Nuestros investigadores

José Luis Lanciego Pérez

Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Navarra
. Fundación para la Investigación Médica Aplicada
Líneas de investigación
Neurobiología de la enfermedad de Parkinson, Terapia Génica en enfermedades neurodegenerativas, Estudios sobre heterómeros de receptores GPCRs en modelos animales de enfermedad de Parkinson
Índice H
34, (WoS, 24/05/2019)
32, (Scopus, 08/03/2018)
34, (Google Scholar, 08/03/2018)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Blandini, F.; Cilia, R.; Cerri, S. ; et al.
ISSN 0885-3185  Vol. 34  Nº 1  2019  págs. 9 - 21
Glucocerebrosidase is a lysosomal enzyme. The characterization of a direct link between mutations in the gene coding for glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) with the development of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies has heightened interest in this enzyme. Although the mechanisms through which glucocerebrosidase regulates the homeostasis of -synuclein remains poorly understood, the identification of reduced glucocerebrosidase activity in the brains of patients with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies has paved the way for the development of novel therapeutic strategies directed at enhancing glucocerebrosidase activity and reducing -synuclein burden, thereby slowing down or even preventing neuronal death. Here we reviewed the current literature relating to the mechanisms underlying the cross talk between glucocerebrosidase and -synuclein, the GBA1 mutation-associated clinical phenotypes, and ongoing therapeutic approaches targeting glucocerebrosidase. (c) 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
Autores: Erro, M. E., (Autor de correspondencia); Zelayaz, M. V.; Mendioroz, M.; et al.
ISSN 0340-5354  Vol. 266  Nº 10  2019  págs. 2396 - 2405
Objective To describe the clinical, biochemical, and neuropathological findings of an autosomal dominant globular glial tauopathy caused by the P301T mutation at the MAPT gene. Methods Five patients from two unrelated pedigrees underwent clinical evaluation. Genetic analysis, brain pathological examination, and biochemical analysis of tau were performed. Results The patients studied were 3 men and 2 women with a mean age at onset of 52.2 years and mean disease duration of 5.2 years. Three patients presented a corticobasal syndrome, one patient an asymmetric pyramidal syndrome compatible with primary lateral sclerosis, and one patient a frontotemporal dementia. In both pedigrees (4 patients) Sanger sequencing showed the p.P301T mutation in exon 10 of the MAPT gene. Neuropathological findings consisted of atrophy of frontal and temporal lobes with marked spongiosis and astrogliosis, and abundant phosphorylated tau protein deposits in the frontal and temporal cortex, limbic area, basal ganglia, and brain stem. The most striking finding was the presence of oligodendroglial 4R phospho-tau globular positive inclusions in the white matter and cortex. Globose-type neurofibrillary neuronal tangles, and in particular astrocytic globular inclusions and coarse tufts, were present in the grey matter. Biochemical analysis of sarkosyl-insoluble fractions revealed two tau bands of 64 and 68 kDa and case-dependent bands of lower molecular weight. Conclusion This is the first pathological and biochemical study of the MAPT p.P301T mutation showing variable clinical manifestation and neuropathological phenotype of globular glial tauopathy not only among different families but also within families.
Autores: Pignataro, D.; Sucunza, D.; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; et al.
ISSN 0300-9564  Vol. 125  Nº 3  2018  págs. 575 - 589
The field of gene therapy has recently witnessed a number of major conceptual changes. Besides the traditional thinking that comprises the use of viral vectors for the delivery of a given therapeutic gene, a number of original approaches have been recently envisaged, focused on using vectors carrying genes to further modify basal ganglia circuits of interest. It is expected that these approaches will ultimately induce a therapeutic potential being sustained by gene-induced changes in brain circuits. Among others, at present, it is technically feasible to use viral vectors to (1) achieve a controlled release of neurotrophic factors, (2) conduct either a transient or permanent silencing of any given basal ganglia circuit of interest, (3) perform an in vivo cellular reprogramming by promoting the conversion of resident cells into dopaminergic-like neurons, and (4) improving levodopa efficacy over time by targeting aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Furthermore, extensive research efforts based on viral vectors are currently ongoing in an attempt to better replicate the dopaminergic neurodegeneration phenomena inherent to the progressive intraneuronal aggregation of alpha-synuclein. Finally, a number of incoming strategies will soon emerge over the horizon, these being sustained by the underlying goal of promoting alpha-synuclein clearance, such as, for instance, gene therapy initiatives based on increasing the activity of glucocerebrosidase. To provide adequate proof-of-concept on safety and efficacy and to push forward true translational initiatives based on these different types of gene therapies before entering into clinical trials, the use of non-human primate models undoubtedly plays an instrumental role.
