Nuestros investigadores

Maite García Fernández de Barrena

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Urtasun, R.; Elizalde, M.; et al.
ISSN 0305-1048  Vol. 47  Nº 7  2019  págs. 3450 - 3466
Genome instability is related to disease development and carcinogenesis. DNA lesions are caused by genotoxic compounds but also by the dysregulation of fundamental processes like transcription, DNA replication and mitosis. Recent evidence indicates that impaired expression of RNA-binding proteins results in mitotic aberrations and the formation of transcription-associated RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops), events strongly associated with DNA injury. We identify the splicing regulator SLU7 as a key mediator of genome stability. SLU7 knockdown results in R-loops formation, DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest and severe mitotic derangements with loss of sister chromatid cohesion (SCC). We define a molecular pathway through which SLU7 keeps in check the generation of truncated forms of the splicing factor SRSF3 (SRp20) (SRSF3-TR). Behaving as dominant negative, or by gain-of-function, SRSF3-TR impair the correct splicing and expression of the splicing regulator SRSF1 (ASF/SF2) and the crucial SCC protein sororin. This unique function of SLU7 was found in cancer cells of different tissue origin and also in the normal mouse liver, demonstrating a conserved and fundamental role of SLU7 in the preservation of genome integrity. Therefore, the dowregulation of SLU7 and the alterations of this pathway that we observe in the cirrhotic liver could be involved in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Autores: Colyn, L.; Alvarez-Sola, G.; Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 70  Nº Supl. 1  2019  págs. E27 - E28
Autores: Alvarez-Sole, G.; Uriarte, Iker; Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN 0925-4439  Vol. 1864  Nº 4  2018  págs. 1326 - 1334
The liver has an extraordinary regenerative capacity rapidly triggered upon injury or resection. This response is intrinsically adjusted in its initiation and termination, a property termed the "hepatostat". Several molecules have been involved in liver regeneration, and among them bile acids may play a central role. Intrahepatic levels of bile acids rapidly increase after resection. Through the activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), bile acids regulate their hepatic metabolism and also promote hepatocellular proliferation. FXR is also expressed in em terocytes, where bile acids stimulate the expression of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), which is released to the portal blood. Through the activation of FGFR4 on hepatocytes FGF15/19 regulates bile acids synthesis and finely tunes liver regeneration as part of the "hepatostat". Here we review the experimental evidences supporting the relevance of the FXR-FGF15/19-FGFR4 axis in liver regeneration and discuss potential therapeutic applications of PGF15/19 in the prevention of liver failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen.
Autores: Shan, Z. ; Alvarez-Sola, G.; Uriarte, Iker; et al.
ISSN 2305-5839  Vol. 6  Nº 12  2018  págs. 257
Currently there are very few pharmacological options available to treat acute liver injury. Because its natural exposure to noxious stimuli the liver has developed a strong endogenous hepatoprotective capacity. Indeed, experimental evidence exposed a variety of endogenous hepatic and systemic responses naturally activated to protect the hepatic parenchyma and to foster liver regeneration, therefore preserving individual's survival. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family encompasses a range of polypeptides with important effects on cellular differentiation, growth survival and metabolic regulation in adult organisms. Among these FGFs, FGF19 and FGF21 are endocrine hormones that profoundly influence systemic metabolism but also exert important hepatoprotective activities. In this review, we revisit the biology of these factors and highlight their potential application for the clinical management of acute liver injury.
Autores: Santamaria, E. ; Rodríguez, Carlos Manuel; Uriarte, Iker; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 68  Nº Supl. 1  2018  págs. S74 - S74
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 8  2017  págs. 15424
The indisputable role of epigenetics in cancer and the fact that epigenetic alterations can be reversed have favoured development of epigenetic drugs. In this study, we design and synthesize potent novel, selective and reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the G9a and DNMTs methyltransferase activity. In vitro treatment of haematological neoplasia (acute myeloid leukaemia-AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-ALL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-DLBCL) with the lead compound CM-272, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, inducing interferon-stimulated genes and immunogenic cell death. CM-272 significantly prolongs survival of AML, ALL and DLBCL xenogeneic models. Our results represent the discovery of first-in-class dual inhibitors of G9a/DNMTs and establish this chemical series as a promising therapeutic tool for unmet needs in haematological tumours.
