Nuestros investigadores

José Ángel Martínez Climent

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: García, Marc; et al.
Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 10  Nº 1  2019  págs. 2235
Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive pediatric brain tumors in desperate need of a curative treatment. Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a solid therapeutic approach. Delta-24-RGD is a replication competent adenovirus engineered to replicate in tumor cells with an aberrant RB pathway. This virus has proven to be safe and effective in adult gliomas. Here we report that the administration of Delta-24-RGD is safe in mice and results in a significant increase in survival in immunodeficient and immunocompetent models of pHGG and DIPGs. Our results show that the Delta-24-RGD antiglioma effect is mediated by the oncolytic effect and the immune response elicited against the tumor. Altogether, our data highlight the potential of this virus as treatment for patients with these tumors. Of clinical significance, these data have led to the start of a phase I/II clinical trial at our institution for newly diagnosed DIPG (NCT03178032).
Autores: Pascual, M.; Mena-Varas, M. ; Robles, Eloy Francisco; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 133  Nº 22  2019  págs. 2401 - 2412
Refractory or relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) often associates with the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype and genetic alterations that drive constitutive NF-kappa B activation and impair B-cell terminal differentiation. Here, we show that DNA damage response by p53 is a central mechanism suppressing the pathogenic cooperation of IKK2ca-enforced canonical NF-kappa B and impaired differentiation resulting from Blimp1 loss in ABC-DLBCL lymphomagenesis. We provide evidences that the interplay between these genetic alterations and the tumor microenvironment select for additional molecular addictions that promote lymphoma progression, including aberrant coexpression of FOXP1 and the B-cell mutagenic enzyme activation-induced deaminase, and immune evasion through major histocompatibility complex class II downregulation, PD-L1 upregulation, and T-cell exhaustion. Consistently, PD-1 blockade cooperated with anti-CD20-mediated B-cell cytotoxicity, promoting extended T-cell reactivation and antitumor specificity that improved long-term overall survival in mice. Our data support a pathogenic cooperation among NF-kappa B-driven prosurvival, genetic instability, and immune evasion mechanisms in DLBCL and provide preclinical proof of concept for including PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in combinatorial immunotherapy for ABC-DLBCL.
Autores: Martínez, José Ángel, (Autor de correspondencia)
Revista: HAEMATOLOGICA-THE HEMATOLOGY JOURNAL
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 103  Nº 8  2018  págs. 1252 - 1255
Autores: García, María José; Sarasquete, M. E.; Panizo, Carlos Manuel; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY
ISSN 0022-3417  Vol. 245  Nº 1  2018  págs. 61 - 73
The increased risk of Richter transformation (RT) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy with fludarabine other targeted agents remains controversial. Among 31 RT cases classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), seven (23%) showed EBV expression. In contrast to EBV- tumours, EBV+ DLBCLs derived predominantly from IGVH-hypermutated CLL, and they also showed CLL-unrelated IGVH sequences more frequently. Intriguingly, despite having different cellular origins, clonally related and unrelated EBV+ DLBCLs shared a previous history of immunosuppressive chemo-immunotherapy, a non-germinal centre DLBCL phenotype, EBV latency programme type II or III, and very short survival. These data suggested that EBV reactivation during therapy-related immunosuppression can transform either CLL cells or non-tumoural B lymphocytes into EBV+ DLBCL. To investigate this hypothesis, xenogeneic transplantation of blood cells from 31 patients with CLL and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) was performed in Rag2(-/-) IL2c(-/-) mice. Remarkably, the recipients' impaired immunosurveillance favoured the spontaneous outgrowth of EBV+ B-cell clones from 95% of CLL and 64% of MBL patients samples, but not from healthy donors. Eventually, these cells generated monoclonal tumours (mostly CLL-unrelated but also CLL-related), recapitulating the principal features of EBV+ DLBCL in patients. Accordingly, clonally related and unrelated EBV+ DLBCL xenografts showed indistinguishable cellular, virological and molecular features, and synergistically responded to combined inhibition of EBV replication with ganciclovir and B-cell receptor signalling with ibrutinib in vivo. Our study underscores the risk of RT driven by EBV in CLL patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies, and provides the scientific rationale for testing ganciclovir and ibrutinib in EBV+ DLBCL. Copyright (c) 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Sánchez-Arias; San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0022-2623  Vol. 61  Nº 15  2018  págs. 6546-6573
