Nuestros investigadores

Alfredo Gea Sánchez

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Mendonca, R. D. ; Lopes, A. C. S.; Pimenta, A. M. ; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
ISSN 0895-7061  Vol. 30  Nº 4  2017  págs. 358 - 366
BACKGROUND Some available evidence suggests that high consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) is associated with a higher risk of obesity. Collectively, this association and the nutritional characteristics of UPFs suggest that UPFs might also be associated with hypertension. METHODS We prospectively evaluated the relationship between UPF consumption and the risk of hypertension in a prospective Spanish cohort, the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project. We included 14,790 Spanish adult university graduates who were initially free of hypertension at baseline who were followed for a mean of 9.1 years (SD, 3.9 years; total person-years: 134,784). UPF (industrial formulations of chemical compounds which, beyond substances of common culinary use such as salt, sugar, oils, and fats, include substances also derived from foods but not used in culinary preparations) consumption was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hypertension incidence. RESULTS During follow-up, 1,702 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Participants in the highest tertile of UPF consumption had a higher risk of developing hypertension (adjusted HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.37; P for trend = 0.004) than those in the lowest tertile after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective cohort of Spanish middle-aged adult university graduates, a positive association between UPF consumption and hypertension risk was observed. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results.
Autores: Basterra, Francisco Javier; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
Revista: MEDICINA CLINICA
ISSN 0025-7753  Vol. 148  Nº 6  2017  págs. 250 - 256
Background and objective: The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased worldwide. Our objective was to examine trends in the prevalence of overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and DM in Spain from 1987 to 2012. Participants and methods: Data were obtained from 8 waves of the national health surveys which are cross-sectional studies conducted in representative samples of the Spanish adult population. Self-reported data of 156,440 adults (>= 16 years) from 1987 to 2012 were used. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported weight and height. Overweight was defined as a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2), obesity as a BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) and morbid obesity as a BMI >= 40 kg/m(2). DM was considered present if the participant reported having been diagnosed. Age-adjusted prevalence was adjusted by the direct standardisation method to the 2003 survey population. Results: From 1987 to 2012 age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 34.0% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 33.2-34.8) to 35.8% (95% CI 35.0-36.6), prevalence of obesity from 8.0% (95% CI 7.5-8.5) to 16.5% (95% CI 15.7-17.1%) and DM prevalence from 4.2% (95% CI 3.9-4.5) to 7.1% (95% CI 6.7-7.4%). Morbid obesity increased from 0.20% (95% Cl 0.13-0.27) in 1993 to 0.88% (95% CI 0.70-1.05) in 2012. The growth rate was greater among males. Conclusions: An increasing trend of the prevalence of overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and DM was found in Spain from 1987 to 2012, particularly in males. (C) 2016 Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Autores: Santiago, Susana; Zazpe I; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
ISSN 0963-7486  Vol. 68  Nº 5  2017  págs. 595 - 604
There is an emerging use of brief dietary questionnaires to investigate diet-health relation. We prospectively assess the association between eating attitudes (yes/no) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 19,138 participants of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Cohort. We calculated a baseline healthy-eating attitudes score (in quartiles), positively weighting answers on more fruit, vegetables, fish and fiber and less meat, sweets and pastries, fat, butter, fatty meats and added sugar in drinks. We observed 139 incident cases of CVD. A higher score was associated with a lower risk of CVD [3-5 points Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.38 (95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.81); 6-8 points: 0.57 (0.29-1.12); 9-10 points: 0.31 (0.15-0.67), compared to 0-2 points]. Key contributors were the attitude to increase fruit [HR: 0.59 (0.40-0.87)], vegetables [HR: 0.57 (0.29-1.12)] and fiber intake [HR: 0.69 (0.48-0.98)]. Brief questionnaire on attitudes towards healthy-eating may be a useful tool for the primary prevention of CVD.
