Background: [F-18]-tetrafluoroborate is a PET radiotracer taken up by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Albeit the in vivo behavior in rodents is similar to the (99)mTc-pertechnetate, no studies exist in primates or in humans. The aims of this study were to evaluate the biodistribution of [F-18]-tetrafluoroborate in non-human primates with PET and to estimate the absorbed dose in organs.
Methods: Whole-body PET imaging was done in a Siemens ECAT HR+ scanner in two male Macaca fascicularis monkeys. After an i.v. injection of 24.93 +/- 0.05 MBq/kg of [F-18]-tetrafluoroborate, prepared by isotopic exchange of sodium tetrafluoroborate with [F-18]-fluoride under acidic conditions, eight sequential images from the head to the thigh (five beds) were collected for a total duration of 132 min. The whole-body emission scan was reconstructed applying attenuation and scatter corrections. After image reconstruction, three-dimensional volumes of interest (VOIs) were hand-drawn on the PET transaxial or coronal slices of the frame where the organ was most conspicuous. Time-activity curves for each VOI were obtained, and the organ residence times were calculated by integration of the time-activity curves. Human absorbed doses were estimated using the OLINDA/EXM software and the standard human model.
Results: [F-18]-tetrafluoroborate was able to discriminate clearly the thyroid gland with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Most of the radiotracers (residence time) are localised in the orga
PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical (18)F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools
1307 - 1309
This study focuses on the occupational doses of technologists working at an Animal Research Unit using PET radiotracers and on the environmental dose rates produced by the animals (mice, rats and monkeys). In particular, whole body and extremity monitoring is reported and related with the workload. The study shows that doses not only depend on the amount of activity injected but also on the type of animals and radiotracers managed. The extremities, with a great variability of the doses received, are the limiting organs as far as regulatory dose limits for workers are concerned. Mean H¿(10) rates in contact and at 20 cm from the animals, when they are handled by the technologist, range from around 1 mSv/h to 20 ¿Sv/h, respectively.