Epigenetic regulators that exhibit aberrant enzymatic activities or expression profiles are potential therapeutic targets for cancers. Specifically, enzymes responsible for methylation at histone-3 lysine-9 (like G9a) and aberrant DNA hypermethylation (DNMTs) have been implicated in a number of cancers. Recently, molecules bearing a 4-aminoquinoline scaffold were reported as dual inhibitors of these targets and showed a significant in vivo efficacy in animal models of hematological malignancies. Here, we report a detailed exploration around three growing vectors born by this chemotype. Exploring this chemical space led to the identification of features to navigate G9a and DNMT1 biological spaces: not only their corresponding exclusive areas, selective compounds, but also common spaces. Thus, we identified from selective G9a and first-in-class DNMT1 inhibitors, >1 log unit between their IC50 values, with IC50 < 25 nM (e.g., 43 and 26, respectively) to equipotent inhibitors with IC50 < 50 nM for both targets (e.g., 13). Their ADME/Tox profiling and antiproliferative efficacies, versus some cancer cell lines, are also reported.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; Sánchez-Arias, JA; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0022-2623  Vol. 61  Nº 15  2018  págs. 6518-6545
Using knowledge- and structure-based approaches, we designed and synthesized reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the activity of two epigenetic targets, histone 3 lysine 9 methyltransferase (G9a) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), at nanomolar ranges. Enzymatic competition assays confirmed our design strategy: substrate competitive inhibitors. Next, an initial exploration around our hit 11 was pursued to identify an adequate tool compound for in vivo testing. In vitro treatment of different hematological neoplasia cell lines led to the identification of molecules with clear antiproliferative efficacies (GI50 values in the nanomolar range). On the basis of epigenetic functional cellular responses (levels of lysine 9 methylation and 5-methylcytosine), an acceptable therapeutic window (around 1 log unit) and a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, 12 was selected for in vivo proof-of-concept ( Nat. Commun. 2017 , 8 , 15424 ). Herein, 12 achieved a significant in vivo efficacy: 70% overall tumor growth inhibition of a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenograft in a mouse model.
Autores: Bueno-Costa, A.; Pineyro, D.; Soler, M.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 132  Nº Supl. 1  2018 
Autores: Celay, J.; Concepcion, A. R.; et al.
Revista: HAEMATOLOGICA-THE HEMATOLOGY JOURNAL
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 103  Nº 6  2017  págs. 1065 - 1072
Regulatory T (Treg) cells can weaken antitumor immune responses, and inhibition of their function appears as a promising immunotherapeuticimmunotherapy therapeutic approach in cancer patients. Mice with targeted deletion of the gene encoding the Cl-HCO3-anion exchanger AE2 (also termed SLC4A2), a membrane-bound carrier involved in intracellular pH regulation, showed a progressive decrease in the number of Treg cells. We therefore challenged AE2 as a potential target for tumor immune therapy, and generated linear peptides designed to bind the third extracellular loop of AE2, which is crucial for its exchange activity. Peptide p17AE2 exhibited optimal interaction ability and indeed promoted apoptosis in mouse and human Treg cells, while activating effector T-cell function. Interestingly, this linear peptide also induced apoptosis in different types of human B-cell leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cell lines and primary malignant samples, while it showed only moderate effects on normal B lymphocytes. Finally, a macrocyclic peptide exhibiting increased stability in vivo was effective in mice xenografted with B-cell lymphoma. These data suggest that targeting the anion exchanger AE2 with specific peptides may represent an effective therapeutic approach in B-cell malignancies
Autores: Talamillo, A.; Grande, L.; Ruiz-Ontanon, P.; et al.