Autores: Guridi Legarra, Jorge (Autor de correspondencia); Rodriguez-Rojas, R.; Carmona Abellán, María del Mar; et al.
ISSN 0885-3185  Vol. 33  Nº 10  2018  págs. 1540 - 1550
For many years the subthalamic nucleus had a poor reputation among neurosurgeons as a result of the acute movement disorders that develop after its lesion or manipulation through different surgical procedures. However, this nucleus is now considered a key structure in relation to parkinsonism, and it is currently one of the preferred therapeutic targets for Parkinson's disease. The implication of the subthalamic nucleus in the pathophysiology of chorea and in the parkinsonian state is thought to be related to its role in modulating the basal ganglia, a fundamental circuit in movement control. Indeed, recent findings have renewed interest in this anatomical structure. Accordingly, this review aims to present a history of the subthalamic nucleus, evolving from the classic surgical concepts associated with the avoidance of this structure, to our current understanding of its importance based on findings from more recent models. Future developments regarding the relationship of the subthalamic nucleus to neuroprotection are also discussed in this review. (c) 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
Autores: Reyes-Resina, I.; Aguinaga, D.; Labandeira-García, J. L.; et al.
ISSN 0213-3911  Vol. 33  Nº 9  2018  págs. 909 - 917
Immunochemical detection of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells and tissues was a technical challenge for years. After the discovery of formation of GPCR dimers/trimers/tetramers in transfected cells, a most recent challenge has been to confirm receptor-receptor interactions in natural sources. The occurrence of dimers or higher order oligomers is important from a therapeutic point of view, mainly because their physiology/pharmacology is different from those of individual receptors. On the one hand, pathophysiological factors need to count more on GPCR dimers than on individual receptors. On the other hand, the expression of dimers, trimers, etc. may change in pathological conditions and/or along the course of a disease. This review will focus on G-protein-coupled receptor dimers, on how to detect them by novel histological techniques and on how the detection may be used in diagnosis and therapy of ailments of the central nervous system, for instance in neurodegenerative diseases and gliomas.
Autores: García-Gutiérrez, M. S.; Navarrete, F.; Navarro Díez, Gemma; et al.
ISSN 1933-7213  Vol. 15  Nº 3  2018  págs. 796 - 806
Recent studies point to the cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2r) and the non-cannabinoid receptor GPR55 as potential key targets involved in the response to stress, anxiety, and depression. Considering the close relationship between neuropsychiatric disorders and suicide, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential alterations of CB2r and GPR55 in suicide victims. We analyzed gene and protein expression of both receptors by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of 18 suicide victims with no clinical psychiatric history or treatment with anxiolytics or antidepressants, and 15 corresponding controls. We used in situ proximity ligation assay to evaluate whether the receptors formed heteromeric complexes and to determine the expression level of these heteromers, also assessing the co-expression of heteromers in neurons, astroglia, or microglia cells. CB2r and GPR55 gene expressions were significantly lower (by 33 and 41%, respectively) in the DLPFC of suicide cases. CB2r protein expression was higher, as were CB2-GPR55 heteroreceptor complexes. The results also revealed the presence of CB2-GPR55 receptor heteromers in both neurons and astrocytes, whereas microglial cells showed no expression. We did not observe any significant alterations of GPR55 protein expression. Additional studies will be necessary to evaluate if these alterations are reproducible in suicide victims diagnosed with different psychiatric disorders. Taken together, the results suggest that CB2r and GPR55 may play a relevant role in the neurobiology of suicide.
