Nuestros investigadores

Santiago Navas Carretero

Departamento
Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Obesidad y síndrome metabólico. Prevención y tratamiento, Estudios de Intervención Nutricional. Ensayos controlados aleatorizados postprandiales, prospectivos y de absorción, Metabolismo mineral. Biodisponibilidad mineral., Alimentos funcionales., Marcaje con isótopos estables., Estudio de la interacción genética-nutrición: Nutrigenómica y Nutrigenética
Índice H
26, (WoS, 27/07/2020)
25, (Scopus, 03/09/2020)
30, (Google Scholar, 27/07/2020)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
Revista: NATURE REVIEWS ENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 1759-5029  Vol. 16  Nº 6  2020  págs. 305 - 320
The specific metabolic contribution of consuming different energy-yielding macronutrients (namely, carbohydrates, protein and lipids) to obesity is a matter of active debate. In this Review, we summarize the current research concerning associations between the intake of different macronutrients and weight gain and adiposity. We discuss insights into possible differential mechanistic pathways where macronutrients might act on either appetite or adipogenesis to cause weight gain. We also explore the role of dietary macronutrient distribution on thermogenesis or energy expenditure for weight loss and maintenance. On the basis of the data discussed, we describe a novel way to manage excessive body weight; namely, prescribing personalized diets with different macronutrient compositions according to the individual's genotype and/or enterotype. In this context, the interplay of macronutrient consumption with obesity incidence involves mechanisms that affect appetite, thermogenesis and metabolism, and the outcomes of these mechanisms are altered by an individual's genotype and microbiota. Indeed, the interactions of the genetic make-up and/or microbiota features of a person with specific macronutrient intakes or dietary pattern consumption help to explain individualized responses to macronutrients and food patterns, which might represent key factors for comprehensive precision nutrition recommendations and personalized obesity management.
Autores: Livingstone, K. M., (Autor de correspondencia); Celis-Morales, C.; Lara, J.; et al.
Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 22  Nº 11  2019  págs. 2141 - 2146
Autores: Taberna Huesa, Daniel José; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Revista: CURRENT OPINION IN CLINICAL NUTRITION AND METABOLIC CARE
ISSN 1363-1950  Vol. 22  Nº 5  2019  págs. 323 - 328
A variety of questionnaires, equations and tools were found with ability to assess nutritional status for metabolic care or clinical nutrition purposes, but apparently there is no optimal, universal and reliable nutritional status screening system for all metabolic conditions. Novel assessment instruments should provide high sensibility and specificity, be precise and reliable as well as inexpensive and simple, in order to avoid the additional burden of excessive loads of costs, work and time while dynamically overcoming the influence of disease diversity.
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Livingstone, K. M. ; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 70  Nº 2  2019  págs. 240 - 253
The objective was to evaluate differences in macronutrient intake and to investigate the possible association between consumption of vegetable protein and the risk of overweight/obesity, within the Food4Me randomised, online intervention. Differences in macronutrient consumption among the participating countries grouped by EU Regions (Western Europe, British Isles, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe) were assessed. Relation of protein intake, within isoenergetic exchange patterns, from vegetable or animal sources with risk of overweight/obesity was assessed through the multivariate nutrient density model and a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. A total of 2413 subjects who completed the Food4Me screening were included, with self-reported data on age, weight, height, physical activity and dietary intake. As success rates on reducing overweight/obesity are very low, form a public health perspective, the elaboration of policies for increasing intakes of vegetable protein and reducing animal protein and sugars, may be a method of combating overweight/obesity at a population level.
Autores: de Cuevillas, B.; Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 36  Nº 4  2019  págs. 862 - 874
Background: there are numerous approaches to assess nutritional status, which are putatively applied to nutritionally classify diseased people, but less information is available to study the role of environmental factors on nutritional well-being. A qualitative (nutritypes) and quantitative (nutrimeter) nutritional categorization based on dietary, lifestyle and disease criteria can be a useful nutritional approach to personalize health interventions and identify at risk individuals. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted on 102 patients (60 women), evaluating quality of life using the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) and lifestyle factors with a general questionnaire, the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). A nutrimeter based on physical activity, fat mass, diet and diseases (hypertension, prediabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia) data was defined with an equation to quantitatively score the nutritive well-being of the participants, and classify them into two (proto)nutritypes. Results: participants were categorized into two groups (lower/higher global health) according to quality of life. Significant or marginal statistical differences in physical activity, fat mass, diet and disease were found (all p < 0.1). Two (proto)nutritypes were identified based on participant's age, sex, fat mass, physical activity, diet and diseases. Participants classified as high nutritional well-being nutritype showed higher value
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 70  Nº 2  2019  págs. 240 - 253
The objective was to evaluate differences in macronutrient intake and to investigate the possible association between consumption of vegetable protein and the risk of overweight/obesity, within the Food4Me randomised, online intervention. Differences in macronutrient consumption among the participating countries grouped by EU Regions (Western Europe, British Isles, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe) were assessed. Relation of protein intake, within isoenergetic exchange patterns, from vegetable or animal sources with risk of overweight/obesity was assessed through the multivariate nutrient density model and a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. A total of 2413 subjects who completed the Food4Me screening were included, with self-reported data on age, weight, height, physical activity and dietary intake. As success rates on reducing overweight/obesity are very low, form a public health perspective, the elaboration of policies for increasing intakes of vegetable protein and reducing animal protein and sugars, may be a method of combating overweight/obesity at a population level.
Autores: Rodriguez-Lozada, C.; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 11  Nº 6  2019  págs. E1206
Current evidence proposes diet quality as a modifiable risk factor for mental or emotional impairments. However, additional studies are required to investigate the effect of dietary patterns and weight loss on improving psychological symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of energy-restriction, prescribed to overweight and obese participants, on anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as the potential predictive value of some baseline psychological features on weight loss. Overweight and obese participants (n = 305) were randomly assigned for 16 weeks to two hypocaloric diets with different macronutrient distribution: a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet and a low-fat (LF) diet. Anthropometrical, clinical, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The nutritional intervention evidenced that weight loss has a beneficial effect on trait anxiety score in women (beta = 0.24, p = 0.03), depression score in all population (beta = 0.15, p = 0.02), particularly in women (beta = 0.22, p = 0.03) and in subjects who followed the LF diet (beta = 0.22, p = 0.04). Moreover, weight loss could be predicted by anxiety status at baseline, mainly in women and in those who were prescribed a LF diet. This trial suggests that weight loss triggers an improvement in psychological traits, and that anxiety symptoms could predict those volunteers that benefit most from a balanced calorie-restricted intervention, which will contribute to individualized precision nutrition.
Autores: Greenway, F. L.; Aronne, L. J.; Raben, A.; et al.
Revista: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 27  Nº 2  2019  págs. 205-216
Autores: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Petermann-Rocha, F. ; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
ISSN 0749-3797  Vol. 57  Nº 2  2019  págs. 209 - 219
Introduction: This study tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutritional advice and feedback more frequently would promote larger, more appropriate, and sustained changes in dietary behavior as well as greater reduction in adiposity. Study design: A 6-month RCT (Food4Me) was conducted in seven European countries between 2012 and 2013. Setting/participants: A total of 1,125 participants were randomized to Lower- (n=562) or Higher- (n=563) Frequency Feedback groups. Intervention: Participants in the Lower-Frequency group received personalized nutritional advice at baseline and at Months 3 and 6 of the intervention, whereas the Higher-Frequency group received personalized nutritional advice at baseline and at Months 1, 2, 3 and 6. Main outcome measures: The primary outcomes were change in dietary intake (at food and nutrient levels) and obesity-related traits (body weight, BMI, and waist circumference). Participants completed an online Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate usual dietary intake at baseline and at Months 3 and 6 of the intervention. Overall diet quality was evaluated using the 2010 Healthy Eating Index. Obesity-related traits were self-measured and reported by participants via the Internet. Statistical analyses were performed during the first quarter of 2018. Results: At 3 months, participants in the Lower- and Higher-Frequency Feedback groups showed improvements in Healthy Eating Index score; this improvement was larger in the Higher-Frequency group than the Lower-Frequency group (Delta=1.84 points, 95% CI=0.79, 2.89,p=0.0001). Similarly, there were greater improvements for the Higher- versus Lower-Frequency group for body weight (Delta= -0.73 kg, 95% CI= -1.07, -0.38, p<0.0001), BMI (Delta= -0.24 kg/m(2), 95% CI= -0.36, -0.13, p<0.0001), and waist circumference (Delta= -1.20 cm, 95% CI= 2.36, -0.04, p=0.039). However, only body weight and BMI remained significant at 6 months. Conclusions: At 3 months, higher-frequency feedback produced larger improvements in overall diet quality as well as in body weight and waist circumference than lower-frequency feedback. However, only body weight and BMI remained significant at 6 months. (C) 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 75  Nº Supl. 2  2019  págs. 11 - 11
Autores: Galarregui, C.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 41  Nº 2  2018  págs. 227 - 243
El envejecimiento de la población supone un importante reto, económico y cualitativo, para el sistema de salud orientándolo hacia una atención de tipo preventivo, en la que la nutrición de precisión (NP) y la prescripción de hábitos saludables adquieren relevancia capital. El fin de la NP es procurar una nutrición adaptada a cada individuo, entendiendo que la prevención o el tratamiento de trastornos crónicos (obesidad, diabetes, enfermedad cardiovascular, etc.) deben abordarse de un modo integral, considerando información personal y clínica relevante, edad y características feno- y genotípicas. La elaboración de la presente guía surge de la necesidad de desarrollar modelos nutricionales de precisión que permitan la individualización del tratamiento nutricional, con énfasis en el adulto mayor. Las necesidades nutricionales, las recomendaciones dietéticas y los ingredientes para una NP en las personas pre-sénior y sénior quedan resumidas en realizar al menos 3 comidas diarias, reducir las calorías totales, optar por una alimentación variada y equilibrada con alimentos frescos y de alta densidad nutricional, incorporar verduras, legumbres y pescado, consumir productos lácteos y fibra, preferir carnes blancas en lugar de rojas, evitar frituras, embutidos y alimentos procesados, moderar el consumo de sal, café y alcohol, e hidratarse adecuadamente. The aging of the population underlines an important challenge for the health system not only from sanitary and economic reasons but
Autores: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Martínez de Morentin Aldabe, Blanca Esther; Almirón Roig, Eva; et al.
Revista: ENDOCRINOLOGIA DIABETES Y NUTRICION
ISSN 2530-0180  Vol. 65  Nº 2  2018  págs. 114 - 125
Research in obesity has traditionally focused on prevention strategies and treatments aimed at changing lifestyle habits. However, recent research suggests that eating behavior is a habit regulated not only by homeostatic mechanisms, but also by the hedonic pathway that controls appetite and satiety processes. Cognitive, emotional, social, economic, and cultural factors, as welt as organoleptic properties of food, are basic aspects to consider in order to understand eating behavior and its impact on health. This review presents a multisensory integrative view of food at both the homeostatic and non-homeostatic levels. This information will be of scientific interest to determine behavior drivers leading to overeating and, thus, to propose effective measures, at both the individual and population levels, for the prevention of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. (C) 2017 SEEN y SED. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Autores: Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Navas Carretero, Santiago; Emery, P.; et al.
Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
ISSN 2042-6496  Vol. 9  Nº 2  2018  págs. 715 - 739
Portion sizes for certain foods have been increasing dramatically in recent years alongside obesity rates, concurring with the phenomenon of the portion size effect (more is consumed when more is offered). Portion size may be defined based on different purposes such as for dietary assessment, or therapeutic advice or food labelling, resulting in a variety of measurement methods and specifications. This situation has resulted in disagreements on establishing portion size recommendations by manufacturers, food distributors, restaurants, health professionals and policy makers, contributing to confusion amongst consumers on the amounts of food to be consumed, and potentially increasing the likelihood of overeating and other obesity-related behaviours. Such variability is also reflected in the research field making comparison across studies on portion size difficult. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of definitions and methods used in research to evaluate portion-size related outcomes, including methods to estimate amounts consumed by individuals as part of dietary assessment; methods to analyse cognitive mechanisms related to portion size behaviour; and methods to evaluate the impact of portion size manipulations as well as individual plus environmental factors on portion size behaviour. Special attention has been paid to behavioural studies exploring portion size cognitive processes given the lack of previous methodological reviews in this area. This information may help researchers, clinicians and other stakeholders to establish clearer definitions of portion size in their respective areas of work and to standardise methods to analyse portion size effects.
Autores: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Affleck, A.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0954-3007  Vol. 72  Nº 2  2018  págs. 207 - 219
Background/objectives To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. Subjects/methods Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet. Results The main factors associated (p < 0.05) with higher BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were age (beta:1.11 kg/m(2)), intakes of processed meat (beta:1.04 kg/m(2)), red meat (beta:1.02 kg/m(2)), saturated fat (beta:0.84 kg/m(2)), monounsaturated fat (beta:0.80 kg/m(2)), protein (beta:0.74 kg/m(2)), total energy intake (beta:0.50 kg/m(2)), olive oil (beta:0.36 kg/m(2)), sugar sweetened carbonated drinks (beta:0.33 kg/m(2)) and sedentary time (beta:0.73 kg/m(2)). In contrast, the main factors associated with lower BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were PA (beta:-1.36 kg/m(2)), intakes of wholegrains (beta:-1.05 kg/m(2)), fibre (beta:-1.02 kg/m(2)), fruits and vegetables (beta:-0.52 kg/m(2)), nuts (beta:-0.52 kg/m(2)), polyunsaturated fat (beta:-0.50 kg/m(2)), Healthy Eating Index (beta:-0.42 kg/m(2)), Mediterranean diet score (beta:-0.40 kg/m(2)), oily fish (beta:-0.31 kg/m(2)), dairy (beta:-0.31 kg/m(2)) and fruit juice (beta:-0.25 kg/m(2)). Conclusions These findings are important for public health and suggest that promotion of increased PA, reducing sedentary behaviours and improving the overall quality of dietary patterns are important strategies for addressing the existing obesity epidemic and associated disease burden.
Autores: Fallaize, R.; Livingstone, K. M. ; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2018  págs. 49
Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.
Autores: Christensen, P. , (Autor de correspondencia); Larsen, T. M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.; et al.
Revista: DIABETES OBESITY AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1462-8902  Vol. 20  Nº 12  2018  págs. 2840 - 2851
Aims Materials and methods The PREVIEW lifestyle intervention study ( Identifier: NCT01777893) is, to date, the largest, multinational study concerning prevention of type-2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the initial, fixed low-energy diet (LED) would induce different metabolic outcomes in men vs women. All participants followed a LED (3.4 MJ/810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks (Cambridge Weight Plan). Participants were recruited from 8 sites in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Those eligible for inclusion were overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) individuals with pre-diabetes according to ADA-criteria. Outcomes of interest included changes in insulin resistance, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and metabolic syndrome Z-score. Results Conclusions In total, 2224 individuals (1504 women, 720 men) attended the baseline visit and 2020 (90.8%) completed the follow-up visit. Following the LED, weight loss was 16% greater in men than in women (11.8% vs 10.3%, respectively) but improvements in insulin resistance were similar. HOMA-IR decreased by 1.50 +/- 0.15 in men and by 1.35 +/- 0.15 in women (ns). After adjusting for differences in weight loss, men had larger reductions in metabolic syndrome Z-score, C-peptide, FM and heart rate, while women had larger reductions in HDL cholesterol, FFM, hip circumference and pulse pressure. Following the LED, 35% of participants of both genders had reverted to normo-glycaemia. An 8-week LED induced different effects in women than in men. These findings are clinically important and suggest gender-specific changes after weight loss. It is important to investigate whether the greater decreases in FFM, hip circumference and HDL cholesterol in women after rapid weight loss compromise weight loss maintenance and future cardiovascular health.
Autores: Manios, Y. , (Autor de correspondencia); Moschonis, G.; Lambrinou, C. P.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 57  Nº 4  2018  págs. 1357 - 1368
Purpose To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates. Methods In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study. Results Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D-3 (25-OHD3) concentration of < 30 and 30-49.9 nmol/L, respectively, were observed in 3.3 and 30.6% of the participants. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the UK and the lowest in the Netherlands (8.2 vs. 1.1%, P < 0.05). In addition, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in females compared with males (36.6 vs. 22.6%, P < 0.001), in winter compared with summer months (39.3 vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05) and in younger compared with older participants (36.0 vs. 24.4%, P < 0.05). Positive dose-response associations were also observed between 25-OHD3 concentrations and dietary vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, as well as with physical activity (PA) levels. Vitamin D intakes of >= 5 mu g/day from foods and >= 5 mu g/day from supplements, as well as engagement in >= 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were associated with higher odds (P < 0.05) for maintaining sufficient (>= 50 nmol/L) 25-OHD3 concentrations. Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied considerably among European adults. Dietary intakes of >= 10 mu g/day of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements and at least 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were the minimum thresholds associated with vitamin D sufficiency.
Autores: Dorenbos, E. ; Drummen, M.; Rijks, J.; et al.
Revista: DIABETES OBESITY AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1462-8902  Vol. 20  Nº 5  2018  págs. 1096 - 1101
Insulin resistance (IR) in adolescence is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]. The PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study assessed the effectiveness of a high-protein, low-glycaemic-index diet and a moderate-protein, moderate-glycaemic-index diet to decrease IR in insulin-resistant children who were overweight or obese. Inclusion criteria were age 10 to 17 years, homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) ¿2.0 and overweight/obesity. In 126 children (mean ± SD age 13.6 ± 2.2 years, body mass index [BMI] z-score 3.04 ± 0.66, HOMA-IR 3.48 ± 2.28) anthropometrics, fat mass percentage (FM%), metabolic characteristics, physical activity, food intake and sleep were measured. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. IR was higher in pubertal children with morbid obesity than in prepubertal children with morbid obesity (5.41 ± 1.86 vs 3.23 ± 1.86; P = .007) and prepubertal and pubertal children with overweight/obesity (vs 3.61 ± 1.60, P = .004, and vs 3.40 ± 1.50, P < .001, respectively). IR was associated with sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. Fasting glucose concentrations were negatively associated with Baecke sport score (r = -0.223, P = .025) and positively with daytime sleepiness (r = 0.280, P = .016) independent of sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. In conclusion, IR was most severe in pubertal children with morbid obesity. The associations between fasting glucose concentration and Baecke sport score and sleepiness suggest these might be possible targets for diabetes prevention.
Autores: Huttunen-Lenz, M., (Autor de correspondencia); Hansen, S.; Christensen, P.; et al.
Revista: PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH AND BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT
ISSN 1179-1578  Vol. 11  2018  págs. 383 - 394
Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of >= 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2))individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss ("achievers") and those who did not ("non-achievers"). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between "achievers" (1,857) and "non-achievers" (163) were found. "Non-achievers" tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, "achievers" reported higher intentions (healthy eating chi(2)((1))=2.57; P < 0.008, exercising chi(2)((1))=0.66; P < 0.008), self-efficacy (F-(2;1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F-(4; 1968)=11.22, P < 0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the "new" behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.
Autores: Moller, G. , (Autor de correspondencia); Andersen, J. R.; Ritz, C.; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2018  págs. 54
Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World). Protein intake was estimated from four-day dietary records and 24-hour urinary urea excretion. We used linear regression to assess the association between protein intake after one year of intervention and kidney function markers: creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), urinary urea/creatinine ratio (UCR), serum creatinine, and serum urea before and after adjustments for potential confounders. A higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in UCR (p = 0.03) and serum urea (p = 0.05) after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults.
Autores: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Hoeller, U.; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 61  Nº 2  2017  págs. 1600476
SCOPE: Little is known about diet- and environment-gene interactions on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D concentration. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate (i) predictors of 25(OH)D concentration and relationships with vitamin D genotypes and (ii) whether dietary vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure modified these relationships. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the Food4Me study (n = 1312; age 18-79) were genotyped for vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein at baseline and a genetic risk score was calculated. Dried blood spot samples were assayed for 25(OH)D concentration and dietary and lifestyle information collected. Circulating 25(OH)D concentration was lower with increasing genetic risk score, lower in females than males, higher in supplement users than non-users and higher in summer than winter. Carriage of the minor VDR allele was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration in participants with the least sunlight exposure. Vitamin D genotype did not influence the relationship between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D concentration. CONCLUSION: Age, sex, dietary vitamin D intake, country, sunlight exposure, season, and vitamin D genetic risk score were associated with circulating 25(OH)D concentration in a pan-European population. The relationship between VDR genotype and 25(OH)D concentration may be influenced by weekday sunlight exposure but not dietary vitamin D intake.
Autores: Crujeiras Martínez, Ana Belén; Diaz-Lagares, A.; Sandoval, J.; et al.
Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 7  2017  págs. 41903
The characterization of the epigenetic changes within the obesity-related adipose tissue will provide new insights to understand this metabolic disorder, but adipose tissue is not easy to sample in population-based studies. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of circulating leukocytes to reflect the adipose tissue-specific DNA methylation status of obesity susceptibility. DNA samples isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and circulating leukocytes were hybridized in the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. Data were compared between samples from obese (n¿=¿45) and non-obese (n¿=¿8-10) patients by Wilcoxon-rank test, unadjusted for cell type distributions. A global hypomethylation of the differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCpGs) was observed in the obese subcutaneous adipose tissue and leukocytes. The overlap analysis yielded a number of genes mapped by the common DMCpGs that were identified to reflect the obesity state in the leukocytes. Specifically, the methylation levels of FGFRL1, NCAPH2, PNKD and SMAD3 exhibited excellent and statistically significant efficiencies in the discrimination of obesity from non-obesity status (AUC¿>¿0.80; p¿<¿0.05) and a great correlation between both tissues. Therefore, the current study provided new and valuable DNA methylation biomarkers of obesity-related adipose tissue pathogenesis through peripheral blood analysis, an easily accessible and minimally invasive biological material instead of adipose tissue.
Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 9  Nº 10  2017  págs. 1107
Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic background throughout the Food4Me web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Several genetic variants related to metabolic risk features were also analysed. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was derived from risk alleles and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), based on validated food intake data, was estimated. At baseline, there were no interactions between GRS and MDS categories for metabolic traits. Linear mixed model repeated measures analyses showed a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol in participants with a low GRS after a 6-month period, compared to those with a high GRS. Meanwhile, a high baseline MDS was associated with greater decreases in Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference and glucose. There also was a significant interaction between GRS and the MedDiet after the follow-up period. Among subjects with a high GRS, those with a high MDS evidenced a highly significant reduction in total carotenoids, while among those with a low GRS, there was no difference associated with MDS levels. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic outcomes, which can be affected by the genetic background in some specific markers.
Autores: Albani, V.; Celis-Morales, C.; O'Donovan, C. B.; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 61  Nº 10  2017  págs. 1700142
Scope: Previous work highlighted the potential of odd-chain length saturated fatty acids as potential markers of dairy intake. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these biomarkers and their sensitivity to changes in dairy intake. Methods and results: Fatty acid profiles and dietary intakes from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were measured three times over six months in the Food4Me Study. Reproducibility was explored through intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and within-subject coefficients of variation (WCV). Sensitivity to changes in diet was examined using regression analysis. C15:0 blood levels showed high correlation over time (ICC: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.68), however, the ICC for C17:0 was much lower (ICC: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.46). The WCV for C15:0 was 16.6% and that for C17:0 was 14.6%. There were significant associations between changes in intakes of total dairy, high-fat dairy, cheese and butter and C15:0; and change in intakes of high-fat dairy and cream and C17:0. Conclusion: Results provide evidence of reproducibility of C15:0 levels over time and sensitivity to change in intake of high-fat dairy products with results comparable to the well-established biomarker of fish intake (EPA+DHA).
Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
ISSN 1479-5868  Vol. 14  2017  págs. 168
Background: National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet. Methods: Data from all participants who were screened and then enrolled into the Food4Me proof-of-principle study (n = 2369) were used to determine the optimal items for inclusion in a novel screening tool, the Nutritional Perception Screening Questionnaire-9 (NPSQ9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on anthropometric and biochemical data and on dietary indices acquired from participants who had completed the Food4Me dietary intervention (n = 1153). Baseline and intervention data were analysed using linear regression and linear mixed regression, respectively. Results: A final model with 9 NPSQ items was validated against the dietary intervention data. NPSQ9 scores were inversely associated with BMI (ss = -0.181, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (B = -0.155, p < 0.001), and positively associated with total carotenoids (ss = 0.198, p < 0.001), omega-3 fatty acid index (ss = 0.155, p < 0.001), Healthy Eating Index (HEI) (ss = 0.299, p < 0.001) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) (ss = 0. 279, p < 0.001). Findings from the longitudinal intervention study showed a greater reduction in BMI and improved dietary indices among participants with lower NPSQ9 scores. Conclusions: Healthy eating perceptions and dietary habits captured by the NPSQ9 score, based on nine questionnaire items, were associated with reduced body weight and improved diet quality. Likewise, participants with a lower score achieved greater health improvements than those with higher scores, in response to personalised advice, suggesting that NPSQ9 may be used for early evaluation of nutritional status and to tailor nutritional advice.
Autores: Fogelholm, M.; Larsen, T. M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 9  Nº 6  2017  págs. 632
dType-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 x 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI) vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand). Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6) years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018.
Autores: Celis-Morales, C.; Marsaux, C. F.; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 105  Nº 5  2017  págs. 1204 - 1213
Background: There has been limited evidence about whether genotype-tailored advice provides extra benefits in reducing obesity-related traits compared with the benefits of conventional one-size-fits-all advice.Objective: We determined whether the disclosure of information on fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype risk had a greater effect on a reduction of obesity-related traits in risk carriers than in nonrisk carriers across different levels of personalized nutrition.Design: A total of 683 participants (women: 51%; age range: 18-73 y) from the Food4Me randomized controlled trial were included in this analysis. Participants were randomly assigned to 4 intervention arms as follows: level 0, control group; level 1, dietary group; level 2, phenotype group; and level 3, genetic group. FTO (single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609) was genotyped at baseline in all participants, but only subjects who were randomly assigned to level 3 were informed about their genotypes. Level 3 participants were stratified into risk carriers (AA/AT) and nonrisk carriers (TT) of the FTO gene for analyses. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were self-measured and reported at baseline and months 3 and 6.Results: Changes in adiposity markers were greater in participants who were informed that they carried the FTO risk allele (level 3 AT/AA carriers) than in the nonpersonalized group (level 0) but not in the other personalized groups (level 1 and 2). Mean reductions in weight and WC at month 6 were greater for FTO risk carriers than for noncarriers in the level 3 group [-2.28 kg (95% CI: -3.06, -1.48 kg) compared with -1.99 kg (-2.19, -0.19 kg), respectively (P = 0.037); and -4.34 cm (-5.63, -3.08 cm) compared with -1.99 cm (-4.04, -0.05 cm), respectively, (P = 0.048)].Conclusions: There are greater body weight and WC reductions in risk carriers than in nonrisk carriers of the FTO gene.
Autores: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Marsaux, C. F. M. ; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
ISSN 0300-5771  Vol. 46  Nº 2  2017  págs. 578 - 588
Background: Optimal nutritional choices are linked with better health, but many current interventions to improve diet have limited effect. We tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutrition (PN) advice based on information on individual diet and lifestyle, phenotype and/or genotype would promote larger, more appropriate, and sustained changes in dietary behaviour. Methods: Adults from seven European countries were recruited to an internet-delivered intervention (Food4Me) and randomized to: (i) conventional dietary advice (control) or to PN advice based on: (ii) individual baseline diet; (iii) individual baseline diet plus phenotype (anthropometry and blood biomarkers); or (iv) individual baseline diet plus phenotype plus genotype (five diet-responsive genetic variants). Outcomes were dietary intake, anthropometry and blood biomarkers measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months' intervention. Results: At baseline, mean age of participants was 39.8 years (range 18-79), 59% of participants were female and mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.5 kg/m(2). From the enrolled participants, 1269 completed the study. Following a 6-month intervention, participants randomized to PN consumed less red meat [-5.48 g, (95% confidence interval:-10.8,-0.09), P = 0.046], salt [-0.65 g, (-1.1,-0.25), P = 0.002] and saturated fat [-1.14 % of energy, (-1.6,-0.67), P<0.0001], increased folate [29.6 mu g, (0.21,59.0), P = 0.048] intake and had higher Healthy Eating Index scores [1.27, (0.30, 2.25), P = 0.010) than those randomized to the control arm. There was no evidence that including phenotypic and phenotypic plus genotypic information enhanced the effectiveness of the PN advice. Conclusions: Among European adults, PN advice via internet-delivered intervention produced larger and more appropriate changes in dietary behaviour than a conventional approach.
Autores: Grimaldi, K. A. ; van Ommen, B. ; Ordovas, J. M. ; et al.
Revista: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 12  2017  págs. 35
Nutrigenetic research examines the effects of inter-individual differences in genotype on responses to nutrients and other food components, in the context of health and of nutrient requirements. A practical application of nutrigenetics is the use of personal genetic information to guide recommendations for dietary choices that are more efficacious at the individual or genetic subgroup level relative to generic dietary advice. Nutrigenetics is unregulated, with no defined standards, beyond some commercially adopted codes of practice. Only a few official nutrition-related professional bodies have embraced the subject, and, consequently, there is a lack of educational resources or guidance for implementation of the outcomes of nutrigenetic research. To avoid misuse and to protect the public, personalised nutrigenetic advice and information should be based on clear evidence of validity grounded in a careful and defensible interpretation of outcomes from nutrigenetic research studies. Evidence requirements are clearly stated and assessed within the context of state-of-the-art 'evidence-based nutrition'. We have developed and present here a draft framework that can be used to assess the strength of the evidence for scientific validity of nutrigenetic knowledge and whether 'actionable'. In addition, we propose that this framework be used as the basis for developing transparent and scientifically sound advice to the public based on nutrigenetic tests. We feel that although this area is still in its infancy, minimal guidelines are required. Though these guidelines are based on semi-quantitative data, they should stimulate debate on their utility. This framework will be revised biennially, as knowledge on the subject increases.
Autores: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Macready, A. L.; et al.
Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 20  Nº 1  2017  págs. 53 - 63
Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.
Autores: O'Donovan, C. B.; Walsh, M. C.; Woolhead, C.; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 118  Nº 8  2017  págs. 561 - 569
Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6.56 (sd 1.29) %), carotenoids (2. 15 (sd 0.71) mu m) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.
Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Mathers, J. C. ; et al.
Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
ISSN 0029-6651  Vol. 76  Nº OCE4  2017  págs. E229 - E229
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 39  Nº 3  2016  págs. 345 - 346
Autores: O'Donovan, C. B.; Walsh, M. C. ; Forster, H.; et al.
Revista: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 11  2016  págs. 25
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesised that individuals with knowledge of their genetic risk are more likely to make health-promoting dietary and lifestyle changes. The present study aims to test this hypothesis using data from the Food4Me study. This was a 6-month Internet-based randomised controlled trial conducted across seven centres in Europe where individuals received either general healthy eating advice or varying levels of personalised nutrition advice. Participants who received genotype-based personalised advice were informed whether they had the risk (CT/TT) (n¿=¿178) or non-risk (CC) (n¿=¿141) alleles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in relation to cardiovascular health and the importance of a sufficient intake of folate. General linear model analysis was used to assess changes in folate intake between the MTHFR risk, MTHFR non-risk and control groups from baseline to month 6 of the intervention. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups for age, gender or BMI. However, there was a significant difference in country distribution between the groups (p¿=¿0.010). Baseline folate intakes were 412¿±¿172, 391¿±¿190 and 410¿±¿186 ¿g per 10 MJ for the risk, non-risk and control groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups in terms of changes in folate intakes from baseline to month 6. Similarly, there were no changes in reported intake of food groups high in folate. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that knowledge of MTHFR 677C¿¿¿T genotype did not improve folate intake in participants with the risk variant compared with those with the non-risk variant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139.
Autores: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Lara, J.; et al.
Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 19  Nº 18  2016  págs. 3296 - 3305
OBJECTIVE: To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters. DESIGN: Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice. SETTING: Pan-European, Internet-based, 6-month randomised controlled trial. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18-79 years (n 1480). RESULTS: Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05). CONCLUSIONS: The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Holst, C.; Saris, W. H.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0731-5724  Vol. 35  Nº 1  2016  págs. 20 - 30
Objective: Maintenance of weight loss and associated cardiovascular benefits after following energy-restricted diets is still a challenging field, and thorough investigation is needed. The present research aimed to determine the role of protein and gender in relation to two different intervention models related to food supply, in a weight maintenance trial. Subjects and Methods: The DiOGenes trial was a long-term, multicenter, randomized, dietary intervention study, conducted in eight European countries (Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00390637), focusing on assessing the effectiveness of weight maintenance over 6 months. This secondary analysis intended to evaluate the different benefits for weight maintenance and cardiometabolic markers of two dietary advice delivery models: "shop + instruction intervention" vs "instruction-alone intervention," which were further categorized for gender and macronutrient intake. Results: The weight maintenance intervention based on different macronutrient intake showed, independently of the advice delivery model, in both sexes that higher protein consumption was more effective for weight stability, showing better results in obese women (low protein: 1.65 kg in males and 0.73 Kg in females vs high protein: 1.45 kg in males and -0.93 Kg in females) . Measurements concerning cardiovascular risk markers from subjects on both structured models produced similar trends in the subsequent follow-up period, with a lower rebound in women for most of the markers analyzed. Conclusion: The reported dietary benefits for weight sustainability should be ascribed to the macronutrient distribution (higher protein diets) rather than to the structured mode of delivery. Higher weight regain in males was noted, as well as a metabolic divergence attributable to the sex, with a better biochemical outcome in women.
Autores: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 55  Nº 2  2016  págs. 759 - 769
PURPOSE: Personalised interventions may have greater potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases and for promoting better health and well-being across the lifespan than the conventional "one size fits all" approach. However, the characteristics of individuals interested in personalised nutrition (PN) are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of European adults interested in taking part in an internet-based PN study. METHODS: Individuals from seven European countries (UK, Ireland, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Greece and Poland) were invited to participate in the study via the Food4Me website ( http://www.food4me.org ). Two screening questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic, anthropometric and health-related characteristics as well as dietary intakes. RESULTS: A total of 5662 individuals expressed an interest in the study (mean age 40 ± 12.7; range 15-87 years). Of these, 65 % were female and 97 % were Caucasian. Overall, 13 % were smokers and 47 % reported the presence of a clinically diagnosed disease. Furthermore, 47 % were overweight or obese and 35 % were sedentary during leisure time. Assessment of dietary intakes showed that 54 % of individuals reported consuming at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, 46 % consumed more than 3 servings of wholegrains and 37 % limited their salt intake to <5.75 g per day. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that individuals volunteering to participate in an internet-based PN study are broadly representative of the European adult population, most of whom had adequate nutrient intakes but could benefit from improved dietary choices and greater physical activity. Future use of internet-based PN approaches is thus relevant to a wide target audience.
Autores: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Batlle, MA; Martínez de Morentin Aldabe, Blanca Esther; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 39  Nº 2  2016  págs. 269-289
A high caloric intake in today's nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of the notable increase in obesity in our society. In turn, this results in an increase in associated pathologies, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2. In the present work we review most recent studies and programs, which are significant due to their sample size and geographical diversity. It clearly shows that changes in alimentation and lifestyles are an effective instrument for combatting or delaying the onset of these diseases. In this sense, prevention is also key to avoiding serious consequences related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which can affect the life of the population.
Autores: Kirwan, L. ; Walsh, M. C.; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 116  Nº 12  2016  págs. 2011 - 2019
Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P= 0.034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P= 0.009). Total MUFA (P= 0.016) and total PUFA (P= 0.008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 83%. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.
Autores: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 115  Nº 3  2016  págs. 440 - 448
The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AAv. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.
Autores: Albani, V.; Celis-Morales, C.; Marsaux, C. F.; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 60  Nº 4  2016  págs. 834 - 845
The use of biomarkers in the objective assessment of dietary intake is a high priority in nutrition research. The aim of this study was to examine pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as biomarkers of dairy foods intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: The data used in the present study were obtained as part of the Food4me Study. Estimates of C15:0 and C17:0 from dried blood spots and intakes of dairy from a Food Frequency Questionnaire were obtained from participants (n = 1180) across seven countries. Regression analyses were used to explore associations of biomarkers with dairy intake levels and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to evaluate the fatty acids. Significant positive associations were found between C15:0 and total intakes of high-fat dairy products. C15:0 showed good ability to distinguish between low and high consumers of high-fat dairy products. CONCLUSION: C15:0 can be used as a biomarker of high-fat dairy intake and of specific high-fat dairy products. Both C15:0 and C17:0 performed poorly for total dairy intake highlighting the need for caution when using these in epidemiological studies.
Autores: Fallaize, R.; Celis-Morales, C.; Macready , A. L.; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 104  Nº 3  2016  págs. 827 - 836
Background: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) risk allele (epsilon 4) is associated with higher total cholesterol (TC), amplified response to saturated fatty acid (SFA) reduction, and increased cardiovascular disease. Although knowledge of gene risk may enhance dietary change, it is unclear whether epsilon 4 carriers would benefit from gene-based personalized nutrition (PN). Objectives: The aims of this study were to 1) investigate interactions between APOE genotype and habitual dietary fat intake and modulations of fat intake on metabolic outcomes; 2) determine whether gene-based PN results in greater dietary change than do standard dietary advice (level 0) and nongene-based PN (levels 1-2); and 3) assess the impact of knowledge of APOE risk (risk: E4+, nonrisk: E4-) on dietary change after gene-based PN (level 3). Design: Individuals (n = 1466) recruited into the Food4Me pan-European PN dietary intervention study were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms and genotyped for APOE (rs429358 and rs7412). Diet and dried blood spot TC and omega-3 (n-3) index were determined at baseline and after a 6-mo intervention. Data were analyzed with the use of adjusted general linear models. Results: Significantly higher TC concentrations were observed in E4+ participants than in E4- (P < 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in APOE response to gene-based PN (E4+ compared with E4-), both groups had a greater reduction in SFA (percentage of total energy) intake than at level 0 (mean +/- SD: E4+, -0.72% +/- 0.35% compared with -1.95% +/- 0.45%, P = 0.035; E4-, -0.31% +/- 0.20% compared with -1.68% +/- 0.35%, P = 0.029). Gene-based PN was associated with a smaller reduction in SFA intake than in nongene-based PN (level 2) for E4- participants (-1.68% +/- 0.35% compared with -2.56% +/- 0.27%, P = 0.025). Conclusions: The APOE epsilon 4 allele was associated with higher TC. Although gene -based PN targeted to APOE was more effective in reducing SFA intake than standard dietary advice, there was no difference between APOE "risk" and "nonrisk" groups. Furthermore, disclosure of APOE nonrisk may have weakened dietary response to PN. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530139.
Autores: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, M.; Batlle, M. A.; Martínez de Morentin, B.; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 39  Nº 2  2016  págs. 269 - 289
A high caloric intake in today¿s nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of the notable increase in obesity in our society. In turn, this results in an increase in associated pathologies, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2. In the present work we review most recent studies and programs, which are significant due to their sample size and geographical diversity. It clearly shows that changes in alimentation and lifestyles are an effective instrument for combatting or delaying the onset of these diseases. In this sense, prevention is also key to avoiding serious consequences related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which can affect the life of the population.
Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 73  Nº 3  2016  págs. 465 - 474
Epigenetics has an important role in the regulation of metabolic adaptation to environmental modifications. In this sense, the determination of epigenetic changes in non-invasive samples during the development of metabolic diseases could play an important role in the procedures in primary healthcare practice. To help translate the knowledge of epigenetics to public health practice, the present study aims to explore the parallelism of methylation levels between white blood cells and buccal samples in relation to obesity and associated disorders. Blood and buccal swap samples were collected from a subsample of the Spanish cohort of the Food4Me study. Infinium HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis was carried out for the determination of methylation levels. Standard deviation for ß values method and concordance correlation analysis were used to select those CpG which showed best parallelism between samples. A total of 277 CpGs met the criteria and were selected for an enrichment analysis and a correlation analysis with anthropometrical and clinical parameters. From those selected CpGs, four presented high associations with BMI (cg01055691 in GAP43; r = -0.92 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.89 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample), HOMA-IR (cg00095677 in ATP2A3; r = 0.82 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.8 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample) and leptin (cg14464133 in ADARB2; r = -0.9182 and rho = -0.94 for blood; r = -0.893 and rho = -0.79 for buccal sample). These findings demonstrate the potential application of non-invasive buccal samples in the identification of surrogate epigenetic biomarkers and identify methylation sites in GAP43, ATP2A3 and ADARB2 genes as potential targets in relation to overweight management and insulin sensibility.
Autores: Marsaux, C. F.; Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH
ISSN 1438-8871  Vol. 18  Nº 2  2016  págs. e30
There is evidence that physical activity (PA) can attenuate the influence of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype on the risk to develop obesity. However, whether providing personalized information on FTO genotype leads to changes in PA is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if disclosing FTO risk had an impact on change in PA following a 6-month intervention. METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 in the FTO gene was genotyped in 1279 participants of the Food4Me study, a four-arm, Web-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 7 European countries on the effects of personalized advice on nutrition and PA. PA was measured objectively using a TracmorD accelerometer and was self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Differences in baseline PA variables between risk (AA and AT genotypes) and nonrisk (TT genotype) carriers were tested using multiple linear regression. Impact of FTO risk disclosure on PA change at 6 months was assessed among participants with inadequate PA, by including an interaction term in the model: disclosure (yes/no) × FTO risk (yes/no). RESULTS: At baseline, data on PA were available for 874 and 405 participants with the risk and nonrisk FTO genotypes, respectively. There were no significant differences in objectively measured or self-reported baseline PA between risk and nonrisk carriers. A total of 807 (72.05%) of the participants out of 1120 in the personalized groups were encouraged to increase PA at baseline. Knowledge of FTO risk had no impact on PA in either risk or nonrisk carriers after the 6-month intervention. Attrition was higher in nonrisk participants for whom genotype was disclosed (P=.01) compared with their at-risk counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: No association between baseline PA and FTO risk genotype was observed. There was no added benefit of disclosing FTO risk on changes in PA in this personalized intervention. Further RCT studies are warranted to confirm whether disclosure of nonrisk genetic test results has adverse effects on engagement in behavior change.
Autores: Marsaux, C. F.; Celis-Morales, C.; Hoonhout, J.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 11  Nº 3  2016  págs. e015092
BACKGROUND: Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. METHODS: Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. RESULTS: Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54-65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26-49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study.
