected ALK-EML4 translocation. This case emphasizes the usefulness of cytological samples for molecular analysis in lung adenocarcinoma, as well as the relevance of repeating biopsies/fine-needle aspirations in tumor recurrences to assess the mutation profile of the disease.
Autores: Fernández de Sanmamed Gutiérrez, Miguel; Fernández Landázuri, Sara; Rodriguez, C.; et al.
ISSN 0009-9147  Vol. 61  Nº 1  2015  págs. 297 - 304
BACKGROUND: Around 50% of cutaneous melanomas harbor the BRAF(V600E) mutation and can be treated with BRAF inhibitors. DNA carrying this mutation can be released into circulation as cell-free BRAF(V600E) (cfBRAF(V600E)). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is an analytically sensitive technique for quantifying small concentrations of DNA. We studied the plasma concentrations of cfBRAF(V600E) by ddPCR in patients with melanoma during therapy with BRAF inhibitors. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of cfBRAF(V600E) were measured in 8 controls and 20 patients with advanced melanoma having the BRAF(V600E) mutation during treatment with BRAF inhibitors at baseline, first month, best response, and progression. RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected by ddPCR even at a fractional abundance of 0.005% in the wild-type gene. Agreement between tumor tissue BRAF(V600E) and plasma cfBRAF(V600E) was 84.3%. Baseline cfBRAF(V600E) correlated with tumor burden (r = 0.742, P < 0.001). cfBRAF(V600E) concentrations decreased significantly at the first month of therapy (basal median, 216 copies/mL; Q1-Q3, 27-647 copies/mL; first response median, 0 copies/mL; Q1-Q3, 0-49 copies/mL; P < 0.01) and at the moment of best response (median, 0 copies/mL; Q1-Q3, 0-33 copies/mL; P < 0.01). At progression, there was a significant increase in the concentration of cfBRAF(V600E) compared with best response (median, 115 copies/mL; Q1-Q3, 3-707 copies/mL; P = 0.013). Lower concentrations of basal cfBRAF(V600E) were significantly associated with longer overall survival and progression-free survival (27.7 months and 9 months, respectively) than higher basal concentrations (8.6 months and 3 months, P < 0.001 and P = 0.024, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: cfBRAF(V600E) quantification in plasma by ddPCR is useful as a follow-up to treatment response in patients with advanced melanoma.
Autores: Rodríguez Lago, Iago Israel; de la Riva Onandía, Susana Rosa; Subtil Íñigo, José Carlos; et al.
ISSN 1130-0108  Vol. 107  Nº 2  2015  págs. 121 - 122
Autores: Caicedo, Carlos; García Velloso, María José; Lozano Escario, María Dolores; et al.
ISSN 1619-7070  Vol. 41  Nº 11  2014  págs. 2058-65
PURPOSE: The tumour molecular profile predicts the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, tissue availability and tumour heterogeneity limit its assessment. We evaluated whether [(18)F]FDG PET might help predict KRAS and EFGR mutation status in NSCLC. METHODS: Between January 2005 and October 2011, 340 NSCLC patients were tested for KRAS and EGFR mutation status. We identified patients with stage III and IV disease who had undergone [(18)F]FDG PET/CT scanning for initial staging. SUVpeak, SUVmax and SUVmean of the single hottest tumour lesions were calculated, and their association with KRAS and EGFR mutation status was assessed. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and a multivariate analysis (including SUVmean, gender, age and AJCC stage) were performed to identify the potential value of [(18)F]FDG PET/CT for predicting KRAS mutation. RESULTS: From 102 patients staged using [(18)F]FDG PET/CT, 28 (27%) had KRAS mutation (KRAS+), 22 (22%) had EGFR mutation (EGFR+) and 52 (51%) had wild-type KRAS and EGFR profiles (WT). KRAS+ patients showed significantly higher [(18)F]FDG uptake than EGFR+ and WT patients (SUVmean 9.5, 5.7 and 6.6, respectively; p¿<¿0.001). No significant differences were observed in [(18)F]FDG uptake between EGFR+ patients and WT patients. ROC curve analysis for KRAS mutation status discrimination yielded an area under the curve of 0.740 for SUVmean (p¿<¿0.001).