Autores: Rodriguez-Perez, A. I.; Sucunza, D. ; Pedrosa, M. A.; et al.
ISSN 1933-7213  Vol. 15  Nº 4  2018  págs. 1063 - 1081
The loss of dopaminergic neurons and alpha-synuclein accumulation are major hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), and it has been suggested that a major mechanism of alpha-synuclein toxicity is microglial activation. The lack of animal models that properly reproduce PD, and particularly the underlying synucleinopathy, has hampered the clarification of PD mechanisms and the development of effective therapies. Here, we used neurospecific adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 9 coding for either the wild-type or mutated forms of human alpha-synuclein (WT and SynA53T, respectively) under the control of a synapsin promoter to further induce a marked dopaminergic neuron loss together with an important microglial neuroinflammatory response. Overexpression of neuronal alpha-synuclein led to increased expression of angiotensin type 1 receptors and NADPH oxidase activity, together with a marked increase in the number of OX-6-positive microglial cells and expression of markers of phagocytic activity (CD68) and classical pro-inflammatory/M1 microglial phenotype markers such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and IL-6. Moreover, a significant decrease in the expression of markers of immunoregulatory/M2 microglial phenotype such as the enzyme arginase-1 was constantly observed. Interestingly, alpha-synuclein-induced changes in microglial phenotype markers and dopaminergic neuron death were inhibited by simultaneous treatment with the angiotensin type 1 blockers candesartan or telmisartan. Our results suggest the repurposing of candesartan and telmisartan as a neuroprotective strategy for PD.
Autores: Navarrete, F. ; Garcia-Gutierrez, M. S.; Aracil-Fernandez, A.; et al.
ISSN 1933-7213  Vol. 15  Nº 2  2018  págs. 459 - 469
Previous studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the neuropathological basis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was designed to detect potential alterations in the cannabinoid receptors CB1 (CB(1)r) and CB2 (A isoform, CB(2A)r), and in monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) gene expression in the substantia nigra (SN) and putamen (PUT) of patients with PD. Immunohistochemical studies were performed to identify precise CB(2)r cellular localization in the SN of control and PD patients. To ensure the validity and reliability of gene expression data, the RNA integrity number (RIN) was calculated. CB(1)r, CB(2A)r, and MAGL gene expressions were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) using Taqman assays. Immunohistochemical experiments with in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) were used to detect the precise cellular localization of CB(2)r in neurons, astrocytes, and/or microglia. All RIN values from control and PD postmortem brain samples were > 6. CB(1)r gene expression was unchanged in the SN but significantly higher in the PUT of patients with PD. CB(2A)r gene expression was significantly increased (4-fold) in the SN but decreased in the PUT, whereas MAGL gene expression was decreased in the SN and increased in the PUT. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that CB(2)r co-localize with astrocytes but not with neurons or microglial cells in the SN. The results of the present study suggest that CB(1)r, CB(2)r, and MAGL are closely related to the neuropathological processes of PD. Therefore, the pharmacological modulation of these targets could represent a new potential therapeutic tool for the management of PD.
Autores: Castro-Sánchez, S.; García-Yagüe, A. J. ; López-Royo, T.; et al.
