Nuestros investigadores

María D. Odero de Dios

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Pippa, R., (Autor de correspondencia); Odero de Dios, María D.
Revista: CELLS
ISSN 2073-4409  Vol. 9  Nº 3  2020  págs. 544
The MYC transcription factor is one of the best characterized PP2A substrates. Deregulation of the MYC oncogene, along with inactivation of PP2A, are two frequent events in cancer. Both proteins are essential regulators of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, and they, directly and indirectly, regulate each other's activity. Studies in cancer suggest that targeting the MYC/PP2A network is an achievable strategy for the clinic. Here, we focus on and discuss the role of MYC and PP2A in myeloid leukemias.
Autores: Arriazu Ruiz, Elena (Autor de correspondencia); Vicente Vázquez, Carmen; Pippa, R.; et al.
ISSN 2044-5385  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2020 
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy. Although novel emerging drugs are available, the overall prognosis remains poor and new therapeutic approaches are required. PP2A phosphatase is a key regulator of cell homeostasis and is recurrently inactivated in AML. The anticancer activity of several PP2A-activating drugs (e.g., FTY720) depends on their interaction with the SET oncoprotein, an endogenous PP2A inhibitor that is overexpressed in 30% of AML cases. Elucidation of SET regulatory mechanisms may therefore provide novel targeted therapies for SET-overexpressing AMLs. Here, we show that upregulation of protein kinase p38 beta is a common event in AML. We provide evidence that p38 beta potentiates SET-mediated PP2A inactivation by two mechanisms: facilitating SET cytoplasmic translocation through CK2 phosphorylation, and directly binding to and stabilizing the SET protein. We demonstrate the importance of this new regulatory mechanism in primary AML cells from patients and in zebrafish xenograft models. Accordingly, combination of the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945, which retains SET in the nucleus, and FTY720, which disrupts the SET-PP2A binding in the cytoplasm, significantly reduces the viability and migration of AML cells. In conclusion, we show that the p38 beta/CK2/SET axis represents a new potential therapeutic pathway in AML patients with SET-dependent PP2A inactivation.
Autores: Pippa, R., (Autor de correspondencia); Boffo, S.; Odero de Dios, María D.; et al.
ISSN 0021-9541  Vol. 235  Nº 6  2020  págs. 5284 - 5292
Mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor that affects thousands of people every year. The therapeutic options for patients are limited; hence, a better understanding of mesothelioma biology is crucial to improve patient survival. To find new molecular targets and therapeutic strategies related to the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) network, we analyzed the gene expression of known PP2A inhibitors in mesothelioma patient samples. Our analysis disclosed a general overexpression of all PP2A-negative regulators in mesothelioma patients. Moreover, the expression of ANP32E and CIP2A genes, increased in 16% and 11% of cases, positively correlates with the ones of all the other PP2A regulators and the ones of the main cyclins and CDKs, suggesting the existence of a feed-forward loop that might contribute to the mesothelioma progression via PP2A inactivation. Overall, our study indicates the existence of a strategic and targetable axis between PP2A inhibitors (ANP32E and CIP2A) and cell cycle regulators (cyclin B2/CDK1) and provides a valuable rationale for using a personalized combinational therapy approach to improve mesothelioma patient survival.
Autores: Perrotti, D., (Autor de correspondencia); Agarwal, A.; Lucas, C. M. ; et al.
ISSN 1946-6234  Vol. 11  Nº 501  2019  págs. eaau0416
Autores: Vicente Vázquez, Carmen (Autor de correspondencia); Arriazu Ruiz, Elena; Martinez-Balsalobre, E.; et al.
ISSN 0304-3835  Vol. 468  2019  págs. 1 - 13
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive disease associated with very poor prognosis. Most patients are older than 60 years, and in this group only 5-15% of cases survive over 5 years. Therefore, it is urgent to develop more effective targeted therapies. Inactivation of protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) is a recurrent event in AML, and overexpression of its endogenous inhibitor SET is detected in similar to 30% of patients. The PP2A activating drug FTY720 has potent anti-leukemic effects; nevertheless, FTY720 induces cardiotoxicity at the anti-neoplastic dose. Here, we have developed a series of non-phosphorylable FTY720 analogues as a new therapeutic strategy for AML. Our results show that the lead compound CM-1231 re-activates PP2A by targeting SET-PP2A interaction, inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in AML cell lines and primary patient samples. Notably, CM-1231 did not induce cardiac toxicity, unlike FTY720, in zebrafish models, and reduced the invasion and aggressiveness of AML cells more than FTY720 in zebrafish xenograft models. In conclusion, CM-1231 is safer and more effective than FTY720; therefore, this compound could represent a novel and promising approach for treating AML patients with SET overexpression.