Autores: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C. M.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 104  Nº 2  2016  págs. 288 - 297
Background: Little is known about the efficacy of personalized nutrition (PN) interventions for improving consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of a PN intervention on dietary changes associated with the MedDiet. Design: Participants (n = 1607) were recruited into a 6-mo, Internet-based, PN randomized controlled trial (Food4Me) designed to evaluate the effect of PN on dietary change. Participants were randomly assigned to receive conventional dietary advice [control; level 0 (L0)] or PN advice on the basis of current diet [level 1 (L1)], diet and phenotype [level 2 (L2)], or diet, phenotype, and genotype [level 3 (L3)]. Dietary intakes from food-frequency questionnaires at baseline and at 6 mo were converted to a MedDiet score. Linear regression compared participant characteristics between high (>5) and low (<= 5) MedDiet scores. Differences in MedDiet scores between treatment arms at month 6 were evaluated by using contrast analyses. Results: At baseline, high MedDiet scorers had a 0.5 lower body mass index (in kg/m(2); P = 0.007) and a 0.03 higher physical activity level (P = 0.003) than did low scorers. MedDiet scores at month 6 were greater in individuals randomly assigned to receive PN (L1, L2, and L3) than in controls (PN compared with controls: 5.20 +/- 0.05 and 5.48 +/- 0.07, respectively; P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in MedDiet scores at month 6 between PN advice on the basis of L1 compared with L2 and L3. However, differences in MedDiet scores at month 6 were greater in L3 than in L2 (L3 compared with L2: 5.63 +/- 0.10 and 5.38 +/- 0.10, respectively; P = 0.029). Conclusions: Higher MedDiet scores at baseline were associated with healthier lifestyles and lower adiposity. After the intervention, MedDiet scores were greater in individuals randomly assigned to receive PN than in controls, with the addition of DNA-based dietary advice resulting in the largest differences in MedDiet scores. Although differences were significant, their clinical relevance is modest.
Autores: Celis-Morales, C.; Marsaux, C. F.; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
Revista: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 24  Nº 4  2016  págs. 962 - 969
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the effect of FTO loci on obesity-related traits could be modified by physical activity (PA) levels in European adults. METHODS: Of 1,607 Food4Me participants randomized, 1,280 were genotyped for FTO (rs9939609) and had available PA data. PA was measured objectively using accelerometers (TracmorD, Philips), whereas anthropometric measures [BMI and waist circumference (WC)] were self-reported via the Internet. RESULTS: FTO genotype was associated with a higher body weight [ß: 1.09 kg per risk allele, (95% CI: 0.14-2.04), P¿=¿0.024], BMI [ß: 0.54 kg m(-2) , (0.23-0.83), P¿<¿0.0001], and WC [ß: 1.07 cm, (0.24-1.90), P¿=¿0.011]. Moderate-equivalent PA attenuated the effect of FTO on BMI (P[interaction] ¿=¿0.020). Among inactive individuals, FTO increased BMI by 1.06 kg m(-2) per allele (P¿=¿0.024), whereas the increase in BMI was substantially attenuated among active individuals (0.16 kg m(-2) , P¿=¿0.388). We observed similar effects for WC (P[interaction] ¿=¿0.005): the FTO risk allele increased WC by 2.72 cm per allele among inactive individuals but by only 0.49 cm in active individuals. CONCLUSIONS: PA attenuates the effect of FTO genotype on BMI and WC. This may have important public health implications because genetic susceptibility to obesity in the presence of FTO variants may be reduced by adopting a physically active lifestyle.
Autores: Marshall, S. J.; Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 146  Nº 5  2016  págs. 1068 - 1075
BACKGROUND: Accurate dietary assessment is key to understanding nutrition-related outcomes and is essential for estimating dietary change in nutrition-based interventions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the pan-European reproducibility of the Food4Me food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in assessing the habitual diet of adults. METHODS: Participants from the Food4Me study, a 6-mo, Internet-based, randomized controlled trial of personalized nutrition conducted in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Spain, Netherlands, Germany, Greece, and Poland, were included. Screening and baseline data (both collected before commencement of the intervention) were used in the present analyses, and participants were included only if they completed FFQs at screening and at baseline within a 1-mo timeframe before the commencement of the intervention. Sociodemographic (e.g., sex and country) and lifestyle [e.g., body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)) and physical activity] characteristics were collected. Linear regression, correlation coefficients, concordance (percentage) in quartile classification, and Bland-Altman plots for daily intakes were used to assess reproducibility. RESULTS: In total, 567 participants (59% female), with a mean ± SD age of 38.7 ± 13.4 y and BMI of 25.4 ± 4.8, completed both FFQs within 1 mo (mean ± SD: 19.2 ± 6.2 d). Exact plus adjacent classification of total energy intake in participants was highest in Ireland (94%) and lowest in Poland (81%). Spearman correlation coefficients (¿) in total energy intake between FFQs ranged from 0.50 for obese participants to 0.68 and 0.60 in normal-weight and overweight participants, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed a mean difference between FFQs of 210 kcal/d, with the agreement deteriorating as energy intakes increased. There was little variation in reproducibility of total energy intakes between sex and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The online Food4Me FFQ was shown to be reproducible across 7 European countries when administered within a 1-mo period to a large number of participants. The results support the utility of the online Food4Me FFQ as a reproducible tool across multiple European populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530139.
Autores: Forster, H.; Walsh, M. C.; O'Donovan, C. B.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH
ISSN 1438-8871  Vol. 18  Nº 6  2016  págs. e150
Background: Despite numerous healthy eating campaigns, the prevalence of diets high in saturated fatty acids, sugar, and salt and low in fiber, fruit, and vegetables remains high. With more people than ever accessing the Internet, Web-based dietary assessment instruments have the potential to promote healthier dietary behaviors via personalized dietary advice. Objective: The objectives of this study were to develop a dietary feedback system for the delivery of consistent personalized dietary advice in a multicenter study and to examine the impact of automating the advice system. Methods: The development of the dietary feedback system included 4 components: (1) designing a system for categorizing nutritional intakes; (2) creating a method for prioritizing 3 nutrient-related goals for subsequent targeted dietary advice; (3) constructing decision tree algorithms linking data on nutritional intake to feedback messages; and (4) developing personal feedback reports. The system was used manually by researchers to provide personalized nutrition advice based on dietary assessment to 369 participants during the Food4Me randomized controlled trial, with an automated version developed on completion of the study. Results: Saturated fatty acid, salt, and dietary fiber were most frequently selected as nutrient-related goals across the 7 centers. Average agreement between the manual and automated systems, in selecting 3 nutrient-related goals for personalized dietary advice across the centers, was highest for nutrient-related goals 1 and 2 and lower for goal 3, averaging at 92%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Complete agreement between the 2 systems for feedback advice message selection averaged at 87% across the centers. Conclusions: The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice.
Autores: O'Donovan, C. B.; Walsh, M. C.; Forster, H.; et al.
Revista: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 11  2016  págs. 25
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesised that individuals with knowledge of their genetic risk are more likely to make health-promoting dietary and lifestyle changes. The present study aims to test this hypothesis using data from the Food4Me study. This was a 6-month Internet-based randomised controlled trial conducted across seven centres in Europe where individuals received either general healthy eating advice or varying levels of personalised nutrition advice. Participants who received genotype-based personalised advice were informed whether they had the risk (CT/TT) (n¿=¿178) or non-risk (CC) (n¿=¿141) alleles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in relation to cardiovascular health and the importance of a sufficient intake of folate. General linear model analysis was used to assess changes in folate intake between the MTHFR risk, MTHFR non-risk and control groups from baseline to month 6 of the intervention. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups for age, gender or BMI. However, there was a significant difference in country distribution between the groups (p¿=¿0.010). Baseline folate intakes were 412¿±¿172, 391¿±¿190 and 410¿±¿186 ¿g per 10 MJ for the risk, non-risk and control groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups in terms of changes in folate intakes from baseline to month 6. Similarly, there were no changes in reported intake of food groups high in folate. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that knowledge of MTHFR 677C¿¿¿T genotype did not improve folate intake in participants with the risk variant compared with those with the non-risk variant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139.
Autores: Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; Vasconcelos Costa, Andre Gustavo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 71  Nº 2  2015  págs. 341 - 349
Inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. Several studies have evidenced important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). This review illustrates current knowledge about the efficacy of n-3 LC-PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), particularly) in preventing and/or treating several chronic inflammatory conditions (inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatoid arthritis) as well as their potential benefits on neurodegenerative diseases. It is well established that n-3 LC-PUFAs are substrates for synthesis of novel series of lipid mediators (e.g., resolvins, protectins, and maresins) with potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties, which have been proposed to partly mediate the protective and beneficial actions of n-3 LC-PUFAs. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge from preclinical studies analyzing the actions of EPA- and DHA-derived resolvins and protectins on pathophysiological models of rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 66  Nº Suppl. 1  2015  págs. S53 - S61
The growing worldwide interest on functional food research has been accompanied by increasing regulatory guidelines in this area, with the aim of ensuring that any claimed effect in foods, beyond their nutritional role, is based on scientific unequivocal evidence. In order to assess the cause-effect relationship between the regular consumption of a food or a food component and the beneficial outcome for the consumer, an appropriate study design is required. Previous knowledge and research on the specific claimed food or product may be an adequate basis for defining a hypothesis and accurate objectives. Other key factors to take into account are based on the outcomes studied, the length of the trial, sample size and type, as well as the transparency on reporting the results obtained. Based on the Consolidated Standards on Reporting Trials statement (CONSORT), together with the specific guidelines published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies, the present article aims at summarizing key questions conducting to the most appropriate study design for solid health claim substantiation.
Autores: Hoeller, U.; Baur, M.; Roos, F. F.; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 115  Nº 2  2015  págs. 202 - 211
An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D-2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D-3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D-3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D-3 levels (P<0.001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D-3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson's correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0.65, and the sd of their differences was 21.2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.
Autores: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 34  Nº 5  2015  págs. 1010 - 1017
Background & aims: The aim of this study is to further clarify the role of plasma 25(OH)D concentration after a weight-lowering nutritional intervention on body composition, blood pressure and inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese middle-aged subjects. Methods: This longitudinal research encompassed a total of 50 subjects [57.26 (5.24) year], who were under a 15% energy restricted diet for 4 weeks. Anthropometric and body composition variables, blood routine, inflammatory markers as well as 25(OH)D were analysed. Results: Circulating 25(OH)D levels [12.13(+/- 17.61%)] increased while anthropometric, body composition, routine blood markers as well as the concentration of TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein and Lp-PLA2 were significantly reduced after the intervention. Multiple linear regression analyses evidenced that Delta 25(OH) D increase was linked to the decrease in weight, adiposity, SBP and IL-6 levels. Moreover, a relationship was found between Delta 25(OH)D, Mat mass (r = -0.405; p = 0.007), ASBP (r = -0.355; p = 0.021) and Delta IL6 (r = -0.386; p = 0.014). On the other hand, a higher increase in 25(OH)D was accompanied by reductions in weight, BMI, SBP, IL-6 and an increase in bone mineral concentration (p < 0.05). Interestingly, higher levels of 25(OH)D at the endpoint, showed a significantly higher decrease in weight, BMI and total fat mass. Conclusions: The increase in plasma 25(OH)D level is linked with the decrease in SBP and adiposity in middle-aged subjects after a weight-loss intervention. Therefore, 25(OH)D assessment is a potential marker to be accounted in metabolic measures related to blood pressure, adiposity and inflammation in obesity management.