Revista: GLIA
ISSN 0894-1491  Vol. 66  Nº 8  2018  págs. 1752 - 1762
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the accumulation of protein aggregates, called Lewy bodies, where the most abundant is alpha-synuclein (alpha-SYN). Mutations of the gene that codes for alpha-SYN (SNCA), such as the A53T mutation, and duplications of the gene generate cases of PD with autosomal dominant inheritance. As a result of the association of inflammation with the neurodegeneration of PD, we analyzed whether overexpression of wild-type alpha-SYN (alpha-SYNWT) or mutated alpha-SYN (alpha-SYNA53T) are involved in the neuronal dopaminergic loss and inflammation process, along with the role of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1). We generated in vivo murine models overexpressing human alpha-SYNWT or alpha-SYNA53T in wild type (Cx3cr1(+/+)) or deficient (Cx3cr1(-/-)) mice for CX3CR1 using unilateral intracerebral injection of adeno-associated viral vectors. No changes in CX3CL1 levels were observed by immunofluorescence or analysis by qRT-PCR in this model. Interestingly, the expression alpha-SYNWT induced dopaminergic neuronal death to a similar degree in both genotypes. However, the expression of alpha-SYNA53T produced an exacerbated neurodegeneration, enhanced in the Cx3cr1(-/-) mice. This neurodegeneration was accompanied by an increase in neuroinflammation and microgliosis as well as the production of pro-inflammatory markers, which were exacerbated in Cx3cr1(-/-) mice overexpressing alpha-SYNA53T. Furthermore, we observed that in primary microglia CX3CR1 was a critical factor in the modulation of microglial dynamics in response to alpha-SYNWT or alpha-SYNA53T. Altogether, our study reveals that CX3CR1 plays an essential role in neuroinflammation induced by alpha-SYNA53T.
Autores: Navarro Díez, Gemma; Borroto-Escuela, D.; Angelats, E.; et al.
ISSN 0889-1591  Vol. 67  2018  págs. 139 - 151
Endocannabinoids are important regulators of neurotransmission and, acting on activated microglia, they are postulated as neuroprotective agents. Endocannabinoid action is mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptors, which may form heteromeric complexes (CB1-CB2Hets) with unknown function in microglia. We aimed at establishing the expression and signaling properties of cannabinoid receptors in resting and LPS/IFN-¿-activated microglia. In activated microglia mRNA transcripts increased (2 fold for CB1 and circa 20 fold for CB2), whereas receptor levels were similar for CB1 and markedly upregulated for CB2; CB1-CB2Hets were also upregulated. Unlike in resting cells, CB2 receptors became robustly coupled to Gi in activated cells, in which CB1-CB2Hets mediated a potentiation effect. Hence, resting cells were refractory while activated cells were highly responsive to cannabinoids. Interestingly, similar results were obtained in cultures treated with ß-amyloid (Aß1-42). Microglial activation markers were detected in the striatum of a Parkinson¿s disease (PD) model and, remarkably, in primary microglia cultures from the hippocampus of mutant ß-amyloid precursor protein (APPSw,Ind) mice, a transgenic Alzheimer¿s disease (AD) model. Also of note was the similar cannabinoid receptor signaling found in primary cultures of microglia from APPSw,Ind and in cells from control animals activated using LPS plus IFN-¿. Expression of CB1-CB2Hets was increased in the striatum from rats rendered dyskinetic by chronic levodopa treatment. In summary, our results showed sensitivity of activated microglial cells to cannabinoids, increased CB1-CB2Het expression in activated microglia and in microglia from the hippocampus of an AD model, and a correlation between levodopa-induced dyskinesia and striatal microglial activation in a PD model. Cannabinoid receptors and the CB1-CB2 heteroreceptor complex in activated microglia have potential as targets in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Autores: Costa-Besada, M. A. ; Valenzuela, R.; Garrido-Gil, P. ; et al.
ISSN 0893-7648  Vol. 55  Nº 7  2018  págs. 5847 - 5867
In addition to the classical hormonal (tissue-to-tissue) renin-angiotensin system (RAS), there are a paracrine (cell-to-cell) and an intracrine (intracellular/nuclear) RAS. A local paracrine brain RAS has been associated with several brain disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Classically, angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main RAS effector peptide and acts through two major receptors: Ang II type 1 and 2 (AT1 and AT2) receptors. It has been shown that enhanced activation of the Ang II/AT1 axis exacerbates dopaminergic cell death. Several new components of the RAS have more recently been discovered. However, the role of new Ang 1-7/Mas receptor RAS component was not investigated in the brain and particularly in the dopaminergic system. In the present study, we observed Mas receptor labeling in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells in rat mesencephalic primary cultures; substantia nigra of rats, monkeys, and humans; and human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from healthy controls and sporadic PD patients. The present data support a neuroprotective role of the Ang 1-7/Mas receptor axis in the dopaminergic system. We observed that this axis is downregulated with aging, which may contribute to the aging-related vulnerability to neurodegeneration. We have also identified an intracellular Ang 1-7/Mas axis that modulates mitochondrial and nuclear levels of superoxide. The present data suggest that nuclear RAS receptors regulate the adequate balance between the detrimental and the protective arms of the cell RAS. The results further support that the brain RAS should be taken into account for the design of new therapeutic strategies for PD.