Autores: Prior Darbonnens, Celia; Pérez Gracia, José Luis; Garcia-Donas , J; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 9  Nº 1  2014 
Purpose: To identify tissue microRNAs predictive of sunitinib activity in patients with metastatic renal-cell-carcinoma (MRCC) and to evaluate in vitro their mechanism of action in sunitinib resistance. Methods: We screened 673 microRNAs using TaqMan Low-density-Arrays (TLDAs) in tumors from MRCC patients with extreme phenotypes of marked efficacy and resistance to sunitinib, selected from an identification cohort (n = 41). The most relevant differentially expressed microRNAs were selected using bioinformatics-based target prediction analysis and quantified by qRT-PCR in tumors from patients presenting similar phenotypes selected from an independent cohort (n = 101). In vitro experiments were conducted to study the role of miR-942 in sunitinib resistance. Results: TLDAs identified 64 microRNAs differentially expressed in the identification cohort. Seven candidates were quantified by qRT-PCR in the independent series. MiR-942 was the most accurate predictor of sunitinib efficacy (p = 0.0074). High expression of miR-942, miR-628-5p, miR-133a, and miR-484 was significantly associated with decreased time to progression and overall survival. These microRNAs were also overexpressed in the sunitinib resistant cell line Caki-2 in comparison with the sensitive cell line. MiR-942 overexpression in Caki-2 up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion which, in turn, promote HBMEC endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. Conclusions: We identified differentially expressed microRNAs in MRCC patients presenting marked sensitivity or resistance to sunitinib. MiR-942 was the best predictor of efficacy. We describe a novel paracrine mechanism through which high miR-942 levels in MRCC cells up-regulates MMP-9 and VEGF secretion to enhance endothelial migration and sunitinib resistance. Our results support further validation of these miRNA in clinical confirmatory studies.
Autores: Fernández de Sanmamed Gutiérrez, Miguel; Fernández Landázuri, Sara; Rodríguez Jiménez, María del Carmen Milagros; et al.
ISSN 0009-8981  Vol. 429  2014  págs. 168 - 174
BRAF V600 mutation has been reported in more than 50% of melanoma cases and its presence predicts clinical activity of BRAF inhibitors (iBRAF). We evaluated the rote of MIA, S100 and LDH to monitor iBRAF efficiency in advanced melanoma patients presenting BRAF V600 mutations. This was a prospective study of melanoma patients harboring the BRAF V600 mutation and treated with iBRAF within a clinical trial (dabrafenib) or as part of an expanded access program (vemurafenib). MIA, S100 and LDH were analyzed in serum at baseline, and every 4-6 weeks during treatment. Eighteen patients with melanoma stages IIIc-IV were enrolled with 88.8% of response rate to iBRAF. Baseline concentrations of all the tumor markers correlated with tumor burden. MIA and S100 concentrations decreased significantly one month after the beginning of treatment and, upon progression, their concentrations increased significantly above the minimum levels previously achieved. MIA levels lower than 9 mu g/L one month after the beginning of treatment and S100 concentrations lower than 0.1 mu g/L at the moment of best response were associated With improved progression-free survival. In conclusion, MIA and S100 are useful to monitor response in melanoma patients treated with iBRAF.
Autores: Idoate Gastearena, Miguel Ángel; Echeveste, José Ignacio; Diez Valle, Ricardo; et al.