Autores: Macias, R. I. R., (Autor de correspondencia); Sánchez-Martín, A.; Rodríguez-Macías, G.; et al.
ISSN 1949-2553  2018 
Autores: Pippa, Raffaella; Domínguez Artazcoz, Susana; Malumbres Equísoain, Raquel; et al.
ISSN 1949-2553  Vol. 8  Nº 33  2017  págs. 53989 - 54003
The SET (I2PP2A) oncoprotein is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that regulates many cell processes and important signaling pathways. Despite the importance of SET overexpression and its prognostic impact in both hematologic and solid tumors, little is known about the mechanisms involved in its transcriptional regulation. In this report, we define the minimal promoter region of the SET gene, and identify a novel multi-protein transcription complex, composed of MYC, SP1, RUNX1 and GATA2, which activates SET expression in AML. The role of MYC is crucial, since it increases the expression of the other three transcription factors of the complex, and supports their recruitment to the promoter of SET. These data shed light on a new regulatory mechanism in cancer, in addition to the already known PP2A-MYC and SET-PP2A. Besides, we show that there is a significant positive correlation between the expression of SET and MYC, RUNX1, and GATA2 in AML patients, which further endorses our results. Altogether, this study opens new directions for understanding the mechanisms that lead to SET overexpression, and demonstrates that MYC, SP1, RUNX1 and GATA2 are key transcriptional regulators of SET expression in AML.
Autores: Maicas Irigarai, Miren; Vázquez Urio, Iria; Ails, R.; et al.
ISSN 1874-9399  Vol. 1860  Nº 6  2017  págs. 721 - 729
Transcriptional activation of the EVI1 oncogene (3q26) leads to aggressive forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the mechanism of EVI1-mediated leukemogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Previously, by characterizing the EVI1 promoter, we have shown that RUNX1 and ELK1 directly regulate EVI1 transcription. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analysis of the EVI1 promoter region identified the presence of several EVI1 potential binding sites. Thus, we hypothesized that EVI1 could bind to these sites regulating its own transcription. In this study, we show that there is a functional interaction between EVI1 and its promoter, and that the different EVI1 isoforms (EVI1-145 kDa, EVI1-Delta 324 and MDS1-EVI1) regulate the transcription of EVI1 transcripts through distinct promoter regions. Moreover, we determine that the EVI1-145 kDa isoform activates EVI1 transcription, whereas EVI1-Delta 324 and MDS1-EVI1 act as repressors. Finally, we demonstrate that these EVI1 isoforms are involved in cell transformation; functional experiments show that EVI1-145 kDa prolongs the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells; conversely, MDS1-EVI1 repressed hematopoietic stem and progenitor colony replating capacity. We demonstrate for the first time that EVI1 acts as a regulator of its own expression, highlighting the complex regulation of EVI1, and open new directions to better understand the mechanisms of EVI1 overexpressing leukemias.
Autores: Garcia-Ramirez, P.; Vicente Vázquez, Carmen; Arriazu Ruiz, Elena; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 102  2017  págs. 50 - 50
Autores: Richard, N. P. ; Pippa, Raffaella; Cleary, M. M.; et al.
