Background: Both cerebral vascular disorders and cognitive decline increase in incidence with age. The role of cerebral vascular disease and hemodynamic changes in the development of cognitive deficits is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the cardiovascular response during cardiac stress testing in neurologically asymptomatic individuals who developed cognitive impairment several years after previous cardiac stress testing. (2) Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent cardiac stress testing between January 2001 and December 2010. Patients were followed up until May 2015, and we selected those who developed cognitive dysfunction including dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and subjective cognitive decline, after the stress test. Heart rate and blood pressure both at rest and at peak exercise, and the mean R-R interval at rest were recorded. For each patient who developed cognitive impairment, we selected one matched control who did not show cognitive decline by the end of the follow-up period. (3) Results: From the cohort of 7224 patients, 371 developed cognitive impairment; of these, 186 (124 men) met the inclusion criteria, and 186 of the other patients were selected as matched controls. During follow-up, cognitive impairment appeared 6.2 +/- 4.7 years after the cardiac stress test. These patients who had subsequently developed cognitive impairment had significantly lower at-rest systolic, diastolic, and mean blood...
NEUROLOGÍA (BARCELONA. ED. IMPRESA)
Early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD), which presents in patients younger than 65 years, has frequently been described as having different features from those of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). This review analyses the most recent studies comparing the clinical presentation and neuropsychological, neuropathological, genetic, and neuroimaging findings of both types in order to determine whether EOAD and LOAD are different entities or distinct forms of the same entity. We observed consistent differences between clinical findings in EOAD and in LOAD. Fundamentally, the onset of EOAD is more likely to be marked by atypical symptoms, and cognitive assessments point to poorer executive and visuospatial functioning and praxis with less marked memory impairment. Alzheimer-type features will be more dense and widespread in neuropathology studies, with structural and functional neuroimaging showing greater and more diffuse atrophy extending to neocortical areas (especially the precuneus). In conclusion, available evidence suggests that EOAD and LOAD are 2 different forms of a single entity. LOAD is likely to be influenced by ageing-related processes.