Autores: Alvarez-Sola, G.; Uriarte, Iker; Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN 0257-2753  Vol. 35  Nº 3  2017  págs. 158 - 165
Background: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a neoplastic disease with a very bad prognosis and increasing worldwide incidence. HCCs are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only agent that has shown some clinical efficacy. It is therefore important to identify key molecular mechanisms driving hepatocarcinogenesis for the development of more efficacious therapies. However, HCCs are heterogeneous tumors and different molecular subclasses have been characterized. This heterogeneity may underlie the poor performance of most of the targeted therapies so far tested in HCC patients. The fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) and beta-Klotho (KLB) correceptor signaling system, a key regulator of bile acids (BA) synthesis and intermediary metabolism, is emerging as an important player in hepatocarcinogenesis. Key Messages: Aberrant signaling through the FGF15/19-FGFR4 pathway participates in the neoplastic behavior of HCC cells, promotes HCC development in mice and its overexpression has been characterized in a subset of HCC tumors from patients with poorer prognosis. Pharmacological interference with FGF15/19-FGFR4 signaling inhibits experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, and specific FGFR4 inhibitors are currently being tested in selected HCC patients with tumoral FGF19-FGFR4/KLB expression. Conclusions: Interference with FGF19-FGFR4 signaling represents a novel strategy in HCC therapy. Selection of candidate patients based on tumoral FGF19-FGFR4/KLB levels as biomarkers may result in increased efficacy of FGFR4-targeted drugs. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to the potential on target toxic effects of FGFR4 inhibitors due to the key role of this signaling system in BA metabolism. (C) 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel
Autores: Berasain, C; Ávila, Matías Antonio;
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 64  Nº 2  2016  págs. 336 - 339
Autores: Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN 0950-9232  Vol. 35  Nº 36  2016  págs. 4719 - 4729
Resisting death is a central hallmark of cancer cells. Tumors rely on a number of genetic mechanisms to avoid apoptosis, and alterations in mRNA alternative splicing are increasingly recognized to have a role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we identify the splicing regulator SLU7 as an essential factor for the preservation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells viability. Compared with hepatocytes, SLU7 expression is reduced in HCC cells; however, further SLU7 depletion triggered autophagy-related cellular apoptosis in association with the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, these responses were not observed in primary human hepatocytes or in the well-differentiated HepaRG cell line. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that SLU7 binds the C13orf25 primary transcript in which the polycistronic oncomir miR-17-92 cluster is encompassed, and is necessary for its processing and expression. SLU7 knockdown altered the splicing of the C13orf25 primary transcript, and markedly reduced the expression of its miR-17, miR-20 and miR-92a constituents. This led to the upregulation of CDKN1A (P21) and BCL2L11 (BIM) expression, two bona fide targets of the miR-17-92 cluster and recognized mediators of its pro-survival and tumorigenic activity. Interestingly, altered splicing of miR-17-92 and downregulation of miR-17 and miR-20 were not observed upon SLU7 knockdown in non-transformed hepatocytes, but was found in other (HeLa, H358) but not in all (Caco2) non-hepatic tumor cells. The functional relevance of miR-17-92 dysregulation upon SLU7 knockdown was established when oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis were reversed by co-transfection of HCC cells with a miR-17 mimic. Together, these findings indicate that SLU7 is co-opted by HCC cells and other tumor cell types to maintain survival, and identify this splicing regulator as a new determinant for the expression of the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. This novel mechanism may be exploited for the development of antitumoral strategies in cancers displaying such SLU7-miR-17-92 crosstalk.
Autores: Alvarez Sola, G. ; Uriarte, Iker; Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 64  Nº Supl. 2  2016  págs. S184
Autores: Merino-Azpitarte, M.; Lozano, E.; Perugorria, M. J.; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 64  Nº Supl. 2  2016  págs. S569 - S570
Autores: García, Oihane; Latasa, María Ujué; Carotti, S.; et al.
ISSN 0270-9139  Vol. 62  Nº 1  2015  págs. 166 - 178
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in tissue repair after acute injury, but also participate in cancer by promoting a protumorigenic microenvironment. Previously, we reported on a key role for MMP10 in mouse liver regeneration. Herein, we investigated MMP10 expression and function in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced mouse hepatocarcinogenesis. MMP10 was induced in human and murine HCC tissues and cells. MMP10-deficient mice showed less HCC incidence, smaller histological lesions, reduced tumor vascularization, and less lung metastases. Importantly, expression of the protumorigenic, C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), was reduced in DEN-induced MMP10-deficient mice livers. Human HCC cells stably expressing MMP10 had increased CXCR4 expression and migratory capacity. Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduced MMP10-stimulated HCC cell migration. Furthermore, MMP10 expression in HCC cells was induced by hypoxia and the CXCR4 ligand, stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1), through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway, involving an activator protein 1 site in MMP10 gene promoter. CONCLUSION: MMP10 contributes to HCC development, participating in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and dissemination. We identified a new reciprocal crosstalk between MMP10 and the CXCR4/SDF1 axis contributing to HCC progression and metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing the role of a MMP in hepatocarcinogenesis in the corresponding genetic mouse model.
Autores: Uriarte, Iker; Latasa, María Ujué; Carotti, S.; et al.