ISSN 0305-1846  Vol. 40  Nº 6  2014  págs. 736 - 746
AIMS: Glioblastomas display marked phenotypic and molecular heterogeneity. The expression of the PTEN protein in glioblastomas also shows great intratumour heterogeneity, but the significance of this heterogeneity has so far received little attention. METHODS: We conducted a comparative study on paraffin and frozen samples from 60 glioblastomas. Based on PTEN immunostaining, paraffin glioblastomas were divided into positive (homogeneous staining) and both positive and negative (heterogeneous staining) tumours. DNA was extracted from manually microdissected samples from representative areas, and from frozen samples taken randomly from the same tumours. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 10q23 and hypermethylation status of the PTEN promoter were studied, and the molecular findings were correlated with overall survival. RESULTS: PTEN protein was present heterogeneously in 42 cases and homogeneously in 18 cases. In homogeneous glioblastomas, no correlation was found between PTEN protein expression and the LOH of the gene. Surprisingly, in the heterogeneous glioblastomas, LOH was found significantly more frequently (P < 0.001) in PTEN-positive areas (81%) than in PTEN-negative ones (35.7%). In general, molecular results of frozen tissue were representative of the tumour. Only two cases of methylation of the PTEN promoter were identified. A significant difference was found for overall survival for LOH10q23 status (P = 0.005) and for homogeneous vs. heterogeneous tumours (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: The expression of PTEN protein does not correlate with the abnormalities of the LOH of the gene. Interestingly, patients with glioblastomas presenting either LOH of 10q23 or heterogeneous PTEN expression have a poorer prognosis.
Autores: Ajona Martínez-Polo, Daniel; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Corrales Pecino, Leticia; et al.
ISSN 1460-2105  Vol. 105  Nº 18  2013  págs. 1385 - 1393
BACKGROUND: There is a medical need for diagnostic biomarkers in lung cancer. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of complement activation fragments. METHODS: We assessed complement activation in four bronchial epithelial and seven lung cancer cell lines. C4d, a degradation product of complement activation, was determined in 90 primary lung tumors; bronchoalveolar lavage supernatants from patients with lung cancer (n = 50) and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (n = 22); and plasma samples from advanced (n = 50) and early lung cancer patients (n = 84) subjects with inflammatory lung diseases (n = 133), and asymptomatic individuals enrolled in a lung cancer computed tomography screening program (n = 190). Two-sided P values were calculated by Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Lung cancer cells activated the classical complement pathway mediated by C1q binding that was inhibited by phosphomonoesters. Survival was decreased in patients with high C4d deposition in tumors (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18 to 7.91). C4d levels were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung cancer patients compared with patients with nonmalignant respiratory diseases (0.61 ± 0.87 vs 0.16 ± 0.11 µg/mL; P < .001). C4d levels in plasma samples from lung cancer patients at both advanced and early stages were also increased compared with control subjects (4.13 ± 2.02 vs 1.86 ± 0.95 µg/mL, P < 0.001; 3.18 ± 3.20 vs 1.13 ± 0.69 µg/mL, P < .001, respectively). C4d plasma levels were associated with shorter survival in patients at advanced (HR = 1.59; 95% CI = 0.97 to 2.60) and early stages (HR = 5.57; 95% CI = 1.60 to 19.39). Plasma C4d levels were reduced after surgical removal of lung tumors (P < .001) and were associated with increased lung cancer risk in asymptomatic individuals with (n = 32) or without lung cancer (n = 158) (odds ratio = 4.38; 95% CI = 1.61 to 11.93). CONCLUSIONS: Complement fragment C4d may serve as a biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.
Autores: Castañón Álvarez, Eduardo; Bosch Barrera, Joaquim; Lopez, I.; et al.