ISSN 1949-2553  Vol. 7  Nº 51  2016  págs. 84214 - 84227
Recent evidence suggests that inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) tumor suppressor activity via the SET oncoprotein contributes to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Here we demonstrate that both SET and c-MYC expression are frequently elevated in T-ALL cell lines and primary samples compared to healthy T cells. Treatment of T-ALL cells with the SET antagonist OP449 restored the activity of PP2A and reduced SET interaction with the PP2A catalytic subunit, resulting in a decrease in cell viability and c-MYC expression in a dose-dependent manner. Since a tight balance between phosphatases and kinases is required for the growth of both normal and malignant cells, we sought to identify a kinase inhibitor that would synergize with SET antagonism. We tested various T-ALL cell lines against a small-molecule inhibitor screen of 66 compounds targeting two-thirds of the tyrosine kinome and found that combined treatment of T-ALL cells with dovitinib, an orally active multi-targeted small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and OP449 synergistically reduced the viability of all tested T-ALL cell lines. Mechanistically, combined treatment with OP449 and dovitinib decreased total and phospho c-MYC levels and reduced ERK1/2, AKT, and p70S6 kinase activity in both NOTCH-dependent and independent T-ALL cell lines. Overall, these results suggest that combined targeting of tyrosine kinases and activation of serine/threonine phosphatases may offer novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of T-ALL.
Autores: Macias, R. I. R.; Sánchez-Martín, A.; Rodríguez-Macias, G.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 101  Nº Supl. 4  2016  págs. 174 - 175
Autores: Cortés Lavaud, Xabier; Landecho Acha, Manuel Fortún; Maicas Irigarai, Miren; et al.
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 194  Nº 5  2015  págs. 2190 - 2198
Germline GATA2 mutations have been identified as the cause of familial syndromes with immunodeficiency and predisposition to myeloid malignancies. GATA2 mutations appear to cause loss of function of the mutated allele leading to haploinsufficiency; however, this postulate has not been experimentally validated as the basis of these syndromes. We hypothesized that mutations that are translated into abnormal proteins could affect the transcription of GATA2, triggering GATA2 deficiency. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays showed that the human GATA2 protein activates its own transcription through a specific region located at -2.4 kb, whereas the p.Thr354Met, p.Thr355del, and p.Arg396Gln germline mutations impair GATA2 promoter activation. Accordingly, GATA2 expression was decreased to ~58% in a patient with p.Arg396Gln, compared with controls. p.Arg396Gln is the second most common mutation in these syndromes, and no previous functional analyses have been performed. We therefore analyzed p.Arg396Gln. Our data show that p.Arg396Gln is a loss-of-function mutation affecting DNA-binding ability and, as a consequence, it fails to maintain the immature characteristics of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which could result in defects in this cell compartment. In conclusion, we show that human GATA2 binds to its own promoter, activating its transcription, and that the aforementioned mutations impair the transcription of GATA2. Our results indicate that they can affect other GATA2 target genes, which could partially explain the variability of symptoms in these diseases. Moreover, we show that p.Arg396Gln is a loss-of-function mutation, which is unable to retain the progenitor phenotype in cells where it is expressed.
Autores: Estella Hermoso de Mendoza, Ander; Castelló Cros, Remedios; Imbuluzqueta Iturburua, Edurne; et al.
ISSN 1550-7033  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2015  págs. 691 - 701
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serin-threonin phosphatase that regulates many proteins critical for malignant cell behavior; therefore, PP2A is considered to be a human tumor suppressor. In this study, we assessed the pharmacokinetic profile and the antileukemic effects of the PP2A activator FTY720, free or encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles, in in vitro and in vivo models of acute myeloid leukemia. FTY720 lipid nanoparticles presented diameters around 210 nm, with an encapsulation efficiency up to 75% and significantly increased FTY720 oral bioavailability. In addition, FTY720 restores PP2A phosphatase activity and decreases phosphorylation of PP2A and its targets Akt, ERK1/2 and STAT5, all implicated in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. Moreover, FTY720 exerts an additive anti-leukemic effect in combination with drugs used in standard induction therapy. Importantly, FTY720 lipid nanoparticles were more efficient at inducing cell growth arrest and apoptosis than FTY720 solution. Finally, oral administration of FTY720 lipid nanoparticles to mice every three days was as effective in reducing acute myeloid leukemia xenograft tumor growth as daily oral administration of FTY720. These results provide the first evidence for the potential use of FTY720 lipid nanoparticles as an oral therapeutic agent in acute myeloid leukemia.
Autores: Barragán, E.; Chillón, M. C.; Castelló Cros, Remedios; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  Nº 5  2015  págs. e183 - e185
Autores: Guillaumet-Adkins, A.; Richter, J.; Odero de Dios, María D.; et al.