Revista: ONCOGENE
ISSN 0950-9232  Vol. 36  Nº 12  2017  págs. 1733 - 1744
Long-term survival remains low for most patients with glioblastoma (GBM), which reveals the need for markers of disease outcome and novel therapeutic targets. We describe that ODZ1 (also known as TENM1), a type II transmembrane protein involved in fetal brain development, plays a crucial role in the invasion of GBM cells. Differentiation of glioblastoma stem-like cells drives the nuclear translocation of an intracellular fragment of ODZ1 through proteolytic cleavage by signal peptide peptidase-like 2a. The intracellular fragment of ODZ1 promotes cytoskeletal remodelling of GBM cells and invasion of the surrounding environment both in vitro and in vivo. Absence of ODZ1 by gene deletion or downregulation of ODZ1 by small interfering RNAs drastically reduces the invasive capacity of GBM cells. This activity is mediated by an ODZ1-triggered transcriptional pathway, through the E-box binding Myc protein, that promotes the expression and activation of Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and subsequent activation of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK). Overexpression of ODZ1 in GBM cells reduced survival of xenografted mice. Consistently, analysis of 122 GBM tumour samples revealed that the number of ODZ1-positive cells inversely correlated with overall and progression-free survival. Our findings establish a novel marker of invading GBM cells and consequently a potential marker of disease progression and a therapeutic target in GBM.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 8  2017  págs. 15424
The indisputable role of epigenetics in cancer and the fact that epigenetic alterations can be reversed have favoured development of epigenetic drugs. In this study, we design and synthesize potent novel, selective and reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the G9a and DNMTs methyltransferase activity. In vitro treatment of haematological neoplasia (acute myeloid leukaemia-AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-ALL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-DLBCL) with the lead compound CM-272, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, inducing interferon-stimulated genes and immunogenic cell death. CM-272 significantly prolongs survival of AML, ALL and DLBCL xenogeneic models. Our results represent the discovery of first-in-class dual inhibitors of G9a/DNMTs and establish this chemical series as a promising therapeutic tool for unmet needs in haematological tumours.
Autores: Robles, Eloy Francisco; Barrio, L.; Merino-Cortés, S. V.; et al.
Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 7  2016  págs. 11889
NKX2 homeobox family proteins have a role in cancer development. Here we show that NKX2-3 is overexpressed in tumour cells from a subset of patients with marginal-zone lymphomas, but not with other B-cell malignancies. While Nkx2-3-deficient mice exhibit the absence of marginal-zone B cells, transgenic mice with expression of NKX2-3 in B cells show marginal-zone expansion that leads to the development of tumours, faithfully recapitulating the principal clinical and biological features of human marginal-zone lymphomas. NKX2-3 induces B-cell receptor signalling by phosphorylating Lyn/Syk kinases, which in turn activate multiple integrins (LFA-1, VLA-4), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, MadCAM-1) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These molecules enhance migration, polarization and homing of B cells to splenic and extranodal tissues, eventually driving malignant transformation through triggering NF-¿B and PI3K-AKT pathways. This study implicates oncogenic NKX2-3 in lymphomagenesis, and provides a valid experimental mouse model for studying the biology and therapy of human marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas
Autores: Christensen, P., (Autor de correspondencia); Fogelholm, M.; Brand Miller, J. ; et al.
Revista: DIABETOLOGIA
ISSN 0012-186X  Vol. 59  Nº Suppl. 1  2016  págs. S143 - S143
Background and aims: The PREVIEW intervention study is to date the largest, multinational study aiming to prevent T2D among pre-diabetic individuals with a combination of diet, physical activity and behavior modification. Initially, all participants followed a low-calorie diet (LCD). The aim was to compare the effect of 8 weeks¿ LCD on weight loss (WL) and metabolic outcomes between pre-diabetic men and women.
Autores: Aramburu, A.; Pajares, María Josefa; Agorreta, J; et al.
Revista: BMC GENOMICS
ISSN 1471-2164  Vol. 16  2015  págs. 752
Background: The development of a more refined prognostic methodology for early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an unmet clinical need. An accurate prognostic tool might help to select patients at early stages for adjuvant therapies. Results: A new integrated bioinformatics searching strategy, that combines gene copy number alterations and expression, together with clinical parameters was applied to derive two prognostic genomic signatures. The proposed methodology combines data from patients with and without clinical data with a priori information on the ability of a gene to be a prognostic marker. Two initial candidate sets of 513 and 150 genes for lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, were generated by identifying genes which have both: a) significant correlation between copy number and gene expression, and b) significant prognostic value at the gene expression level in external databases. From these candidates, two panels of 7 (ADC) and 5 (SCC) genes were further identified via semi-supervised learning. These panels, together with clinical data (stage, age and sex), were used to construct the ADC and SCC hazard scores combining clinical and genomic data. The signatures were validated in two independent datasets (n = 73 for ADC, n = 97 for SCC), confirming that the prognostic value of both clinical-genomic models is robust, statistically significant (P = 0.008 for ADC and P = 0.019 for SCC) and outperforms both the clinical models (P = 0.060 for ADC and P = 0.121 for SCC) and the genomic models applied separately (P = 0.350 for ADC and P = 0.269 for SCC). Conclusion: The present work provides a methodology to generate a robust signature using copy number data that can be potentially used to any cancer. Using it, we found new prognostic scores based on tumor DNA that, jointly with clinical information, are able to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with early-stage ADC and SCC.