ISSN 0020-7136  Vol. 136  Nº 10  2015  págs. 2469 - 2475
Fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), FGF19 in humans, is a gut-derived hormone and a key regulator of bile acids and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF15 also participates in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy inducing hepatocellular proliferation. FGF19 is overexpressed in a significant proportion of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), and activation of its receptor FGFR4 promotes HCC cell growth. Here we addressed for the first time the role of endogenous Fgf15 in hepatocarcinogenesis. Fgf15(+/+) and Fgf15(-/-) mice were subjected to a clinically relevant model of liver inflammation and fibrosis-associated carcinogenesis. Fgf15(-/-) mice showed less and smaller tumors, and histological neoplastic lesions were also smaller than in Fgf15(+/+) animals. Importantly, ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression was enhanced in mice undergoing carcinogenesis, but at variance with human HCC it was not detected in liver or HCC tissues, while circulating FGF15 protein was clearly upregulated. Hepatocellular proliferation was also reduced in Fgf15(-/-) mice, which also expressed lower levels of the HCC marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Interestingly, lack of FGF15 resulted in attenuated fibrogenesis. However, in vitro experiments showed that liver fibrogenic stellate cells were not direct targets for FGF15/FGF19. Conversely we demonstrate that FGF15/FGF19 induces the expression of the pro-fibrogenic and pro-tumorigenic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in hepatocytes. These findings suggest the existence of an FGF15-triggered CTGF-mediated paracrine action on stellate cells, and an amplification mechanism for the hepatocarcinogenic effects of FGF15 via CTGF production. In summary, our observations indicate that ileal FGF15 may contribute to HCC development in a context of chronic liver injury and fibrosis. What's new? Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19), in rodents called FGF15, is a gut-derived hormone recently implicated as a driver gene in liver carcinogenesis. Here, the authors show that Fgf15(-/-) mice develop less hepatocellular carcinoma and less liver fibrosis as compared to Fgf15(+/+) littermates, underscoring the important role of the factor in liver damage and cancer development. Interestingly, Fgf15 expression is not detected in injured liver or carcinoma tissue, but is upregulated in the ileum and blood, pointing to a new gut-liver axis involved in hepatocarcinogenesis.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  2015  págs. 27
Autores: García, Oihane; Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 58  2013  págs. S126 - S126
Autores: Monte, MJ; Latasa, María Ujué; et al.
ISSN 0168-8278  Vol. 56  Nº 2  2012  págs. 367 - 373
Background & Aims Bile acids (BA) are increasingly recognized as important modulators of liver regeneration. Increased enterohepatic BA flux has been proposed to generate specific signals that activate hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy (PH). We have investigated the role of the BA membrane transporter Mrp3 (Abcc3), which is expressed in the liver and gut, in the hepatic growth response elicited by BA and in liver regeneration after PH. Methods Liver growth and regeneration, and the expression of growth-related genes, were studied in Mrp3+/+ and Mrp3¿/¿ mice fed a cholic acid (CA) supplemented diet and after 2/3 PH. Activation of the BA receptor FXR was measured in mice after in vivo transduction of the liver with a FXR-Luciferase reporter plasmid. BA levels were measured in portal serum and liver tissue by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Liver growth elicited by CA feeding was significantly reduced in Mrp3¿/¿ mice. These animals showed reduced FXR activation in the liver after CA administration and decreased portal serum levels of BA. Liver regeneration after PH was significantly delayed in Mrp3-deficient mice. Proliferation-related gene expression and peak DNA synthesis in Mrp3¿/¿ mice occurred later than in wild types, coinciding with a retarded elevation in intra-hepatic BA levels. Conclusions Lack of Abcc3 expression markedly impairs liver growth in response to BA and after PH. Our data suggest that Mrp3 plays a non-redundant role in the regulation of BA flux during liver regeneration.
Autores: Latasa, María Ujué; Gil, Maria del Carmen; et al.
Revista: PLoS One
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 5  Nº 12  2010  págs. e15690
Background: Inflammation and fibrogenesis are directly related to chronic liver disease progression, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Currently there are few therapeutic options available to inhibit liver fibrosis. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic potential of orally-administered 59-methylthioadenosine (MTA) in Mdr2(-/-) mice, a clinically relevant model of sclerosing cholangitis and spontaneous biliary fibrosis, followed at later stages by HCC development. Methodology: MTA was administered daily by gavage to wild type and Mdr2(-/-) mice for three weeks. MTA anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects and potential mechanisms of action were examined in the liver of Mdr2(-/-) mice with ongoing fibrogenesis and in cultured liver fibrogenic cells (myofibroblasts). Principal Findings: MTA treatment reduced hepatomegaly and liver injury. alpha-Smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity and collagen deposition were also significantly decreased. Inflammatory infiltrate, the expression of the cytokines IL6 and Mcp-1, pro-fibrogenic factors like TGF beta 2 and tenascin-C, as well as pro-fibrogenic intracellular signalling pathways were reduced by MTA in vivo. MTA inhibited the activation and proliferation of isolated myofibroblasts and down-regulated cyclin D1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. The expression of JunD, a key transcription factor in liver fibrogenesis, was also reduced by MTA in activated myofibroblasts. Conclusions/Significance: Oral MTA administration was well tolerated and proved its efficacy in reducing liver inflammation and fibrosis. MTA may have multiple molecular and cellular targets. These include the inhibition of inflammatory and profibrogenic cytokines, as well as the attenuation of myofibroblast activation and proliferation. Downregulation of JunD and cyclin D1 expression in myofibroblasts may be important regarding the mechanism of action of MTA. This compound could be a good candidate to be tested for the treatment of (biliary) liver fibrosis.