ISSN 1756-8722  Vol. 7  Nº 4  2014  págs. 1 - 11
Background: Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) is over-expressed in numerous cancers with respect to normal cells, and has either a tumor suppressor or oncogenic role depending on cellular context. This gene is associated with numerous alternatively spliced transcripts, which initiate from two different unique first exons within the WT1 and the alternative (A) WT1 promoter intervals. Within the hematological system, WT1 expression is restricted to CD34+/ CD38- cells and is undetectable after differentiation. Detectable expression of this gene is an excellent marker for minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the underlying epigenetic alterations are unknown. Methods: To determine the changes in the underlying epigenetic landscape responsible for this expression, we characterized expression, DNA methylation and histone modification profiles in 28 hematological cancer cell lines and confirmed the methylation signature in 356 cytogenetically well-characterized primary hematological malignancies. Results: Despite high expression of WT1 and AWT1 transcripts in AML-derived cell lines, we observe robust hypermethylation of the AWT1 promoter and an epigenetic switch from a permissive to repressive chromatin structure between normal cells and AML cell lines. Subsequent methylation analysis in our primary leukemia and lymphoma cohort revealed that the epigenetic signature identified in cell lines is specific to myeloid-lineage malignancies, irrespective of underlying mutational status or translocation. In addition to being a highly specific marker for AML diagnosis (positive predictive value 100%; sensitivity 86.1%; negative predictive value 89.4%), we show that AWT1 hypermethylation also discriminates patients that relapse from those achieving complete remission after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with similar efficiency to WT1 expression profiling. Conclusions: We describe a methylation signature of the AWT1 promoter CpG island that is a promising marker for classifying myeloid-derived leukemias. In addition AWT1 hypermethylation is ideally suited to monitor the recurrence of disease during remission in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transfer.
Autores: Pippa, Raffaella; Domínguez, A.; Christensen, D. J.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 28  Nº 9  2014  págs. 1915 - 1918
Autores: Lasa Saracíbar, Beatriz; Estella Hermoso de Mendoza, Ander; Mollinedo, F. ; et al.
ISSN 0304-3835  Vol. 334  Nº 2  2013  págs. 302 - 310
Although current therapies have improved leukemia survival rates, adverse drug effects and relapse are frequent. Encapsulation of edelfosine (ET) in lipid nanoparticles (LNs) improves its oral bioavailability and decreases its toxicity. Here we evaluated the efficacy of ET-LN in myeloid leukemia cell lines. Drug-loaded LN were as effective as free ET in sensitive leukemia cell lines. Moreover, the encapsulated drug overcame the resistance of the K562 cell line to the drug. LN containing ET might be used as a promising drug delivery system in leukemia due to their capacity to overcome the in vivo pitfalls of the free drug and their efficacy in vitro in leukemia cell lines.
Autores: Cristóbal Yoldi, Ion; Cirauqui, C.; Castelló Cros, Remedios; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 98  Nº 9  2013  págs. E103 - E104
Autores: Vicente Vázquez, Carmen; Conchillo Armendáriz, María de los Ángeles; García-Sánchez, MA; et al.
Revista: Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
ISSN 1040-8428  Vol. 82  Nº 1  2012  págs. 1 - 17
Autores: Fernández Mercado, Marta; Yip, B. H.; Pellagatti, A.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 7  Nº 8  2012  págs. e42334
Acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics (CN-AML) account for almost half of AML cases. We aimed to study the frequency and relationship of a wide range of genes previously reported as mutated in AML (ASXL1, NPM1, FLT3, TET2, IDH1/2, RUNX1, DNMT3A, NRAS, JAK2, WT1, CBL, SF3B1, TP53, KRAS and MPL) in a series of 84 CN-AML cases. The most frequently mutated genes in primary cases were NPM1 (60.8%) and FLT3 (50.0%), and in secondary cases ASXL1 (48.5%) and TET2 (30.3%). We showed that 85% of CN-AML patients have mutations in at least one of ASXL1, NPM1, FLT3, TET2, IDH1/2 and/or RUNX1. Serial samples from 19 MDS/CMML cases that progressed to AML were analyzed for ASXL1/TET2/IDH1/2 mutations; seventeen cases presented mutations of at least one of these genes. However, there was no consistent pattern in mutation acquisition during disease progression. This report concerns the analysis of the largest number of gene mutations in CN-AML studied to date, and provides insight into the mutational profile of CN-AML.