Autores: Marsaux, C. F.; Celis-Morales, C.; Fallaize, R.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH
ISSN 1438-8871  Vol. 17  Nº 10  2015  págs. e231
Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide calls for innovative and more effective ways to promote physical activity (PA). There are limited objective data on the effectiveness of Web-based personalized feedback on increasing PA in adults. Objective: It is hypothesized that providing personalized advice based on PA measured objectively alongside diet, phenotype, or genotype information would lead to larger and more sustained changes in PA, compared with nonpersonalized advice. Methods: A total of 1607 adults in seven European countries were randomized to either a control group (nonpersonalized advice, Level 0, L0) or to one of three personalized groups receiving personalized advice via the Internet based on current PA plus diet (Level 1, L1), PA plus diet and phenotype (Level 2, L2), or PA plus diet, phenotype, and genotype (Level 3, L3). PA was measured for 6 months using triaxial accelerometers, and self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire. Outcomes were objective and self-reported PA after 3 and 6 months. J Med Internet Res 2015 | vol. 17 | iss. 10 | e231 | http://www.jmir.org/2015/10/e231/p.1 (page number not for citation purposes) JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH Marsaux et al XSL¿FO RenderX Results: While 1270 participants (85.81% of 1480 actual starters) completed the 6-month trial, 1233 (83.31%) self-reported PA at both baseline and month 6, but only 730 (49.32%) had sufficient objective PA data at both time points. For the total cohort after 6 months, a greater improvement in self-reported total PA (P=.02) and PA during leisure (nonsport) (P=.03) was observed in personalized groups compared with the control group. For individuals advised to increase PA, we also observed greater improvements in those two self-reported indices (P=.006 and P=.008, respectively) with increased personalization of the advice (L2 and L3 vs L1). However, there were no significant differences in accelerometer results between personalized and control groups, and no significant effect of adding phenotypic or genotypic information to the tailored feedback at month 3 or 6. After 6 months, there were small but significant improvements in the objectively measured physical activity level (P<.05), moderate PA (P<.01), and sedentary time (P<.001) for individuals advised to increase PA, but these changes were similar across all groups. Conclusions: Different levels of personalization produced similar small changes in objective PA. We found no evidence that personalized advice is more effective than conventional "one size fits all" guidelines to promote changes in PA in our Web-based intervention when PA was measured objectively. Based on self-reports, PA increased to a greater extent with more personalized advice. Thus, it is crucial to measure PA objectively in any PA intervention study.
Autores: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Marsaux, C. F.; et al.
Revista: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2015  págs. 450
Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0--control group--receiving conventional, non-PN advice Level 1--receiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone Level 2--receiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data and Level 3--receiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8 years (ranging from 18 to 79 years). Of these participants, 60.9 % were women and 96.7 % were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5 kg m.sup.-2, and 44.8 % of the participants had a BMI a[yen] 25.0 kg m.sup.-2. Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015.
Autores: Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Prieto Hontoria, Pedro Luis; et al.
Revista: OBESITY
ISSN 1930-7381  Vol. 23  Nº 2  2015  págs. 313 - 321
Objective To evaluate the potential body weight-lowering effects of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and ¿-lipoic acid separately or combined in healthy overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet. Methods This is a short-term double-blind placebo-controlled study with parallel design that lasted 10 weeks. Of the randomized participants, 97 women received the allocated treatment [Control, EPA (1.3 g/d), ¿-lipoic acid (0.3 g/d), and EPA¿+¿¿-lipoic acid (1.3 g/d¿+¿0.3 g/d)], and 77 volunteers completed the study. All groups followed an energy-restricted diet of 30% less than total energy expenditure. Body weight, anthropometric measurements, body composition, resting energy expenditure, blood pressure, serum glucose, and insulin and lipid profile, as well as leptin and ghrelin levels, were assessed at baseline and after nutritional intervention. Results Body weight loss was significantly higher (P¿<¿0.05) in those groups supplemented with ¿-lipoic acid. EPA supplementation significantly attenuated (P¿<¿0.001) the decrease in leptin levels that occurs during weight loss. Body weight loss improved lipid and glucose metabolism parameters but without significant differences between groups. Conclusions The intervention suggests that ¿-lipoic acid supplementation alone or in combination with EPA may help to promote body weight loss in healthy overweight/obese women following energy-restricted diets.
Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 7  Nº 11  2015  págs. 9523 - 9537
Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups¿ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of ¿Mediterranean diet¿ foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (ß = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001), while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (ß = -0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348). Atotal of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy,Western, and Compensatory) through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, R.; Avellaneda, A.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 12  2015  págs. 319 - 331
The effects on body composition and cardiovascular risk of functional meat products, within a balanced diet, were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, 10-week nutritional intervention. Fifty-four adults were distributed in three groups, consuming 600¿g/week of a reference meat product (RP), optimized nutritional product-1 (ONP-1), lower in fat, or ONP-2, n-3 PUFA enriched. Measures were performed at baseline and the endpoint. All groups lost fat mass, being subjects on the ONP-2 group those with more fat loss (p¿=¿0.042) compared to the other groups. Correlation analyses evidenced significant associations between alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake and plasma levels (p¿=¿0.001), as well as between plasma levels and fat mass changes (p¿=¿0.03). The inclusion of optimized meat products, with n-3 PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids) and an improved nutritional profile may be a healthy strategy, as a functional food, within an isocalorically controlled diet. ALA consumption may play a role in body composition changes.
Autores: Hallmann, J.; Kolossa, S.; Gedrich, K.; et al.
Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
ISSN 1613-4125  Vol. 59  Nº 12  2015  págs. 2565 - 2573
Scope: A high intake of n-3 PUFA provides health benefits via changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio in blood. In addition to such dietary PUFAs, variants in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene are also associated with altered PUFA profiles. Methods and results: We used mathematical modeling to predict levels of PUFA in whole blood, based on multiple hypothesis testing and bootstrapped LASSO selected food items, anthropometric and lifestyle factors, and the rs174546 genotypes in FADS1 from 1607 participants (Food4Me Study). The models were developed using data from the first reported time point (training set) and their predictive power was evaluated using data from the last reported time point (test set). Among other food items, fish, pizza, chicken, and cereals were identified as being associated with the PUFA profiles. Using these food items and the rs174546 genotypes as predictors, models explained 26-43% of the variability in PUFA concentrations in the training set and 22-33% in the test set. Conclusion: Selecting food items using multiple hypothesis testing is a valuable contribution to determine predictors, as our models' predictive power is higher compared to analogue studies. As unique feature, we additionally confirmed our models' power based on a test set.
Autores: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Woolhead, C.; et al.
Revista: GENES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 1555-8932  Vol. 10  Nº 5  2015  págs. 476
In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anthropometric and demographic data via measurements performed face-to-face in a validation study (VS). Participants (n = 140) from seven European countries, participating in the Food4Me intervention study which aimed to test the efficacy of personalised nutrition approaches delivered via the internet, were invited to take part in the VS. Participants visited a research centre in each country within 2 weeks of providing SR data via the internet. Participants received detailed instructions on how to perform each measurement. Individual's identity was checked visually and by repeated collection and analysis of buccal cell DNA for 33 genetic variants. Validation of identity using genomic information showed perfect concordance between SR and VS. Similar results were found for demographic data (age and sex verification). We observed strong intra-class correlation coefficients between SR and VS for anthropometric data (height 0.990, weight 0.994 and BMI 0.983). However, internet-based SR weight was under-reported (¿ -0.70 kg [-3.6 to 2.1], p < 0.0001) and, therefore, BMI was lower for SR data (¿ -0.29 kg m(-2) [-1.5 to 1.0], p < 0.0001). BMI classification was correct in 93 % of cases. We demonstrate the utility of genotype information for detection of possible identity fraud in e-health studies and confirm the reliability of internet-based, SR anthropometric and demographic data collected in the Food4Me study.
Autores: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Saris, W. H.; et al.
Revista: NATURE REVIEWS ENDOCRINOLOGY
ISSN 1759-5029  Vol. 10  Nº 12  2014  págs. 749 - 760
A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owing to the different metabolic roles of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in energy homeostasis, diets of similar overall energy content but with different macronutrient distribution can differentially affect metabolism, appetite and thermogenesis. Evidence increasingly suggests that the fuel values of calories provided by distinct macronutrients should be considered separately, as metabolism of specific molecular components generates differences in energy yield. The causes of variation in individual responses to various diets are currently under debate, and some evidence suggests that differences are associated with specific genotypes. This Review discusses all available systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and summarizes the results of relevant randomized controlled intervention trials assessing the influence of macronutrient composition on weight management. The initial findings of research into personalized nutrition, based on the interactions of macronutrient intake and genetic background and its potential influence on dietary intervention strategies, are also discussed.
Autores: de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 111  Nº 4  2014  págs. 643 - 652
The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7 %; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7 %; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8 %; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4 %; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9 %; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8 %; P= 0·008 and - 14·0 %; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9 %; P= 0·011), AST (11·3 %; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0 %; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4 %; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8 %; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7 %; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1 %; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1 %; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good long-term dietary treatment for the MetS.
Autores: Pérez Cornago, Aurora; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION JOURNAL
ISSN 1475-2891  Vol. 13  Nº 1  2014  págs. 36
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression have become two prevalent diseases worldwide, whose interaction needs further investigation. Dietary treatment for weight loss in patients with MetS may improve depressive manifestations, however, the precise interactive pathways remain uncertain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a hypocaloric diet designed to reduce MetS features on self-perceived depression and the possible underlying factors. METHODS: Sixty subjects (Age: 50 ± 1 y; BMI: 36.1 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) with MetS were selected from the RESMENA study (control and intervention) after they completed the 6-months hypocaloric treatment and rated for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Anthropometric and biochemical measurements including leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and insulin levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms decreased during the weight loss intervention, with no differences between both dietary groups (control group -4.2 ± 0.8 vs RESMENA group -3.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.490). The number of criteria of the MetS was higher among subjects with more somatic-related depressive symptoms at baseline (B = 1.032, P-trend = 0.017). After six months of dietary treatment, body weight decreased in all subjects (-8.7%; confidence interval (95% CI)¿= 7.0-9.7) and also self-perceived depression (-37.9%; 95% CI = 2.7-4.9), as well as circulating leptin (-20.1%; 95% CI = 1.8-6.8), CRP (-42.8%; 95% CI = 0.6-3.0) and insulin (-37.7%; 95% CI = 4.1-7.2) concentrations. The decrease in BDI was significantly associated with declines in body fat mass (B = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.11-0.56) and also with the decrease in leptin (B = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04-0.28) and CRP (B = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.01-0.46) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in depressive manifestations after a weight loss intervention was related with adiposity, CRP and leptin in subjects with MetS.