Autores: Molero, Patricio; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
Revista: WORLD PSYCHIATRY
ISSN 1723-8617  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2017  págs. 110 - 111
Autores: Mendonca, R. D. ; Pimenta, A. M. ; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 105  Nº 4  2017  págs. 1013 - 1014
Autores: Mendonca, R. D.; Pimenta, A. M.; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 105  Nº 4  2017  págs. 1011 - 1012
Autores: Mendonca, R. D. ; Pimenta, A. M.; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0002-9165  Vol. 105  Nº 4  2017  págs. 1012 - 1013
Autores: Pérez, Alejandra; Landecho, Manuel Fortún; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE
ISSN 1368-5031  Vol. 70  Nº 2  2016  págs. 147-155
The predictive rule was able to predict risk of death as a result of enterococcal bloodstream infection as well as to identify patients, who being below the threshold value, will have a low risk of death with a negative predictive value of 96%
Autores: de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; et al.
Revista: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
ISSN 1471-2458  Vol. 16  Nº 209  2016  págs. 203
Nutritional adequacy implies sufficient intake of essential nutrients needed to [...] Background The assessment of changes in dietary habits provides interesting information on whether or not the observed trends are in line with accepted nutritional guidelines. The objective was to evaluate within-subject longitudinal changes in food consumption and nutrient intake and in a 10-year follow-up study. Methods The SUN ( ) project is a prospective Spanish cohort study. Diet was assessed using a 136-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), previously validated in Spain. The participants were 3036 university graduates (55.8 % women) of Spain and the main outcome measures the changes in dietary quality and in food consumption and nutrient intake. Paired t-tests and conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate within-subject longitudinal dietary changes and the risk of inadequacy respectively, after 10 years of follow-up. Results During follow-up, participants showed a relevant and significant increase (p 0.001) in the consumption of fruits (7.4 %), vegetables (8.6 %), low-fat dairy products (35.2 %), lean meat (12.4 %), fish (2.9 %), whole grains (53.2 %), nuts (52.4 %) and a significant decrease in legumes (-7.4 %), whole-fat dairy products (-44.2 %), red meat (-17.6 %), sugar-sweetened beverages (-58.7 %) and wine (-11.9 %). With respect to nutrients, we found a higher proportion of carbohydrates (3.6 %) and fiber (7.4 %) and a decrease in total energy intake (2.7 %), total fat (-4.5 %), SFA (-9.4 %), MUFA (-4.9 %), PUFA (-12.7 %), w-3 and w-6 fatty acids (-9.1 and -20.5 % respectively) and cholesterol (-9.6 %). Conclusions In this Mediterranean cohort study, mainly beneficial changes in the consumption of most foods and macronutrients were observed after 10 years of follow-up.
Autores: Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 20  Nº 13  2016  págs. 2383 - 2392
Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to different Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet indices and the risk of depression. Design: In a prospective study we assessed 14051 participants of a dynamic (permanently ongoing recruitment) prospective cohort (the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project), initially free of depression. At baseline, a validated FFQ was used to assess adherence to four previously proposed DASH indices (Dixon, Mellen, Fung and Günther). To define the outcome we applied two definitions of depression: a less conservative definition including only self-reported physician-diagnosed depression (410 incident cases) and a more conservative definition that required both clinical diagnosis of depression and use of antidepressants (113 incident cases). Cox regression and restricted cubic splines analyses were performed. Results: After a median follow-up period of 8 years, the multiple-adjusted model showed an inverse association with the Fung DASH score (hazard ratio (HR)=0·76; 95 % CI 0·61, 0·94) when we used the less conservative definition of depression, and also under the more conservative definition (HR=0·63; 95 % CI 0·41, 0·95). We observed a weak inverse association with the Mellen DASH score, but no statistically significant association was found for the other definitions. The restricted cubic splines analyses suggested that these associations were non-linear (U-shaped). Conclusions: Moderate adherence to the DASH diet as operationalized by Fung and Mellen was related to lower depression risk. Since these associations were non-linear, additional prospective studies are required before the results can be generalized and clinical recommendations can be given.