Autores: Aguirre Ena, Xabier; Martínez Climent, José Ángel; Odero de Dios, María D.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 26  Nº 3  2012  págs. 395-403
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that can negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA expression patterns are regulated during development and differentiation of the hematopoietic system and have an important role in cell processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation or even in tumorigenesis of human tumors and in particular of hematological malignancies such as acute leukemias. Various miRNAs and their functions have been intensively studied in acute leukemias but the mechanisms that control their expression are largely unknown for the majority of aberrantly expressed miRNAs. miRNA expression can be regulated by the same genetic mechanism that modulate protein coding genes such as mutation, deletion, amplification, loss of heterozygosity and translocations. In this review we focus on the regulation of miRNAs in acute leukemias mediated by alterations in epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone code, describing the role of these alterations in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis of acute leukemias and their possible use as new therapeutic targets and biomarkers.
Autores: Maicas, M.; Vázquez Urio, Iria; Vicente Vázquez, Carmen; et al.
ISSN 0950-9232  Vol. 32  Nº 16  2012  págs.  2069 - 2078
The EVI1 gene (3q26) codes for a transcription factor with important roles in normal hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. High expression of EVI1 is a negative prognostic indicator of survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) irrespective of the presence of 3q26 rearrangements. However, the only known mechanisms that lead to EVI1 overexpression are 3q aberrations, and the MLL-ENL oncoprotein, which activates the transcription of EVI1 in hematopoietic stem cells. Our aim was to characterize the functional promoter region of EVI1, and to identify transcription factors involved in the regulation of this gene. Generation of seven truncated constructs and luciferase reporter assays allowed us to determine a 318-bp region as the minimal promoter region of EVI1. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays identified RUNX1 and ELK1 as putative transcription factors of EVI1. Furthermore, knockdown of RUNX1 and ELK1 led to EVI1 downregulation, and their overexpression to upregulation of EVI1. Interestingly, in a series of patient samples with AML at diagnosis, we found a significant positive correlation between EVI1 and RUNX1 at protein level. Moreover, we identified one of the roles of RUNX1 in the activation of EVI1 during megakaryocytic differentiation. EVI1 knockdown significantly inhibited the expression of megakaryocytic markers after treating K562 cells with TPA, as happens when knocking down RUNX1. In conclusion, we define the minimal promoter region of EVI1 and demonstrate that RUNX1 and ELK1, two proteins with essential functions in hematopoiesis, regulate EVI1 in AML. Furthermore, our results show that one of the mechanisms by which RUNX1 regulates the transcription of EVI1 is by acetylation of the histone H3 on its promoter region. This study opens new directions to further understand the mechanisms of EVI1 overexpressing leukemias.
Autores: García-Orti, L.; Cristóbal Yoldi, Ion; Cirauqui, C.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 7  Nº 10  2012  págs. e47717
Background: Deregulated miRNA expression plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Recent studies show different mechanisms leading to miRNA deregulation in cancer; however, alterations affecting miRNAs by DNA copy number variations (CNV) remain poorly studied. Results: Our integrative analysis including data from high resolution SNPs arrays, mRNA expression arrays, and miRNAs expression profiles in 16 myeloid cell lines highlights that CNV are alternative mechanisms to deregulate the expression of miRNAs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and represent a novel approach to identify novel candidate genes involved in AML. We found association between the expression levels of 19 miRNAs and CNVs affecting their loci. Functional analysis showed that NF1 is a direct target of miR-370, and that overexpression of miR-370 has similar effects that NF1 inactivation, increasing proliferation and colony formation in AML cells. Moreover, real time RT-PCR showed that NF1 downregulation is a recurrent event in AML (30.8%), and western blot analysis confirmed this result. MiR-370 overexpression and deletions affecting the NF1 locus were identified as alternative mechanisms to downregulate NF1. Conclusions: NF1 downregulation is a common event in AML, and both deletions in the NF1 locus and overexpression of miR-370 are alternative mechanisms to downregulate NF1 in this disease. Our results suggest a leukemogenic role of miR-370 through NF1 downregulation in AML cells. Since NF1 deficiency leads to RAS activation, patients with AML and overexpression of miR-370 may potentially benefit from additional treatment with either RAS or mTOR inhibitors.
