Aguirre, P.; Ariceta, B.; Viguria, M. C.; et al.
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
Patients with myeloid neoplasms who relapsed after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) have poor prognosis. Monitoring of chimerism and specific molecular markers as a surrogate measure of relapse is not always helpful; therefore, improved systems to detect early relapse are needed. We hypothesized that the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) could be a suitable approach for personalized follow-up post-HSCT. To validate our hypothesis, we analyzed by NGS, a retrospective set of peripheral blood (PB) DNA samples previously evaluated by high-sensitive quantitative PCR analysis using insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indel-qPCR) chimerism engraftment. Post-HCST allelic burdens assessed by NGS and chimerism status showed a similar time-course pattern. At time of clinical relapse in 8/12 patients, we detected positive NGS-based minimal residual disease (NGS-MRD). Importantly, in 6/8 patients, we were able to detect NGS-MRD at time points collected prior to clinical relapse. We also confirmed the disappearance of post-HCST allelic burden in non-relapsed patients, indicating true clinical specificity. This study highlights the clinical utility of NGS-based post-HCST monitoring in myeloid neoplasia as a complementary specific analysis to high-sensitive engraftment testing. Overall, NGS-MRD testing in PB is widely applicable for the evaluation of patients following HSCT and highly valuable to personalized early treatment intervention when mixed chimerism is detecte
The diagnosis of myeloid neoplasms (MN) has significantly evolved through the last few decades. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is gradually becoming an essential tool to help clinicians with disease management. To this end, most specialized genetic laboratories have implemented NGS panels targeting a number of different genes relevant to MN. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the performance of four different targeted NGS gene panels based on their technical features and clinical utility. A total of 32 patient bone marrow samples were accrued and sequenced with 3 commercially available panels and 1 custom panel. Variants were classified by two geneticists based on their clinical relevance in MN. There was a difference in panel¿s depth of coverage. We found 11 discordant clinically relevant variants between panels, with a trend to miss long insertions. Our data show that there is a high risk of finding different mutations depending on the panel of choice, due both to the panel design and the data analysis method. Of note, CEBPA, CALR and FLT3 genes, remains challenging the use of NGS for diagnosis of MN in compliance with current guidelines. Therefore, conventional molecular testing might need to be kept in place for the correct diagnosis of MN for now.
Myeloid neoplasms (MN) are usually sporadic late-onset cancers; nevertheless, growing evidence suggests that similar to 5% of the cases could emerge as a consequence of inherited predisposition. Distinguishing somatic from germline variants is of vital importance, in order to establish an appropriate individualized management and counsel the patients and their relatives. Since many of the genes associated with myeloid neoplasm germline predisposition (MNGP) are also affected in sporadic MN, we intended to design a strategy to identify potentially inherited variants in a tumor only NGS panel in a cohort of 299 patients with a variety of MN. We considered as indicative of potential inherited origin, variants detected in BM sample at a similar to 50% VAF classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic or of unknown significance detected in MNGP-related genes. A total of 104 suspicious variants from 90 patients were filtered-in in tumor samples. Mutational patterns, follow-up data, and sequencing of a range of non-myeloid tissues were used for narrowing down the list of suspicious variants, and ultimately discriminate their nature. Our data supports the importance of considering variants found upon tumor-only sequencing as potentially of germline origin, and we offer a pipeline to define the nature of the variants.