Autores: Aguado-Barrios, A.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: ANALES DE LA REAL ACADEMIA DE FARMACIA
ISSN 0034-0618  Vol. 80  Nº 3  2014  págs. 624 - 636
El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar en adultos sanos los efectos de una cuajada con perfil lipídico modificado sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. El estudio consistió en una intervención nutricional posprandial, doble ciego, aleatorizada, en 20 adultos sanos. En cada visita los participantes consumían la cuajada asignada y se obtuvieron muestras de sangre basales y durante 6 horas, para analizar variables relacionadas con riesgo cardiovascular. Los niveles posprandiales de Apolipoproteína-B fueron significativamente inferiores (p=0.008), mientras que los valores de colesterol total y LDL-colesterol también se redujeron modestamente (ns), observándose una tendencia (p<0.10) a mejorar la sensibilidad a la insulina tras consumir la cuajada experimental frente al control. Estos resultados permiten atribuir un posible efecto beneficioso sobre la salud, asociado al consumo de un postre con perfil lipídico modificado.
Autores: Crujeiras Martínez, Ana Belén; Pardo, M.; Roca-Rivada, A.; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY
ISSN 1042-0533  Vol. 26  Nº 2  2014  págs. 198 - 207
Objective: The recently discovered peptide irisin has been hypothesized to be a regulator of body metabolism. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether circulating human irisin levels are modulated by body size and changes in adiposity during an energy restriction treatment and the subsequent weight regain. Methods: A group of 94 obese patients (50 men, 44 women; 49.4¿±¿9.4 years; BMI 35.6¿±¿4.5 kg/m(2) ) participated in a weight loss program following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) with a weight maintenance follow-up. The patients were evaluated at 0, 8, and 24 weeks after starting treatment. In addition, 48 normal-weight subjects (16 men, 32 women; 35.71¿±¿8.8 years; BMI 22.9¿±¿2.2 kg/m(2) ) participated as controls. Plasma irisin, body weight, body composition, and hormones controlling energy homeostasis were measured. Results: Irisin levels were higher in obese subjects (353.1¿±¿18.6 ng/mL) than in those of normal-weight (198.4¿±¿7.8 ng/mL; P¿¿¿0.001) and were also higher in men (340.9¿±¿20 ng/mL) than in women (267.6¿±¿12 ng/mL; P¿&lt;¿0.05). Moreover, irisin plasma levels were significantly correlated with high levels of direct and indirect adiposity markers, such as weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass, as measured by bioimpedance, but not with height or leptin levels. Interestingly, irisin levels paralleled body weight reduction after the dietary treatment (week 8) and again returned to the baseline levels at 24 weeks in those patients regaining the lost weight. Conclusions: Irisin strongly reflects body fat mass, suggesting that the irisin circulating levels are conditioned by adiposity level.
Autores: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 1436-6207  Vol. 53  Nº 1  2014  págs. 201 - 210
Purpose: Dietary food composition influences postprandial glucose homeostasis. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects of an acute intake of three different types of strawberry jam, differing in carbohydrate and antioxidants content, on postprandial glucose metabolism, lipid profile, antioxidant status, and satiety. Methods: Sixteen healthy adults participated in a randomized, crossover, double-blind study with three arms, receiving 60 g of three different strawberry jams. Blood samples were collected at fasting and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after its intake. Blood analyses were performed with validated procedures and satiety was estimated with visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Blood glucose concentrations were maintained at normal values and without peaks within the 2 h after consumption of low-sugar jams. However, blood glucose and insulin were significantly higher at 30 and 60 min after high-sugar (HS) jam intake versus both low-sugar jams. Furthermore, HS jam produced more satisfaction at short time, but decreased as soon as blood glucose concentration began to decrease. Moreover, HS ingestion produced lower free fatty acid levels ( p < 0.05) throughout the trial with respect both the low-sugar jams. However, no additional benefits on oxidative status (malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity, and uric acid), glucose, lipid, and satiety variables were observed due to the inclusion of an antioxidant to low-sugar jam. Conclusions: This study reinforces the idea that products without added sugars are appropriate for the management of glycemic alterations and provides further insight into the effect of natural antioxidants as a functional ingredient on oxidative status and related metabolic disturbances.
Autores: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 24  Nº 4  2014  págs. 416 - 422
Background and Aims: Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Methods and Results: Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p < 0.05) anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and blood biochemical measurements. Oxidised LDL cholesterol (oxLDL), showed a higher reduction (p = 0.030) in the cocoa group. Moreover, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels decreased only in the cocoa supplemented group (p = 0.007). Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) decreased significantly in both groups, while Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) did not present differences after the 4 weeks of intervention. Interestingly, cocoa intake showed a different effect by gender, presenting more beneficial effects in men. Conclusions: The consumption of cocoa extract as part of ready-to-eat meals and within a hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males.
Autores: López Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION
ISSN 0899-9007  Vol. 30  Nº 4  2014  págs. 424 - 429
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two energy-restricted, differing with regard to protein content, on the inflammation state of obese individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Methods Ninety-six participants completed an 8-wk randomized intervention trial that compared the RESMENA diet (¿30% energy, with 30% energy from protein) with a control diet (¿30% energy, with 15% energy from protein) that was based on American Heart Association criteria. Results The mean body weight losses were 7.09 ± 0.82 kg and 6.73 ± 0.71 kg, respectively, with no differences seen between the groups. The endpoint inflammation score¿which was based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-¿, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels¿was significantly lower (P = 0.012) in the low-protein group (6.81 ± 2.32 versus 7.94 ± 1.94). The linear regression analyses revealed that total protein intake was positively associated with inflammation (P = 0.007) as well as with animal protein (P = 0.025) and meat protein (P = 0.015), but neither vegetable- nor fish-derived proteins were found to influence inflammatory status. Conclusions Our results suggest that the type of protein consumed (more than the total protein consumed) within an energy-restricted diet influences the inflammation status associated with obesity-related comorbidities.
Autores: Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Lara-y-Sánchez, D.; et al.
Revista: PHYTOMEDICINE
ISSN 0944-7113  Vol. 21  Nº 10  2014  págs. 1162 - 1169
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of an extract obtained from seeds/fruits of an Oleaceae (Fraxinus excelsior L.) on glucose homeostasis and associated metabolic markers in non-diabetic overweight/obese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed in 22 participants (50-80 years-old; BMI 31.0kg/m(2)). The design was a longitudinal, randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled 7-week nutritional intervention. The participants received daily 3 capsules each containing either 333mg of an extract from Fraxinus excelsior L. seeds (Glucevia((R))) or placebo capsules (control) in a random order for 3 weeks with 1 week of washout between treatments. Moreover, they followed a balanced covert energy-restricted diet (-15% energy). All variables were measured at the beginning and at the end of each period. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, the administration of 1g of Glucevia((R)) for 3 weeks resulted in significantly lower incremental glucose area under the curve (-28.2%; p<0.01), and significantly lower 2h blood glucose values (-14%; p<0.01) following an oral glucose tolerance test. No significant changes were found in the control group (-7.9% AUC, -1.6% 2h blood glucose). Furthermore, significant differences were found between responses in the control and Glucevia((R)) groups with respect to serum fructosamine and plasma glucagon levels (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Interestingly, administration of Glucevia((R)) significantly increased the adiponectin:leptin ratio (p<0.05) and decreased fat mass (p<0.01) compared to control (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The administration of an extract from Fraxinus excelsior L. seeds/fruits in combination with a moderate hypocaloric diet may be beneficial in metabolic disturbances linked to impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, insulin resistance and inflammatory status, specifically in older adults.
Autores: Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; Vasconcelos Costa, Andre Gustavo; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
ISSN 1138-7548  Vol. 69  Nº 3  2013  págs. 633 - 651
The present review aims to illustrate current knowledge about the efficacy of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in treating/preventing several metabolic pathologies. We reviewed systematically the published evidence on the effectiveness of n-3 LC-PUFAs fish consumption or n-3 LC-PUFAs supplementation on prevention/treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Most of the reviewed studies were randomized-controlled interventional trials, although some relevant prospective and cross-sectional studies as well as some meta-analysis were also reviewed. Supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFAs might improve some obesity-associated metabolic syndrome features such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia by decreasing plasma triglycerides. Moreover, the blood pressure-lowering and anti-inflammatory properties of these fatty acids and their benefits in vascular function might confer cardioprotection. However, the efficacy of n-3 LC-PUFA on reducing myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac and sudden death, or stroke is controversial. Due to the beneficial actions of n-3 LC-PUFAs, several worldwide government and health organizations have established some recommendations of n-3 LC-PUFAs intake for groups of population. In general, the recommended levels for diseases prevention are lower than those advised for particular treatments. However, more clinical trials are necessary to recommend the most effective dosages and formulas (type of n-3 LC-PUFA, EPA/DHA ratio) for specific pathologies.
Autores: Abete Goñi, Itziar; Pérez Cornago, Aurora; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
ISSN 1756-4646  Vol. 5  Nº 1  2013  págs. 28-35
Tomato and tomato products are known as potential factors to decrease oxidative stress biomarkers. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effects of consumption of two tomato sauces with different concentrations of lycopene on oxidative stress markers. Thirty healthy subjects (Men/women: 9/21; Aged 39 +/- 6 years old; BMI: 24.5 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2)) were recruited to participate in a double-blind crossover study. Participants had to consume 160 g/day of tomato sauce, while maintaining their usual dietary and physical activity habits. The regular consumption of the high-lycopene tomato sauce induced a significant reduction in the oxidized-LDL cholesterol levels (-9.27 +/- 16.8%; p < 0.05). Moreover, total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to increase with the high-lycopene tomato sauce, while it decreased slightly with commercial tomato sauce consumption (2.69 +/- 13.4 vs 0.05 +/- 0.4; p = 0.058). Lipid, glucose profile and C-reactive protein concentrations were stable during both intervention periods, as well as anthropometric and body composition variables. Thus, the daily consumption of 160 g of a high-lycopene tomato sauce improved oxidizedLDL cholesterol levels, evidencing the putative role of lycopene in combination with other bioactive compounds in the prevention of oxidative stress related diseases. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Stewart-Knox, B.; Kuznesof, S.; Robinson, J.; et al.
Revista: APPETITE
ISSN 0195-6663  Vol. 66  2013  págs. 67 - 74
The aim of this research was to explore consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition and to compare these across three different levels of "medicalization": lifestyle assessment (no blood sampling); phenotypic assessment (blood sampling); genomic assessment (blood and buccal sampling). The protocol was developed from two pilot focus groups conducted in the UK. Two focus groups (one comprising only "older" individuals between 30 and 60 years old, the other of adults 18-65 yrs of age) were run in the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Germany (N = 16). The analysis (guided using grounded theory) suggested that personalised nutrition was perceived in terms of benefit to health and fitness and that convenience was an important driver of uptake. Negative attitudes were associated with internet delivery but not with personalised nutrition per se. Barriers to uptake were linked to broader technological issues associated with data protection, trust in regulator and service providers. Services that required a fee were expected to be of better quality and more secure. An efficacious, transparent and trustworthy regulatory framework for personalised nutrition is required to alleviate consumer concern. In addition, developing trust in service providers is important if such services to be successful.