ISSN 1479-5876  Vol. 11  2013  págs. 13
Background: Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) and 3 (Id3) genes have been related with the inhibition of cell differentiation, cell growth promotion and tumor metastasis. Recently, Id1 has been identified as an independent prognostic factor in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, regardless of the stage. Furthermore, Id1 may confer resistance to treatment (both, radiotherapy and chemotherapy). Methods: We have studied, using monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemistry, the Id1 and Id3 tumor epithelial expression in 17 patients with stage III-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Results: Id1 expression is observed in 82.4% of the tumors, whereas Id3 expression is present in 41.2% of the samples. Interestingly, Id1 and Id3 expression are mutually correlated (R = 0.579, p = 0.015). In a subgroup analysis of patients with the most locally advanced disease (T4N2 stage), co-expression of Id1 and Id3 showed to be related with a worse overall survival (45 vs 6 months, p = 0.002). A trend towards significance for a worse progression free survival (30 vs 1 months, p = 0.219) and a lower response rate to the treatment (RR = 50% vs 87.5%, p = 0.07) were also observed. Conclusions: A correlation between Id1 and Id3 protein expression is observed. Id1 and Id3 co-expression seems associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.
Autores: Reyna Fortes, María del Carmen; Viudez Berral, Antonio; Lozano Escario, María Dolores; et al.
ISSN 1130-0108  Vol. 105  Nº 8  2013  págs. 500 - 501
Autores: Pajares Villandiego, María José; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; Larrayoz Ilundain, Marta; et al.
Revista: Journal of Clinical Oncology
ISSN 0732-183X  Vol. 30  Nº 10  2012  págs. 1129 - 1136
Purpose: Antiangiogenic therapies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway have yielded more modest clinical benefit to patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than initially expected. Clinical data suggest a distinct biologic role of the VEGF pathway in the different histologic subtypes of lung cancer. To clarify the influence of histologic differentiation in the prognostic relevance of VEGF-mediated signaling in NSCLC, we performed a concomitant analysis of the expression of three key elements of the VEGF pathway in the earliest stages of the following two principal histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). Patients and Methods: We evaluated tumor cell expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1, and VEGFR2 using automatic immunostaining in a series of 298 patients with early-stage NSCLC recruited as part of the multicenter European Early Lung Cancer Detection Group project. A score measuring the VEGF signaling pathway was calculated by adding the tumor cell expression value of VEGF and its two receptors. The results were validated in two additional independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. Results: The combination of high VEGF, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 protein expression was associated with lower risk of disease progression in early SCC (univariate analysis, P = .008; multivariate analysis, hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.92; P = .02). The results were validated in two independent patient cohorts, confirming the favorable prognostic value of high VEGF signaling score in early lung SCC. Conclusion: Our results clearly indicate that the combination of high expression of the three key elements in the VEGF pathway is associated with a good prognosis in patients with early SCC but not in patients with ADC.
Autores: Seijo Maceiras, Luis Miguel; Campo Ezquibela, Aránzazu; de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; et al.
ISSN 1944-6586  Vol. 18  Nº 1  2011  págs. 7 - 14
Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography scanning uptake impacts the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of data from 140 consecutive patients (178 lymph nodes) undergoing positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning and subsequent TBNA with rapid onsite cytologic evaluation of the specimen. Patient and lymph node characteristics, including nodal station, size, FDG uptake, number of passes with the needle, sample adequacy, and the final diagnosis were recorded. Results: The diagnostic yield of TBNA was 75%. Themean short axis lymph node diameter was 18.7+/-9 mm and mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was 7.7+/-4. The diagnostic yield depended on the lymph node size [odds ratio (OR)=1.07 (1.00-1.14); P=0.04], clinical suspicion of malignancy [OR=5.13 (1.95-13.52); P=0.001], malignant diagnosis [OR=4.91 (1.71-14.09); P=0.003], and FDG uptake [for SUVmax cutoff of 3.0: OR=33.8 (9.2-124); P<0.001]. Only clinical suspicion of cancer [OR=6.2 (2.2-17.2); P=0.001] and FDG uptake [for SUVmax cutoff of 3.0: OR=33.8 (9.2-123.8); P<0.001] remained significant on multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves combining 3 key variables (lymph node size, clinical suspicion of malignancy, and SUVmax) showed an area of 0.83 under the curve for a 2.5 SUVmax cutoff and 0.84 for a 3.0 cutoff. Conclusions: FDG uptake is the single most important variable impacting the TBNA yield. TBNA of lymph nodes with an SUVmax less than 3.0 is rarely diagnostic.