Autores: González-Dopeso Reyes, Iria María; Sucunza, D.; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; et al.
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 223  Nº 1  2018  págs. 343 - 355
Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is a lysosomal enzyme encoded by the GBA1 gene. Mutations in GBA1 gene lead to Gaucher¿s disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. GBA1 mutations reduce GCase activity, therefore promoting the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, a common neuropathological finding underlying Parkinson¿s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. However, it is also worth noting that a direct link between GBA1 mutations and alpha-synuclein aggregation indicating cause and effect is still lacking, with limited experimental evidence to date. Bearing in mind that a number of strategies increasing GCase expression for the treatment of PD are currently under development, here we sought to analyze the baseline expression of GCase in the brain of Macaca fascicularis, which has often been considered as the gold-standard animal model of PD. Although as with other lysosomal enzymes, GCase is expected to be ubiquitously expressed, here a number of regional variations have been consistently found, together with several specific neurochemical phenotypes expressing very high levels of GCase. In this regard, the most enriched expression of GCase was constantly found in cholinergic neurons from the nucleus basalis of Meynert, dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta, serotoninergic neurons from the raphe nuclei, as well as in noradrenergic neurons located in the locus ceruleus. Moreover, it is also worth noting that moderate levels of expression were also found in a number of areas within the paleocortex and archicortex, such as the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampal formation, respectively.
Autores: Labandeira Garcia, J. L.; Rodríguez Perez, A. I.; Garrido Gil, P.; et al.
ISSN 1663-4365  Vol. 9  2017  págs. Article 129
Microglia can transform into proinflammatory/classically activated (M1) or antiinflammatory/alternatively activated (M2) phenotypes following environmental signals related to physiological conditions or brain lesions. An adequate transition from the M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype is necessary to counteract brain damage. Several factors involved in microglial polarization have already been identified. However, the effects of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on microglial polarization are less known. It is well known that there is a "classical" circulating RAS; however, a second RAS (local or tissue RAS) has been observed in many tissues, including brain. The locally formed angiotensin is involved in local pathological changes of these tissues and modulates immune cells, which are equipped with all the components of the RAS. There are also recent data showing that brain RAS plays a major role in microglial polarization. Level of microglial NADPH-oxidase (Nox) activation is a major regulator of the shift between M1/proinflammatory and M2/immunoregulatory microglial phenotypes so that Nox activation promotes the proinflammatory and inhibits the immunoregulatory phenotype. Angiotensin II (Ang II), via its type 1 receptor (AT1), is a major activator of the NADPH- oxidase complex, leading to pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects. However, these effects are counteracted by a RAS opposite arm constituted by Angiotensin II/AT2 receptor signaling and Angiotensin 1-7/Mas receptor (MasR) signaling. In addition, activation of prorenin-renin receptors may contribute to activation of the proinflammatory phenotype. Aged brains showed upregulation of AT1 and downregulation of AT2 receptor expression, which may contribute to a pro-oxidative pro-inflammatory state and the increase in neuron vulnerability. Several recent studies have shown interactions between the brain RAS and different factors involved in microglial polarization, such as estrogens, Rho kinase (ROCK), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)a, iron, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and toll-like receptors (TLRs). Metabolic reprogramming has recently been involved in the regulation of the neuroinflammatory response. Interestingly, we have recently observed a mitochondrial RAS, which is altered in aged brains. In conclusion, dysregulation of brain RAS plays a major role in aging-related changes and neurodegeneration by exacerbation of oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation, which may be attenuated by pharmacological manipulation of RAS components.
Autores: Garrido-Gil, P.; Rodríguez-Pérez, A. I.; Fernández Rodríguez, P.; et al.