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; et al.
Revista: HAEMATOLOGICA
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  2015  págs. 27
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; Rabal, O.; et al.
Revista: HAEMATOLOGICA
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  Nº Supl. 4  2015  págs. 60 - 61
Autores: San José, Edurne; Agirre, X; Roa, Sergio; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 124  Nº 21  2014 
Autores: Ruiz-Ontañon P; Orgaz JL; Aldaz B; et al.
Revista: STEM CELLS
ISSN 1066-5099  Vol. 31  Nº 6  2013  págs. 1075-1085
Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with infiltration of peritumoral (PT) parenchyma by isolated tumor cells that leads to tumor regrowth. Recently, GBM stem-like or initiating cells (GICs) have been identified in the PT area, but whether these GICs have enhanced migratory and invasive capabilities compared with GICs from the tumor mass (TM) is presently unknown. We isolated GICs from the infiltrated PT tissue and the TM of three patients and found that PT cells have an advantage over TM cells in two-dimensional and three-dimensional migration and invasion assays. Interestingly, PT cells display a high plasticity in protrusion formation and cell shape and their migration is insensitive to substrate stiffness, which represent advantages to infiltrate microenvironments of different rigidity. Furthermore, mouse and chicken embryo xenografts revealed that only PT cells showed a dispersed distribution pattern, closely associated to blood vessels. Consistent with cellular plasticity, simultaneous Rac and RhoA activation are required for the enhanced invasive capacity of PT cells. Moreover, Rho GTPase signaling modulators ¿Vß3 and p27 play key roles in GIC invasiveness. Of note, p27 is upregulated in TM cells and inhibits RhoA activity. Gene silencing of p27 increased the invasive capacity of TM GICs. Additionally, ß3 integrin is upregulated in PT cells. Blockade of dimeric integrin ¿Vß3, a Rac activator, reduced the invasive capacity of PT GICs in vitro and abrogated the spreading of PT cells into chicken embryos. Thus, our results describe the invasive features acquired by a unique subpopulation of GICs that infiltrate neighboring tissue.
Autores: Romero-Camarero I; Jiang X; Natkunam Y; et al.
Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 4  Nº 1338  2013 
The human germinal centre-associated lymphoma gene is specifically expressed in germinal centre B-lymphocytes and germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but its function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that human germinal centre-associated lymphoma directly binds to Syk in B cells, increases its kinase activity on B-cell receptor stimulation and leads to enhanced activation of Syk downstream effectors. To further investigate these findings in vivo, human germinal centre-associated lymphoma transgenic mice were generated. Starting from 12 months of age these mice developed polyclonal B-cell lymphoid hyperplasia, hypergammaglobulinemia and systemic reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, leading to shortened survival. The lymphoid hyperplasia in the human germinal centre-associated lymphoma transgenic mice are likely attributable to enhanced B-cell receptor signalling as shown by increased Syk phosphorylation, ex vivo B-cell proliferation and increased RhoA activation. Overall, our study shows for the first time that the germinal centre protein human germinal centre-associated lymphoma regulates B-cell receptor signalling in B-lymphocytes which, without appropriate control, may lead to B-cell lymphoproliferation.
Autores: Robles, Eloy Francisco; Parker, A.; Martínez-Useros, J.; et al.
Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY
ISSN 0007-1048  Vol. 158  Nº 6  2012  págs. 712 - 726
Using high-resolution genomic microarray analysis, a distinct genomic profile was defined in 114 samples from patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL). Deletion or uniparental disomy of chromosome 7q were detected in 42 of 114 (37%) SMZLs but in only nine of 170 (5%) mature B-cell lymphomas (P < 0·00001). The presence of unmutated IGHV, genomic complexity, 17p13-TP53 deletion and 8q-MYC gain, but not 7q deletion, correlated with shorter overall survival of SMZL patients. Mapping studies narrowed down a commonly deleted region of 2·7 Mb in 7q32.1-q32.2 spanning a region between the SND1 and COPG2 genes. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the 7q32-deleted segment did not identify biallelic deletions/insertions or clear pathogenic gene mutations, but detected six nucleotide changes in IRF5 (n = 2), TMEM209 (n = 2), CALU (n = 1) and ZC3HC1 (n = 1) not found in healthy individuals. Comparative expression analysis found a fourfold down-regulation of IRF5 gene in lymphomas with 7q32 deletion versus non-deleted tumours (P = 0·032). Ectopic expression of IRF5 in marginal-zone lymphoma cells decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in vitro, and impaired lymphoma development in vivo. These results show that cryptic deletions, insertions and/or point mutations inactivating genes within 7q32 are not common in SMZL, and suggest that IRF5 may be a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor in this lymphoma entity.
Autores: Fontan, L.; Yang, C.; Kabaleeswaran, V.; et al.
Revista: CANCER CELL
ISSN 1535-6108  Vol. 22  Nº 6  2012  págs. 812 - 824
MALT1 cleavage activity is linked to the pathogenesis of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), a chemoresistant form of DLBCL. We developed a MALT1 activity assay and identified chemically diverse MALT1 inhibitors. A selected lead compound, MI-2, featured direct binding to MALT1 and suppression of its protease function. MI-2 concentrated within human ABC-DLBCL cells and irreversibly inhibited cleavage of MALT1 substrates. This was accompanied by NE-kappa B reporter activity suppression, c-REL nuclear localization inhibition, and NF-kappa B target gene downregulation. Most notably, MI-2 was nontoxic to mice, and displayed selective activity against ABC-DLBCL cell lines in vitro and xenotransplanted ABC-DLBCL tumors in vivo. The compound was also effective against primary human non-germinal center B cell-like DLBCLs ex vivo.
Autores: Vicente-Duenas, C.; Fontan, L. ; Gonzalez-Herrero, I. ; et al.
Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 109  Nº 26  2012  págs. 10534 - 10539
Chromosomal translocations involving the MALT1 gene are hallmarks of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. To date, targeting these translocations to mouse B cells has failed to reproduce human disease. Here, we induced MALT1 expression in mouse Sca1(+)Lin(-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which showed NF-kappa B activation and early lymphoid priming, being selectively skewed toward B-cell differentiation. These cells accumulated in extranodal tissues and gave rise to clonal tumors recapitulating the principal clinical, biological, and molecular genetic features of MALT lymphoma. Deletion of p53 gene accelerated tumor onset and induced transformation of MALT lymphoma to activated B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Treatment of MALT1-induced lymphomas with a specific inhibitor of MALT1 proteolytic activity decreased cell viability, indicating that endogenous Malt1 signaling was required for tumor cell survival. Our study shows that human-like lymphomas can be modeled in mice by targeting MALT1 expression to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the oncogenic role of MALT1 in lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, this work establishes a molecular link between MALT lymphoma and ABC-DLBCL, and provides mouse models to test MALT1 inhibitors. Finally, our results suggest that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of human mature B-cell lymphomas.
Autores: Agirre, X; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
Revista: LEUKEMIA
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 26  Nº 7  2012  págs. 1517 - 1526
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been identified as therapeutic targets due to their regulatory function in chromatin structure and organization. Here, we analyzed the therapeutic effect of LBH589, a class I - II HDAC inhibitor, in acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL). In vitro, LBH589 induced dose-dependent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects, which were associated with increased H3 and H4 histone acetylation. Intravenous administration of LBH589 in immunodeficient BALB/c-RAG2(-/-)gamma c(-/-) mice in which human-derived T and B-ALL cell lines were injected induced a significant reduction in tumor growth. Using primary ALL cells, a xenograft model of human leukemia in BALB/c-RAG2(-/-)gamma c(-/-) mice was established, allowing continuous passages of transplanted cells to several mouse generations. Treatment of mice engrafted with T or B-ALL cells with LBH589 induced an in vivo increase in the acetylation of H3 and H4, which was accompanied with prolonged survival of LBH589-treated mice in comparison with those receiving vincristine and dexamethasone. Notably, the therapeutic efficacy of LBH589 was significantly enhanced in combination with vincristine and dexamethasone. Our results show the therapeutic activity of LBH589 in combination with standard chemotherapy in pre-clinical models of ALL and suggest that this combination may be of clinical value in the treatment of patients with ALL.