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Zulueta Frances, Javier Joseph; Echeveste, José Ignacio; et al.
ISSN 1083-7159  Vol. 16  Nº 6  2011  págs. 877 - 885
The mutation status was identical in patients who had both biopsies and cytological samples analyzed. Conclusion. Assessment of EGFR and K-ras mutations in cytological samples is feasible and comparable with biopsy results, making individualized treatment
Autores: Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Subtil Íñigo, José Carlos; Labiano Miravalles, Tania; et al.
ISSN 1934-662X  Vol. 119  Nº 3  2011  págs. 209 - 2014
Cystic lesions of the pancreas are being detected with increasing frequency. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is one of the most precise methods of diagnosis but still has limited accuracy. A new, through-the-needle cytologic brush system (EchoBrush; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind) has been approved for use during EUS evaluation of cystic pancreatic lesions. METHODS: Data from 127 EUS-FNAs of pancreatic cystic lesions were analyzed to compare the cytologic yield of EchoBrush with conventional EUS-FNA. An attending cytopathologist was present on site to assess specimen adequacy in all the cases. Diagnostic yields of both procedures, as well as related adverse events, were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 15.0 version software (SPSS, Chicago, Ill). RESULTS: A total of 127 cystic lesions of the pancreas from 120 patients (42 men and 78 women, mean age of 62.17 ± 12.17 years) were included in the study. Mean size of lesions was 23.58 ± 21.69 mm. Adequacy of the samples and diagnostic yield were higher using EchoBrush. In 80 (63 %) cases, conventional EUS-FNA was performed, whereas in 47 (37%), we used EchoBrush. Diagnostic material was obtained in 85.1% (40 of 47) of cases using EchoBrush and in 66.3% (53 of 80) with conventional EUS-FNA. (P < .05). There were very few clinically relevant complications related to EUS-FNA and EUS-EchoBrush techniques. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that cytological specimens from pancreatic cystic lesions obtained using EchoBrush at the time of EUS are superior to conventional EUS-FNA mainly because of the higher yield of epithelial cells. Larger studies are needed to compare both methods.
Autores: Ponz Sarvisé, Mariano; Nguewa Kamsu, Paul; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 17  Nº 12  2011  págs. 4155 -4166
Autores: Pio Osés, Rubén (Autor de correspondencia); Blanco Barrenechea, David; Pajares Villandiego, María José; et al.
ISSN 1471-2164  Vol. 11  2010  págs. 352
Background: Microarrays strategies, which allow for the characterization of thousands of alternative splice forms in a single test, can be applied to identify differential alternative splicing events. In this study, a novel splice array approach was developed, including the design of a high-density oligonucleotide array, a labeling procedure, and an algorithm to identify splice events. Results: The array consisted of exon probes and thermodynamically balanced junction probes. Suboptimal probes were tagged and considered in the final analysis. An unbiased labeling protocol was developed using random primers. The algorithm used to distinguish changes in expression from changes in splicing was calibrated using internal non-spliced control sequences. The performance of this splice array was validated with artificial constructs for CDC6, VEGF, and PCBP4 isoforms. The platform was then applied to the analysis of differential splice forms in lung cancer samples compared to matched normal lung tissue. Overexpression of splice isoforms was identified for genes encoding CEACAM1, FHL-1, MLPH, and SUSD2. None of these splicing isoforms had been previously associated with lung cancer. Conclusions: This methodology enables the detection of alternative splicing events in complex biological samples, providing a powerful tool to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer and other pathologies.
Autores: Álvarez-Cienfuegos Suárez, Francisco Javier; Lozano Escario, María Dolores; Rotellar Sastre, Fernando; et al.