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 222  Nº 6  2017  págs. 2559 - 2571
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system, which function is the regulation of blood pressure. However, it is now known that there exists local RAS in many tissues, including brain. In recent studies, we have demonstrated the presence of a local RAS in the substantia nigra of rodents and primates that modulates dopamine release and dopamine receptor expression. However, overactivation of local RAS exacerbates neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and dopaminergic cell death. In the striatum, it is not clear whether angiotensin receptors are located in dopaminergic terminals, glial cells and/or the projection neurons. The present study shows the location of major components of the RAS in striatal projection neurons of rats and monkeys (both in neurons of the direct and the indirect pathways). Striatal astrocytes and microglial cells also express major RAS components, which increase after induction of neuroinflammation by intrastriatal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Angiotensin receptors were located at the cell surface and also at cytoplasmic and nuclear levels. The results obtained by immunolabeling and confocal microscopy were confirmed with laser microdissection of striatal neurons and glial cells and detection of mRNA expression by PCR. The sequence of the resulting PCR products was verified by DNA sequencing. In addition to the interaction between angiotensin and dopamine receptors in dopaminergic neurons to regulate dopam
Autores: Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; González-Dopeso Reyes, Iria María; Martínez Pinilla, Eva; et al.
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 222  Nº 4  2017  págs. 1767 - 1784
Although it has long been widely accepted that dopamine receptor types D1 and D2 form GPCR heteromers in the striatum, the presence of D1¿D2 receptor heteromers has been recently challenged. In an attempt to properly characterize D1¿D2 receptor heteromers, here we have used the in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) in striatal sections comprising the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the core and shell territories of the nucleus accumbens. Experiments were carried out in control macaques as well as in MPTP-treated animals (with and without dyskinesia). Obtained data support the presence of D1¿D2 receptor heteromers within all the striatal subdivisions, with the highest abundance in the accumbens shell. Dopamine depletion by MPTP resulted in an increase of D1¿D2 density in caudate and putamen which was normalized by levodopa treatment. Two different sizes of heteromers were consistently found, thus suggesting that besides individual heteromers, D1¿D2 receptor heteromers are sometimes organized in macromolecular complexes made of a number of D1¿D2 heteromers. Furthermore, the PLA technique was combined with different neuronal markers to properly characterize the identities of striatal neurons expressing D1¿D2 heteromers. We have found that striatal projection neurons giving rise to either the direct or the indirect basal ganglia pathways expressed D1¿D2 heteromers. Interestingly, macromolecular complexes of D1¿D2 heteromers were only found within cholinergic interneurons. In summary, here we provide overwhelming proof that D1 and D2 receptors form heteromeric complexes in the macaque striatum, thus representing a very appealing target for a number of brain diseases involving dopamine dysfunction.
Autores: Morabito, G.; Giannelli, S.G.; Ordazzo, G.; et al.
ISSN 1525-0016  Vol. 25  Nº 12  2017  págs. 2727 - 2742
The lack of technology for direct global-scale targeting of the adult mouse nervous system has hindered research on brain processing and dysfunctions. Currently, gene transfer is normally achieved by intraparenchymal viral injections, but these injections target a restricted brain area. Herein, we demonstrated that intravenous delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B viral particles permeated and diffused throughout the neural parenchyma, targeting both the central and the peripheral nervous system in a global pattern. We then established multiple procedures of viral transduction to control gene expression or inactivate gene function exclusively in the adult nervous system and assessed the underlying behavioral effects. Building on these results, we established an effective gene therapy strategy to counteract the widespread accumulation of ¿-synuclein deposits throughout the forebrain in a mouse model of synucleinopathy. Transduction of A53T-SCNA transgenic mice with AAV-PHP.B-GBA1 restored physiological levels of the enzyme, reduced ¿-synuclein pathology, and produced significant behavioral recovery. Finally, we provided evidence that AAV-PHP.B brain penetration does not lead to evident dysfunctions in blood-brain barrier integrity or permeability. Altogether, the AAV-PHP.B viral platform enables non-invasive, widespread, and long-lasting global neural expression of therapeutic genes, such as GBA1, providing an invaluable approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases with diffuse brain pathology such as synucleinopathies. Extensive gene delivery in the CNS is attainable through a single systemic injection of AAV-PHP.B. The authors exploited this system to simultaneously target different brain areas and modulate their functions but also to unveil its therapeutic potential. Global transduction of a therapeutic gene reversed pathological symptoms in a model of synucleinopathy.