Autores: Cristóbal Yoldi, Ion; García-Orti, L.; Cirauqui, C.; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 25  Nº 4  2011  págs. 606 - 614
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a human tumor suppressor that inhibits cellular transformation by regulating the activity of several signaling proteins critical for malignant cell behavior. PP2A has been described as a potential therapeutic target in chronic myeloid leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here, we show that PP2A inactivation is a recurrent event in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and that restoration of PP2A phosphatase activity by treatment with forskolin in AML cells blocks proliferation, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and affects AKT and ERK1/2 activity. Moreover, treatment with forskolin had an additive effect with Idarubicin and Ara-c, drugs used in standard induction therapy in AML patients. Analysis at protein level of the PP2A activation status in a series of patients with AML at diagnosis showed PP2A hyperphosphorylation in 78% of cases (29/37). In addition, we found that either deregulated expression of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors SET or CIP2A, overexpression of SETBP1, or downregulation of some PP2A subunits, might be contributing to PP2A inhibition in AML. In conclusion, our results show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in AML cells and that PP2A activators, such as forskolin or FTY720, could represent potential novel therapeutic targets in AML.
Autores: Vázquez Urio, Iria; Maicas Irigarai, Miren; Cervera, J.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 96  Nº 10  2011  págs. 1448 - 1456
Our results identify EVI1 over-expression as a poor prognostic marker in a large, independent cohort of acute myeloid leukemia patients less than 65 years old, and show that the total absence of EVI1 expression has a prognostic impact on the outcome of such patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that an aberrant epigenetic pattern involving DNA methylation, H3 and H4 acetylation, and trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 and histone H3 lysine 27 might play a role in the transcriptional regulation of EVI1 in acute myeloid leukemia. This study opens new avenues for a better understanding of the regulation of EVI1 expression at a transcriptional level.
Autores: Belloni, E; Shing, D; Tapinassi, C; et al.
Revista: Leukemia
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 25  Nº 4  2011  págs. 733 - 736
Autores: Alonso Roldán, Marta María (Autor de correspondencia); Diez Valle, Ricardo; Manterola Careaga, Lorea; et al.
Revista: PLoS One
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 11  2011  págs.  -
We undertook this study to understand how the transcription factor Sox2 contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumor. We initially looked for unbalanced genomic rearrangements in the Sox2 locus in 42 GBM samples and found that Sox2 was amplified in 11.5% and overexpressed in all the samples. These results prompted us to further investigate the mechanisms involved in Sox2 overexpression in GBM. We analyzed the methylation status of the Sox2 promoter because high CpG density promoters are associated with key developmental genes. The Sox2 promoter presented a CpG island that was hypomethylated in all the patient samples when compared to normal cell lines. Treatment of Sox2-negative glioma cell lines with 5-azacitidine resulted in the re-expression of Sox2 and in a change in the methylation status of the Sox2 promoter. We further confirmed these results by analyzing data from GBM cases generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas project. We observed Sox2 overexpression (86%; N¿=¿414), Sox2 gene amplification (8.5%; N¿=¿492), and Sox 2 promoter hypomethylation (100%; N¿=¿258), suggesting the relevance of this factor in the malignant phenotype of GBMs. To further explore the role of Sox2, we performed in vitro analysis with brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) and established glioma cell lines. Downmodulation of Sox2 in BTSCs resulted in the loss of their self-renewal properties. Surprisingly, ectopic expression of Sox2 in esta
Autores: Cristóbal Yoldi, Ion; García Orti, L.; Cirauqui, C.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 97  Nº 4  2011  págs. 543 - 550
Protein phosphatase 2A is a novel potential therapeutic target in several types of chronic and acute leukemia, and its inhibition is a common event in acute myeloid leukemia. Upregulation of SET is essential to inhibit protein phosphatase 2A in chronic myeloid leukemia, but its importance in acute myeloid leukemia has not yet been explored. Design and Methods We quantified SET expression by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 214 acute myeloid leukemia patients at diagnosis. Western blot was performed in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and in 16 patients' samples. We studied the effect of SET using cell viability assays. Bioinformatics analysis of the SET promoter, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase assays were performed to evaluate the transcriptional regulation of SET. Results SET overexpression was found in 60/214 patients, for a prevalence of 28%. Patients with SET overexpression had worse overall survival (P<0.01) and event-free survival (P<0.01). Deregulation of SET was confirmed by western blot in both cell lines and patients' samples. Functional analysis showed that SET promotes proliferation, and restores cell viability after protein phosphatase 2A overexpression. We identified EVI1 overexpression as a mechanism involved in SET deregulation in acute myeloid leukemia cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that SET overexpression is a key mechanism in the inhibition of PP2A in acute myeloid leukemia, and that EVI1 overexpression contributes to the deregulation of SET. Furthermore, SET over-expression is associated with a poor outcome in acute myeloid leukemia, and it can be used to identify a subgroup of patients who could benefit from future treatments based on PP2A activators.