ISSN 1130-0108  Vol. 102   Nº 12  2010  págs. 722 - 728
Solid pseudo-papillary tumor (SPPT) is a rare cystic tumor of the pancreas (1-3% of exocrine tumors of the pancreas) which shows an "enigmatic" behavior on the clinical and molecular pattern. A retrospective analysis of the cytological studies and resected specimens of pancreatic cystic tumors from May 1996 to February 2010 was carried out. Three cases of SPPT were found, which are the objective of this study. The diagnosis was established upon occasional finding in the abdominal CT, in spite of sizing between 3 and 6 cm of diameter. In the three cases the preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by cytology and specific immunohistochemical staining. Cases 2 and 3 showed strong immunoreactivity for Beta-Catenin and E-Cadherin staining. Radical resection (R0) was carried out in the three cases. A young male -21 years of age (case 1)- who had duodenal infiltration and two lymph nodes metastases died of hepatic and peritoneal recurrence 20 months following surgery. The other two cases are free of disease. The current review of the literature reports roughly 800 cases since the first report in 1959, and shows the enigmatic character of this tumor regarding the cellular origin, molecular pathways, prognostic factors and clinical behavior.
Autores: Irigoyen Goñi, Marta; Pajares Villandiego, María José; Agorreta Arrazubi, Jackeline; et al.
Revista: Molecular Cancer
ISSN 1476-4598  Vol. 28  Nº 9  2010  págs. 130
Autores: Pio Osés, Rubén; García López, José Javier; Corrales Pecino, Leticia; et al.
Revista: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention
ISSN 1055-9965  Vol. 19  Nº 10  2010  págs. 2655 - 2672
Autores: Seijo Maceiras, Luis Miguel; de Torres Tajes, Juan Pablo; Lozano Escario, María Dolores; et al.
Revista: CHEST
ISSN 0012-3692  Vol. 138  Nº 6  2010  págs. 1316 - 1321
Autores: Álvarez-Cienfuegos Suárez, Francisco Javier; Rotellar Sastre, Fernando; Martí Cruchaga, Pablo; et al.
ISSN 1130-0108  Vol. 102   Nº 5  2010  págs. 314 - 320
Background: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) shows a series of lesions which evolve from benign lesions -adenoma- to invasive carcinoma. Aim: To analyze the clinical and pathological results of 15 patients diagnosed of IPMN, and surgically treated according to the guidelines of International Consensus Conference. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of 15 patients surgically treated between March 1993 and September 2009, according to the International Consensus recommendation. Demographic, diagnostic tools, surgical report, pathologic database and actuarial survival were analyzed with a follow-up from one and a half month through nine years. Results: 6 Patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies, 4 total pancreatectomies, 2 body or central pancreatectomies, 2 partial pancreatectomies (enucleation) and 1 distal pancreatectomy. A morbidity of 46 and 0% hospital mortality were assessed, with a median length hospital stay of 10 days. In five cases, the IPMN was combined type (both main and branch pancreatic ducts involved) in four main duct-type and branch duct-type in the another six as well. Several atypia (IPMN carcinoma in situ) was observed in 2 patients and invasive carcinoma with negative lymph nodes was identified in 3 patients. A patient without invasive carcinoma died at 66 months of follow-up for pancreas adenocarcinoma. The actuarial survival up to recurrence or death was 105,133 months with a range of follow-up from 1 month and a half until 9 years. Conclusions: IPMN main duct or mixed type warrants complete resection due to its incidence of invasive carcinoma or precursor lesions of malignancy as well. Due to its multifocal pattern, patients should be followed in long-term surveillance. The management of asymptomatic IPMN type branch less than 3 cm is controversial.



Clínica Práctica VII (F. Medicina). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Medicina.

Anatomía Patológica (F.Medicina). 
Universidad de Navarra - Facultad de Medicina.