Autores: Martinez-Pinilla, E. ; Varani, K.; Reyes-Resina, I.; et al.
ISSN 1663-9812  Vol. 8  2017  págs. 744
The mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa L., is not completely understood. First assumed that the compound was acting via cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB(2)Rs) it is now suggested that it interacts with non-cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); however, CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of any GPCR. To search for alternative explanations, we tested CBD as a potential allosteric ligand of CB2R. Radioligand and non-radioactive homogeneous binding, intracellular cAMP determination and ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays were undertaken in heterologous systems expressing the human version of CB2R. Using membrane preparations from CB2R-expressing HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney 293T) cells, we confirmed that CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of the human CB2R where the synthetic cannabinoid, [H-3]-WIN 55,212-2, binds. CBD was, however, able to produce minor but consistent reduction in the homogeneous binding assays in living cells using the fluorophore-conjugated CB2R-selective compound, CM-157. The effect on binding to CB2R-expressing living cells was different to that exerted by the orthosteric antagonist, SR144528, which decreased the maximum binding without changing the K-D. CBD at nanomolar concentrations was also able to significantly reduce the effect of the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133, on forskolin-induced intracellular cAMP levels and on activation of the MAP kinase pathway. These results may help to understand CBD mode of action and may serve to revisit its therapeutic possibilities.
Autores: Pignataro, J. D.; Sucunza, D.; Vanrell, L.; et al.
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 11  2017  págs. 2
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become highly promising tools for research and clinical applications in the central nervous system (CNS). However, specific delivery of genes to the cell type of interest is essential for the success of gene therapy and therefore a correct selection of the promoter plays a very important role. Here, AAV8 vectors carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as reporter gene under the transcriptional control of different CNS-specific promoters were used and compared with a strong ubiquitous promoter. Since one of the main limitations of AAV-mediated gene delivery lies in its restricted cloning capacity, we focused our work on small-sized promoters. We tested the transduction efficacy and specificity of each vector after stereotactic injection into the mouse striatum. Three glia-specific AAV vectors were generated using two truncated forms of the human promoter for glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) as well as a truncated form of the murine GFAP promoter. All three vectors resulted in predominantly glial expression; however we also observed eGFP expression in other cell-types such as oligodendrocytes, but never in neurons. In addition, robust and neuron-specific eGFP expression was observed using the minimal promoters for the neural protein BM88 and the neuronal nicotinic receptor ß2 (CHRNB2). In summary, we developed a set of AAV vectors designed for specific expression in cells of the CNS using minimal promoters to drive gene expression when the size of the therapeutic gene matters.
Autores: Franco Fernández, Rafael (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Pinilla, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 1663-9812  Vol. 7  2016  págs. Article number: 76
Cell membrane receptors rarely work on isolation, often they form oligomeric complexes with other receptor molecules and they may directly interact with different proteins of the signal transduction machinery. For a variety of reasons, rhodopsin-like class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) seem an exception to the general rule of receptor¿receptor direct interaction. In fact, controversy surrounds their potential to form homo- hetero-dimers/oligomers with other class A GPCRs; in a sense, the field is going backward instead of forward. This review focuses on the convergent, complementary and telling evidence showing that homo- and heteromers of class A GPCRs exist in transfected cells and, more importantly, in natural sources. It is time to decide between questioning the occurrence of heteromers or, alternatively, facing the vast scientific and technical challenges that class A receptor-dimer/oligomer existence pose to Pharmacology and to Drug Discovery.
Autores: Perreault, M.; Hasbi, A.; Shen, M. Y. F. ; et al.