Autores: Agirre, X; Martínez, José Ángel; Odero, María Dolores; et al.
Revista: LEUKEMIA
ISSN 0887-6924  Vol. 26  Nº 3  2012  págs. 395-403
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that can negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA expression patterns are regulated during development and differentiation of the hematopoietic system and have an important role in cell processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation or even in tumorigenesis of human tumors and in particular of hematological malignancies such as acute leukemias. Various miRNAs and their functions have been intensively studied in acute leukemias but the mechanisms that control their expression are largely unknown for the majority of aberrantly expressed miRNAs. miRNA expression can be regulated by the same genetic mechanism that modulate protein coding genes such as mutation, deletion, amplification, loss of heterozygosity and translocations. In this review we focus on the regulation of miRNAs in acute leukemias mediated by alterations in epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone code, describing the role of these alterations in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis of acute leukemias and their possible use as new therapeutic targets and biomarkers.
Autores: Beltrán E; Richter, José Ángel; et al.
Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 108  Nº 30  2011  págs. 12461 - 12466
The chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) leading to cyclin-D1 overexpression plays an essential role in the development of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive tumor that remains incurable with current treatment strategies. Cyclin-D1 has been postulated as an effective therapeutic target, but the evaluation of this target has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of its oncogenic functions and by the lack of valid MCL murine models. To address these issues, we generated a cyclin-D1-driven mouse model in which cyclin-D1 expression can be regulated externally. These mice developed cyclin-D1-expressing lymphomas capable of recapitulating features of human MCL. We found that cyclin-D1 inactivation was not sufficient to induce lymphoma regression in vivo; however, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified a novel prosurvival cyclin-D1 function in MCL cells. Specifically, we found that cyclin-D1, besides increasing cell proliferation through deregulation of the cell cycle at the G(1)-S transition, sequestrates the proapoptotic protein BAX in the cytoplasm, thereby favoring BCL2's antiapoptotic function. Accordingly, cyclin-D1 inhibition sensitized the lymphoma cells to apoptosis through BAX release. Thus, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of cyclin-D1 combined with a proapoptotic BH3 mimetic synergistically killed the cyclin-D1-expressing murine lymphomas, human MCL cell lines, and primary lymphoma cells. Our study identifies a role of cyclin-D1 in deregulating apoptosis in MCL cells, and highlights the potential benefit of simultaneously targeting cyclin-D1 and survival pathways in patients with MCL. This effective combination therapy also might be exploited in other cyclin-D1-expressing tumors.
Autores: Malumbres, Raquel; Román-Gómez, J.; Bobadilla, Miriam; et al.
Revista: HAEMATOLOGICA-THE HEMATOLOGY JOURNAL
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 96  Nº 7  2011  págs. 980 - 986
LMO2 is highly expressed at the most immature stages of lymphopoiesis. In T-lymphocytes, aberrant LMO2 expression beyond those stages leads to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while in B cells LMO2 is also expressed in germinal center lymphocytes and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, where it predicts better clinical outcome. The implication of LMO2 in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia must still be explored. Design and Methods We measured LMO2 expression by real time RT-PCR in 247 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient samples with cytogenetic data (144 of them also with survival and immunophenotypical data) and in normal hematopoietic and lymphoid cells. Results B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases expressed variable levels of LMO2 depending on immunophenotypical and cytogenetic features. Thus, the most immature subtype, pro-B cells, displayed three-fold higher LMO2 expression than pre-B cells, common-CD10+ or mature sub-types. Additionally, cases with TEL-AML1 or MLL rearrangements exhibited two-fold higher LMO2 expression compared to cases with BCR-ABL rearrangements or hyperdyploid karyotype. Clinically, high LMO2 expression correlated with better overall survival in adult patients (5-year survival rate 64.8% (42.5%-87.1%) vs. 25.8% (10.9%-40.7%), P = 0.001) and constituted a favorable independent prognostic factor in B-ALL with normal karyotype: 5-year survival rate 80.3% (66.4%-94.2%) vs. 63.0% (46.1%-79.9%) (P = 0.043). Conclusions Our data indicate that LMO2 expression depends on the molecular features and the differentiation stage of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Furthermore, assessment of LMO2 expression in adult patients with a normal karyotype, a group which lacks molecular prognostic factors, could be of clinical relevance.