Autores: Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0022-3166  Vol. 146  Nº 9  2016  págs. 1731 - 1739
Background: Yogurt and prebiotic consumption has been linked to better health. However, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study has assessed the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk. Objective: We longitudinally evaluated the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods: The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project is a dynamic, prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates. A total of 14,539 men and women (mean age: 37 y) initially free of depression were assessed during a median follow-up period of 9.3 y. Validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline and after a 10-y follow-up were used to assess prebiotic (fructans and galacto-oligosaccharide) intake and yogurt consumption (<0.5, ¿0.5 to <3, ¿3 to <7, and ¿7 servings/wk). Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician (previously validated). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs. Results: We identified 727 incident cases of depression during follow-up. Whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with reduced depression risk: HR for the highest [¿7 servings/wk (1 serving = 125 g)] compared with the lowest (<0.5 servings/wk) consumption: 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.98; P-trend = 0.020). When stratified by sex, this association was significant only in women (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.87; P-trend = 0.004). Low-fat yogurt consumption was associated with a higher incidence of depression (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.65; P-trend = 0.001), although this association lost significance after the exclusion of early incident cases, suggesting possible reverse causation bias. Prebiotic consumption was not significantly associated with depression risk. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high consumption of whole-fat yogurt was related to a lower risk of depression in women of the SUN cohort. No association was observed for prebiotics. Further studies are needed to clarify why the yogurt-depression association may differ by fat content of the yogurt.
Autores: Zazpe I; Santiago, Susana; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
ISSN 0939-4753  Vol. 26  Nº 11  2016  págs. 1048 - 1058
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beyond the quantity of carbohydrate intake, further research is needed to know the relevance of carbohydrate quality following operational indices. No previous longitudinal study has assessed the association between an index for quality of dietary carbohydrate intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we examined the association between a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the risk of CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a prospective follow-up study of 17,424 middle-aged adults from Spain. The CQI was defined by four criteria: dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole-grain/total-grain carbohydrate ratio, and solid/total carbohydrate ratio. We observed 129 incident cases of CVD during 10.1 y of median follow-up. An inverse association for CQI was found (hazard ratio = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.78 for the highest versus the lowest tertile, p for trend = 0.008). Participants in the highest tertile of the whole-grain/total-grain carbohydrate ratio had 47% lower risk of CVD (95% CI: 0.33-0.85, p for trend = 0.008). Participants with higher baseline CQI and higher baseline energy from carbohydrates had the lowest risk of CVD. CONCLUSION: In this Mediterranean cohort, a better quality of dietary carbohydrates measured by the CQI, showed a significant inverse association with the incidence of CVD. Specially, a higher proportion of carbohydrates from whole grains was strongly inversely associated with CVD. "Heart-healthy" diets should be focused not only on carbohydrate quantity but also on a multidimensional assessment of the type and quality of carbohydrates.
Autores: Pérez, Alejandra; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 38  Nº 1  2015  págs. 71-77
Analizar los predictores de mortalidad y mal pronóstico en el paciente oncológico diagnosticado de bacteriemia por E. faecium. Métodos. Se analizaron datos demográficos, clínicos y microbiológicos (Enero 1998-Junio 2011). Resultados. El análisis multivariable demostró que la presencia de una sonda urinaria se asoció a mal pronóstico a los 7 días y alta mortalidad del paciente al final del estudio. Un índice de Charlson elevado se asoció a un aumento en la mortalidad a los 7 días. Conclusión. En nuestro estudio, la presencia de sonda urinaria se asoció con mal pronóstico del paciente a los 7 días y aumento de la mortalida
Autores: Pimenta, A. M.; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 19  Nº 4  2015  págs. 658 - 666
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of snacking between main meals with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Snack consumption was evaluated using the question: 'Do you have the habit of snacking between main meals?' Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) of metabolic syndrome and their 95 % confidence intervals using Poisson regression models. An exploratory factor analysis was also used to identify patterns of snacking. SETTING: University of Navarra, Spain. SUBJECTS: The study included 6851 university graduates, initially free of metabolic syndrome, and followed-up them for a median of 8·3 years. RESULTS: Among our participants, 34·6 % reported usual snacking between main meals. The cumulative incidence of metabolic syndrome was 5·1 % (9·5 % among men and 2·8 % among women). Snacking between main meals was significantly associated with higher risk for developing metabolic syndrome after multivariable adjustment (RR=1·44; 95 %CI 1·18, 1·77). Higher adherence to an 'unhealthy snacking pattern' was also independently associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (fourth quartile of adherence compared with non-snacking: RR=1·68; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·29; P for trend <0·001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that avoidance of snacking between main meals can be included among the preventive approaches to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome development, especially when snacks contain foods of poor nutritional quality.
Autores: Pérez, Alejandra; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
ISSN 1137-6627  Vol. 38  Nº 1  2015  págs. 71-7
After multivariate analysis, presence of a urinary catheter was associated with a worse 7-day prognosis, and higher mortality at discharge. A high Charlson index was also associated with higher 7-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Presence of a urinary catheter was associated with poor 7-day prognosis and higher mortality at discharge in the present series.