Autores: Gómez Benito, M; Loayza Puch, F; Oude Vrielink, JA; et al.
Revista: PLoS One
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 10  2011  págs. e25449
Autores: Vicente, C.; Vázquez Urio, Iria; Conchillo Armendáriz, Ana; et al.
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 26  Nº 3  2011  págs. 550 - 554
Autores: Belloni, E; Bonnomi, E; Lahortiga Ayerra, Idoya; et al.
ISSN 1754-6605  Vol. 4  Nº 181  2010  págs.  -
Autores: Cristóbal Yoldi, Ion; Blanco, F. J.; García-Orti, L.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 115  Nº 3  2010  págs. 615 - 625
Acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) result from multiple genetic alterations in hematopoietic stem cells. We describe a novel t(12; 18)(p13;q12) involving ETV6 in a patient with AML. The translocation resulted in overexpression of SETBP1 (18q12), located close to the breakpoint. Overexpression of SETBP1 through retroviral insertion has been reported to confer growth advantage in hematopoietic progenitor cells. We show that SETBP1 overexpression protects SET from protease cleavage, increasing the amount of full-length SET protein and leading to the formation of a SETBP1 SET-PP2A complex that results in PP2A inhibition, promoting proliferation of the leukemic cells. The prevalence of SETBP1 overexpression in AML at diagnosis (n=192) was 27.6% and was associated with unfavorable cytogenetic prognostic group, monosomy 7, and EVI1 overexpression (P <.01). Patients with SETBP1 overexpression had a significantly shorter overall survival, and the prognosis impact was remarkably poor in patients older than 60 years in both overall survival (P=.015) and event-free survival (P=.015). In summary, our data show a novel leukemogenic mechanism through SETBP1 overexpression; moreover, multivariate analysis confirms the negative prognostic impact of SETBP1 overexpression in AML, especially in elderly patients, where it could be used as a predictive factor in any future clinical trials with PP2A activators.
Autores: Gomez Benito, María; Conchillo Armendáriz, Ana; García Garzón, María Antonia; et al.
ISSN 0007-0920  Vol. 103  Nº 8  2010  págs. 1292 - 1296
BAKGROUND: The EVI1(ecotropic virus integration site 1) gene codes for a zinc-finger transcription factor, whose transcriptional activation leads to a particularly aggressive form of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Although, EVI1 interactions with key proteins in hematopoiesis have been previously described, the precise role of this transcription factor in promoting leukaemic transformation is not completely understood. Recent works have identified specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures in different AML subgroups. However, there is no analysis of miRNAs profiles associated with EVI1 overexpression in humans. METHODS: We performed QT-RT-PCR to assess the expression of 250 miRNAs in cell lines with or without EVI1 overexpression and in patient samples. We used ChIP assays to evaluated the possible binding of EVI1 binding to the putative miRNA promoter. Proliferation of the different cell lines transfected with the anti-or pre-miRs was quantified by MTT. RESULTS: Our data showed that EVI1 expression was significantly correlated with the expression of miR-1-2 and miR-133-a-1 in established cell lines and in patient samples. ChIP assays confirmed that EVI1 binds directly to the promoter of these two miRNAs. However, only miR-1-2 was involved in abnormal proliferation in EVI1 expressing cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that EVI1 controls proliferation in AML through modulation of miR-1-2. This study contributes to further understand the transcriptional networks involving transcription factors and miRNAs in AML.
Autores: Vázquez Urio, Iria; Maicas Irigarai, Miren; Marcotegui Arza, Nerea; et al.
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 107  Nº 44  2010  págs. E167 - E168