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 1678
Autores: Bondía Pons, Isabel; Cañellas, N.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: OMICS: A JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY (ONLINE)
ISSN 1557-8100  Vol. 17  Nº 12  2013  págs. 611 - 618
Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by (1)H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel subspecialty of postgenomics integrative biology.
Autores: López Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 1743-7075  Vol. 10  2013  págs. 22
Background: Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Methods: Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Results: Both diets equally (p > 0.05) improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034), body mass index (p = 0.026), waist circumference (p = 0.083) and fat mass (p = 0.015) reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST) levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively) were associated with lower TAC values. Conclusion: RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction.
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 64  Nº 6  2013  págs. 674 - 681
This study evaluated the influence of curd consumption (a dairy product in which most whey proteins are discarded) on nutritional status markers and on gastrointestinal symptoms through an open-label randomized nutritional intervention. A total of 20 males and 20 females were involved in the study. Body weight and plasma levels of different health markers were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms and satiety were assessed by self-reported subjective questionnaires. There were neither relevant changes in body weight and composition, nor in all screened plasma determinations after the intervention. Satiety score analyses revealed no differences between the two experimental groups. The regular consumption of curd-improved abdominal pain (19%) and deposition scores (16%) when compared with those participants non-consuming curd, which may indicate a better tolerability of this product. Curd intake within a balanced diet improved some subjective markers of gastrointestinal status, which may be explained by the nutritional composition of curds.
Autores: Ibero Baraibar, Idoia; Massis Zahid, A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 1636
Autores: de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 171
Autores: Flanagan, J.; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 181
Autores: Pérez Cornago, Aurora; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 173
Autores: Pérez Cordero, A.; López Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 6  Nº Supl. 1  2013  págs. 179
Autores: López Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; Pérez Cornago, Aurora; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 63  Nº Suppl. 1  2013  págs. 203 - 204
Autores: López Legarrea, Patricia; Chavan, S. D.; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 35  Nº 1  2012  págs. 185 - 186
Autores: Abete Goñi, Itziar; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Martí del Moral, Amelia; et al.
Revista: Progress in molecular biology and translational science (Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci)
ISSN 1877-1173  Vol. 108  2012  págs. 323 - 346
Obesity is a complex disease resulting from a chronic and long-term positive energy balance in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Weight-reduction methods are mainly focused on dietary changes and increased physical activity. However, responses to nutritional intervention programs show a wide range of interindividual variation, which is importantly influenced by genetic determinants. In this sense, subjects carrying several obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) show differences in the response to calorie-restriction programs. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that dietary components not only fuel the body but also participate in the modulation of gene expression. Thus, the expression pattern and nutritional regulation of several obesity-related genes have been studied, as well as those that are differentially expressed by caloric restriction. The responses to caloric restriction linked to the presence of SNPs in obesity-related genes are reviewed in this chapter. Also, the influence of energy restriction on gene expression pattern in different tissues is addressed.
Autores: Pérez Cornago, Aurora; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 5  2012  págs. 1702 - 1703
Autores: de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 5  Nº Suppl. 1  2012  págs. 231
Autores: López Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: OBESITY FACTS
ISSN 1662-4025  Vol. 5  Nº Suppl. 1  2012  págs. 230 - 231
Autores: de la Iglesia González, Rocío; López Legarrea, Patricia; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 5  2012  págs. 25
Autores: López Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia González, Rocío; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 27  Nº 5  2012  págs. 4
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
Revista: Nutrition Journal
ISSN 1475-2891  Vol. 10  Nº 74  2011  págs. 1- 11
BACKGROUND: Obesity is the most relevant overnutrition disease worldwide and is associated to different metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Low glycemic load foods and diets and moderately high protein intake have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass, exerting also beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, postprandial glucose curve and HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study aimed at studying the potential functionality of a series of low glycemic index products with moderately high protein content, as possible coadjuvants in the control of type-2 diabetes and weight management following a chronologically planned snacking offer (morning and afternoon). METHODS: The current trial followed a single group, sequential, longitudinal design, with two consecutive periods of 4 weeks each. A total of 17 volunteers participated in the study. The first period was a free living period, with volunteers' habitual ad libitum dietary pattern, while the second period was a free-living period with structured meal replacements at breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack, which were exchanged by specific products with moderately high protein content and controlled low glycemic index, following a scheduled temporal consumption. Blood extractions were performed at the beginning and at the end of each period (free-living and intervention). Parameters analysed were: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C - reactive protein and Homocysteine concentrations. Postprandial glucose and insulin were also measured. Anthropometrical parameters were monitored each 2 weeks during the whole study. RESULTS: A modest but significant (p = 0.002) reduction on body weight (1 kg) was observed during the intervention period, mainly due to the fat mass loss (0.8 kg, p = 0.02). This weight reduction was observed without apparently associated changes in total energy intake. None of the biochemical biomarkers measured was altered throughout the whole study. CONCLUSIONS: Small changes in the habitual dietary recommendations in type-2 diabetes patients by the inclusion of specific low-glycemic, moderately high-protein products in breakfast, morning and afternoon snacks may promote body weight and fat-mass loss, without apparently altering biochemical parameters and cardiovascular risk-related factors.
Autores: Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Bondía Pons, Isabel; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: Nutricion Hospitalaria
ISSN 0212-1611  Vol. 26  Nº 1  2011  págs. 16-26
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH
ISSN 0163-4984  Vol. 143  Nº 1  2011  págs. 8 - 19
To assess the effects of a moderately high-protein intake on the body composition, biochemical, and antioxidant status parameters in young adults depending on either selenium- (Se) or non-enriched chicken consumption. The volunteers (n = 24) that completed the 10-week nutritional intervention were distributed in two parallel groups and randomly assigned to follow an isocaloric diet with moderately high content in protein (30% energy), either with the consumption of four 200 g portions/week of Se- or non-enriched chicken breasts. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and at the end of the study and body composition was monitored during the trial. There was a significant reduction in weight, accompanying a decrease on fat mass in both groups, while fat-free mass remained unchanged during the 10 weeks of intervention, without differences between both dietary groups. Selenium blood levels and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as lipid, glucose, and selected inflammation biomarkers remained stable during the intervention period in both dietary groups. Frequent chicken consumption, within a controlled diet with a moderately high content in protein, produced a slight but statistically significant weight reduction mainly due to the loss of fat mass. An extra Se supplementation (22 mu g/day) in the Se-enriched chicken breast did not affect tachyphylactic antioxidant status of the participants neither inflammatory-related markers after weight loss.
Autores: Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
ISSN 2173-1292  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2011  págs. 133
Autores: Pérez Cornago, Aurora; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Supl. 3  2011  págs. 125 - 125
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
ISSN 1467-7881  Vol. 12  Nº Suppl. 1  2011  págs. 223
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
Revista: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
ISSN 0250-6807  Vol. 58  Nº Supl. 3  2011  págs. 265 -
Autores: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Martínez de Morentin Aldabe, Blanca Esther; Pérez Díez, Salomé; et al.
Revista: Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia (Ed. Impresa)
ISSN 1697-4271  Vol. 76  Nº 2  2010  págs. 209 - 222
Body composition assessments are important important measurements for the diagnosis and monitoring of obesity. The present study compared the body mass index (IMC) with body fat content estimated by skinfold (PT), bioelectric impedance (BIA) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in adult women (n = 91). Although body fat estimations between methods differed, correlation between the various body composition methods was positive and statistically significant (IMC-BIA, DEXA, PT: 0.902, 0.780, 0.722, respectively; BIA-DEXA, PT: 0.794 y 0.674 respectively; DEXA-PT: 0.787, all correlations p < 0.001). In relation to concordance indexes between measurements to classify individuals in normo- or overweight, it was globally low, with the exception of the concordance between body mass index with bioimpedance, which was good, and body mass index with triceps skinfold, which was acceptable. In conclusion, the outcomes obtained in the present study suggest that body fat content estimation can be very different depending on the method employed but the good correlation existing between methods permits to compare body fat content evolution during a dietary intervention, if the analysis is always performed by the same method in the same individual.
Autores: PEREZ GRANADOS, ANA M.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Schoppen, Stefanie; et al.
Revista: The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
ISSN 0955-2863  Vol. 21  Nº 10  2010  págs.  948 -953
The effects of drinking sodium-bicarbonated mineral water on cardiovascular risk in young men and women with moderate cardiovascular risk were studied. Eighteen young volunteers (total cholesterol levels >5.2 mmol/L) without any disease participated. The study consisted of two 8-week intervention periods. Subjects consumed, as supplement to their usual diet, 1 L/day control low mineral water, followed by 1 L/day bicarbonated mineral water (48 mmol/L sodium, 35 mmol/L bicarbonate and 17 mmol/L chloride). Determinations were performed at the end of the control water period and on Weeks 4 and 8 of the bicarbonated water period. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, dietary intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, Apo B, triacylgycerols, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM)], sodium and chloride urinary excretion, and urine pH were measured. Dietary intake, body weight and BMI showed no significant variations. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly after 4 weeks of bicarbonated water consumption, without significant differences between Weeks 4 and 8. After bicarbonated water consumption, significant reductions in total cholesterol (by 6.3%; P=.012), LDL cholesterol (by 10%; P=.001), total/HDL cholesterol (P=.004), LDL/HDL cholesterol (P=.001) and Apo B (P=.017) were observed. Serum triacylglycerol, Apo A-I, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP levels did not change. Serum glucose values tended to decrease during the bicarbonated water intervention (P=.056), but insulin levels did not vary. This sodium-bicarbonated mineral water improves lipid profile in moderately hypercholesterolemic young men and women and could therefore be applied in dietary interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk.
Autores: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Panizo Santos, Carlos Manuel; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
Revista: Actividad dietética
ISSN 1138-0322  Vol. 14  Nº 2  2010  págs. 67 - 71
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago
Libro:  Agua para la salud. Pasado, presente y futuro
2012  págs. 15 - 32
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Russolillo Femenías, G.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
Libro:  Fundamentos de nutrición y dietética: bases metodológicas y aplicaciones
2010  págs. 431 - 443
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Macarulla Arenaza, M. T.;
Libro:  Fundamentos de nutrición y dietética: bases metodológicas y aplicaciones
2010  págs. 269 - 274
Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago; Monreal Marquiegui, José Ignacio
Libro:  Fundamentos de nutrición y dietética : bases metodológicas y aplicaciones
2010  págs. 199 - 201
Autores: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Portillo-Baquedano, M. P.; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Coordinador)
2010 

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