Autores: Lopez-del Burgo, C; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; et al.
Revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN 2072-6643  Vol. 7  Nº 8  2015  págs. 6167 - 6178
The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.
Autores: de Frutos, F. ; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY
ISSN 1569-9293  Vol. 20  Nº 2  2015  págs. 254 - 259
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that could have beneficial effects in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. There is no clear evidence about its clinical effects or a systematic review published yet. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to elucidate the role of coenzyme Q10 in preventing complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. We searched the PubMed Database using the following keywords: Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone, ubiquinol, CoQ10, Heart Surgery, Cardiac surgery. Articles were systematically retrieved, selected, assessed and summarized for this review. We performed separate meta-analyses for different outcomes (inotropic drug requirements after surgery, incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation, cardiac index 24 h after surgery and hospital stay), estimating pooled odds ratios (ORs) or mean differences of the association of CoQ10 administration with the risk of these outcomes. Eight clinical trials met our inclusion criteria. Patients with CoQ10 treatment were significantly less likely to require inotropic drugs after surgery {OR [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 (0.27-0.81)]}, and to develop ventricular arrhythmias after surgery [OR (95% CI) 0.05 (0.01-0.31)]. However, CoQ10 treatment was not associated with Cardiac index 24 h after surgery [mean difference (95% CI) 0.06 (-0.30 to 0.43)], hospital stay (days) [mean difference (95% CI) -0.61 (-4.61 to 3.39)] and incidence of atrial fibrillation [OR (95% CI) 1.06 (0.19-6.04)]. Since none of the clinical trials included in this review report any adverse effects associated to CoQ10 administration, and coenzyme Q10 has been demonstrated to be safe even at much higher doses in other studies, we conclude that CoQ10 should be considered as a prophylactic treatment for preventing complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, better quality randomized, controlled trials are needed to clarify the role of CoQ10 in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Autores: Martín, Nerea; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
ISSN 1368-9800  Vol. 17  Nº 10  2014  págs. 2185 - 2193
Objective: To assess the association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (SSCB) and obesity in children and adolescents from Navarra (Spain). Design: We used a matched case-control study design. The exposure, SSCB consumption (1 serving: 200 ml), was measured with a previously validated FFQ. Anthropometrical measures were taken using standardized protocols. The outcome, obesity, was defined as BMI above the age- and sex-specific 97th percentile according to the Spanish reference charts. In the analysis we used conditional logistic regression. Potential confounders were controlled using a multivariable model. Setting: Subjects were recruited in the paediatric departments of the Universidad de Navarra Clinic and the Navarra Hospital Complex, and in three primary health centres of Navarra. Controls were recruited when attending for a routine medical examination or vaccination. Subjects: One hundred and seventy-four obese children and 174 individually sex- and age-matched controls, 52·87 % boys, with a mean age of 11·6 years. Exclusion criteria were dietary interventions, exposure to hormone treatment, development of secondary obesity due to endocrinopathy and serious intercurrent illness. Results: Independently of other factors, high consumption of SSCB (>4 servings/week) was significantly associated with obesity (OR = 3·46; 95 % CI 1·24, 9·62; P = 0·01). Besides, each additional daily serving of SSCB was associated with a 69 % relative increase in the risk of obesity (OR = 1·69; 95 % CI 1·04, 2·73; P = 0·03). Conclusions: We found a strong and significant association between SSCB consumption and obesity risk. Our results suggest a monotonic dose-response linear shape for this association in children and adolescents (P for trend = 0·02).
Autores: Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH
ISSN 0143-005X  Vol. 68  Nº 9  2014  págs. 834 - 841
Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that are consumed because of their bioaccumulation through the food chain. Recent studies have suggested the implication of POPs in the development of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, this relationship is not entirely consistent, and has not been investigated in longitudinal studies. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the association between dietary intake of PCBs and the incidence of obesity in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project. Methods Our study included 12¿313 participants without obesity at baseline, who were followed-up for a median of 8.1¿years. Dietary intakes of PCBs, expressed as WHO toxic equivalents, were assessed at baseline through a 136-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The published concentration levels of PCBs measured in samples of food consumed in Spain were used to estimate intakes. Multivariable Cox regression models were fitted to estimate HRs and 95% CI for incident obesity. Results During follow-up, we observed 621 incident cases of obesity. After adjustment for total energy intake and additional adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the fifth quintile of PCBs intake were at higher risk of becoming obese (adjusted HR: 1.58; (95% CI 1.21 to 2.06)) compared to those in the first quintile. The linear trend test was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions Dietary intake of PCBs as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire was associated with a higher incidence of obesity. Nevertheless, further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results.