Autores: Robles, Eloy Francisco; Akasaka, T.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 118  Nº 21  2011  págs. 119 - 120
Autores: Martínez, José Ángel; Richter, José Ángel; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 22  Nº Supl 4  2011  págs. 127
Autores: Agirre, X; Abizanda, Gloria María; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 118  Nº 21  2011  págs. 660
Autores: Martínez, José Ángel; Gascoyne, R. D.; Siebert, R.; et al.
Revista: Haematologica
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 95  Nº 2  2010  págs. 293 - 302
While leukemia-originating stem cells are critical in the initiation and maintenance of leukemias, the existence of similar cell populations that may generate B-cell lymphoma upon mutation remains uncertain. Here we propose that committed lymphoid progenitor/precursor cells with an active V-D-J recombination program are the initiating cells of follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma when targeted by immunoglobulin (IG)- gene translocations in the bone marrow. However, these pre-malignant lymphoma-initiating cells cannot drive complete malignant transformation, requiring additional cooperating mutations in specific stem-cell programs to be converted into the lymphoma-originating cells able to generate and sustain lymphoma development. Conversely, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma derive from B lymphocytes that acquire translocations through IG-hyper-mutation or class-switching errors within the germinal center. Although secondary reprogramming mutations are generally required, some cells such as centroblasts or memory B cells that have certain stem cell-like features, or lymphocytes with MYC rearrangements that deregulate self-renewal pathways, may bypass this need and directly function as the lymphoma-originating cells. An alternative model supports an aberrant epigenetic modification of gene sets as the first occurring hit, which either leads to retaining stem-cell features in hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells, or reprograms stemness into more committed lymphocytes, followed by secondary chromosomal translocations that eventually drive lymphoma development. Isolation and characterization of the cells that are at the origin of the different B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas will provide critical insights into the disease pathogenesis and will represent a step towards the development of more effective therapies.
Autores: Richter, José Ángel; Robles, Eloy Francisco; Beltrán E; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 116  Nº 14  2010  págs. 2531 - 2542
In Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL), achievement of complete remission with first-line chemotherapy remains a challenging issue, as most patients who respond remain disease-free, whereas those refractory have few options of being rescued with salvage therapies. The mechanisms underlying BL chemoresistance and how it can be circumvented remain undetermined. We previously reported the frequent inactivation of the proapoptotic BIM gene in B-cell lymphomas. Here we show that BIM epigenetic silencing by concurrent promoter hypermethylation and deacetylation occurs frequently in primary BL samples and BL-derived cell lines. Remarkably, patients with BL with hypermethylated BIM presented lower complete remission rate (24% vs 79%; P = .002) and shorter overall survival (P = .007) than those with BIM-expressing lymphomas, indicating that BIM transcriptional repression may mediate tumor chemoresistance. Accordingly, by combining in vitro and in vivo studies of human BL-xenografts grown in immuno-deficient RAG2(-/-)gamma c(-/-) mice and of murine B220(+)IgM(+) B-cell lymphomas generated in E(mu)-MYC and E(mu)-MYC-BIM(+/-) transgenes, we demonstrate that lymphoma chemoresistance is dictated by BIM gene dosage and is reversible on BIM reactivation by genetic manipulation or after treatment with histone-deacetylase inhibitors. We suggest that the combination of histone-deacetylase inhibitors and high-dose chemotherapy may overcome chemoresistance, achieve durable remission, and improve survival of patients with BL.
Autores: Beltrán E; Richter, José Ángel; Sagardoy, A.; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 116  Nº 21  2010  págs. 338
Autores: Martínez, José Ángel; Fontan, L.; Robles, Eloy Francisco; et al.
Libro:  Methods in Molecular Biology (MIMB) Cancer Gene Profiling
Vol. 576  2010  págs. 231 - 277
During the last decade, gene expression microarrays and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) have unraveled the complexity of human tumor genomes more precisely and comprehensively than ever before. More recently, the simultaneous assessment of global changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and in DNA copy number through "integrative oncogenomic" analyses has allowed researchers the access to results uncovered through the analysis of one-dimensional data sets, thus accelerating cancer gene discovery. In this chapter, we discuss the major contributions of DNA microarrays to the study of hematological malignancies, focusing on the integrative oncogenomic approaches that correlate genomic and transcriptomic data. We also present the basic aspects of these methodologies and their present and future application in clinical oncology.