Autores: Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN 0007-1145  Vol. 112  Nº 6  2014  págs. 984 - 991
Reported associations between the consumption of fried foods and the incidence of obesity or weight gain make it likely that fried food consumption might also be associated with the development of hypertension. However, evidence from long-term prospective studies is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to longitudinally evaluate this association in a prospective cohort. The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) project is a Mediterranean cohort study of university graduates conducted in Spain, which started in December 1999 and is still ongoing. In the present study, we included 13,679 participants (5059 men and 8620 women), free of hypertension at baseline with a mean age of 36·5 (SD 10·8) years. Total fried food consumption was estimated at baseline. The outcome was the incidence of a medical diagnosis of self-reported hypertension during the follow-up period. To assess the association between the consumption of fried foods and the subsequent risk of developing incident hypertension during the follow-up period, Cox regression models were used. During a median follow-up period of 6·3 years, 1232 incident cases of hypertension were identified. After adjusting for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for developing hypertension were 1·18 (95% CI 1·03, 1·36) and 1·21 (95% CI 1·04, 1·41) for those consuming fried foods 2-4 and >4 times/week, respectively, compared with those consuming fried foods < 2 times/week (P for trend = 0·009). In conclusion, frequent consumption of fried foods at baseline was found to be associated with a higher risk of hypertension during the follow-up period in a Mediterranean cohort of university graduates.
Autores: Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN 0261-5614  Vol. 32  Nº 5  2013  págs. 797-804
We observed 341 incident cases of MS. Consumers of ¿7 drinks/wk presented a significantly higher risk of developing MS (aOR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.22-2.66; p < 0.001) compared with non-drinkers. In addition, alcohol drinkers (¿7 drinks/wk) had higher risk of hypertriglyceridemia (aOR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.46-2.93) and impaired fasting glucose (aOR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.16-2.04). Beer consumption was associated with higher risk for MS (p for trend = 0.027) and higher risk of hypertriglyceridemia (aOR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.02-3.20), but with lower risk of low HDL-cholesterol criterion (aOR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05-0.89) for ¿7 drinks/wk versus no consumption. Non-significant association was observed between wine or liquor consumption and MS. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of at least seven alcoholic drinks per week was associated with a higher risk of developing MS among subjects initially free of any MS criteria.
Autores: Gea, Alfredo; Toledo, Estefanía Ainhoa; et al.
Revista: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
ISSN 1471-2458  Vol. 12  2012  págs. 954
Background: Longitudinal studies assessing the long-term association between alcohol intake and depression are scarce. The type of beverage may also be important. Therefore we aimed to prospectively evaluate the influence of alcohol intake on incident depression in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods: We assessed 13,619 university graduates (mean age: 38 years, 42% men) participating in a Spanish prospective epidemiological cohort (the SUN Project), initially free of depression. They were recruited between 1999-2008 and biennially followed-up during 2001-2010. At baseline, a 136-item validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess alcohol intake. Wine was the preferred beverage. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression and restricted cubic splines analyses were performed over 82,926 person-years. Results: Only among women, an U-shaped relationship between total alcohol intake and depression risk was found (P=0.01). Moderate alcohol intake (5-15 g/day) was associated with lower risk (Hazard Ratio: 0.62; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.43-0.89). No association was apparent for higher intakes of alcohol or for any specific type of alcoholic beverage. Conclusions: Moderate alcohol intake might protect against depression among women. Further confirmatory studies are needed.
Autores: Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Carlos, Silvia; Toledo, Estefanía Ainhoa; et al.
Libro:  Piédrola Gil. Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública
2016  págs. 169 - 180
Autores: Carlos, Silvia; Reina, G; Gea, Alfredo;
Libro:  Conceptos de salud pública y estrategias preventivas. Un manual para Ciencias de la Salud
2013  págs. 265 - 270

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