ISSN 0924-977X  Vol. 26  Nº 9  2016  págs. 1366 - 1377
Cocaine-induced increases in dopamine signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc) play a significant role in cocaine seeking behavior. The majority of cocaine addiction research has focused on neuroanatomically segregated dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons, yet an involvement for those NAc neurons coexpressing D1 and D2 receptors in cocaine addiction has never been explored. In situ proximity ligation assay, confocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation were used to show native D1 and D2 receptors formed a heteromeric complex in D1/D2 receptor-coexpressing neurons in rat and non-human primate NAc. D1¿D2 heteromer expression was lower in NAc of adolescent rats compared to their adult counterparts. Functional disruption of the dopamine D1¿D2 receptor heteromer, using a peptide targeting the site of interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor, induced conditioned place preference and increased NAc expression of ¿FosB. D1¿D2 heteromer disruption also resulted in the promotion, exacerbation and acceleration of the locomotor activating and incentive motivational effects of cocaine in the self-administration paradigm. These findings support a model for tonic inhibition of basal and cocaine-induced reward processes by the D1¿D2 heteromer thus highlighting its potential value as a novel target for drug discovery in cocaine addiction. Given that adolescents show increased drug abuse susceptibility, an involvement for reduced D1¿D2 heteromer function in the heightened sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine in adolescence is also implicated.
Autores: Gómez-Vallejo, V.; Ugarte, A.; Garcia Barroso, Carolina; et al.
ISSN 0022-3042  Vol. 136  Nº 2  2016  págs. 403 - 415
Sildenafil (Viagra) is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), which degrades cyclic guanosine monophosphate to the linear nucleotide. Sildenafil is acutely used in erectile dysfunction and chronically in pulmonary hypertension. Evidence in the last decade shows that sildenafil may have potential as a therapeutic option for Alzheimer's disease or other neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this work was to explore whether sildenafil crosses the blood-brain barrier. Pharmacokinetic properties of sildenafil in rodents were investigated using (11) C-radiolabeling followed by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo tissue dissection and gamma counting. PET results in rats suggest penetration into the central nervous system. Ex vivo data in perfused animals suggest that trapping of [(11) C]sildenafil within the cerebral vascular endothelium limits accumulation in the central nervous system parenchyma. Peroral sildenafil administration to Macaca fascicularis and subsequent chemical analysis of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry showed that drug content in the CSF was high enough to achieve PDE5 inhibition, which was also demonstrated by the significant increases in CSF cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels. Central actions of sildenafil include both relaxation of the cerebral vasculature and inhibition of PDE5 in neurons and glia. This central action of sildenafil may underlie its efficacy in neuroprotection models, and may justify the continued search for a PDE5 ligand suitable for PET imaging. Sildenafil interacts with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) expressed in the endothelium and/or smooth muscle cells of brain vessels and also crosses the blood-brain barrier to interact with PDE5 expressed in brain cells. At therapeutic doses, the concentration of sildenafil in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is high enough to inhibit PDE5 in the neural cells (neurons and glia). In turn, the concentration of cGMP likely increases in parenchymal cells and, as shown in this report, in the CSF. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 220. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13302.
Autores: García-Gutiérrez, M. S.; Navarrete, F.; Aracil, A.; et al.
ISSN 1355-6215  Vol. 21  Nº 4  2016  págs. 847 - 858
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days¿8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes.
Autores: Martínez Pinilla, Eva; Rabal Gracia, María Obdulia; Reyes Resina, Irene; et al.
ISSN 0022-3565  Vol. 358  Nº 3  2016  págs. 580 - 587
Eva Martínez Pinilla; María Obdulia Rabal Gracia; José Luis Lanciego Pérez; Julen Oyarzábal Santamaría and Rafael Franco Fernández, contributed equally to this work. ABSTRACT: Endocannabinoids act on G protein-coupled receptors that are considered potential targets for a variety of diseases. There are two different cannabinoid receptor types: ligands for cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2Rs) show more promise than those for cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) because they lack psychotropic actions. However, the complex pharmacology of these receptors, coupled with the lipophilic nature of ligands, is delaying the translational success of medications targeting the endocannabinoid system. We here report the discovery and synthesis of a fluorophore-conjugated CB2R-selective compound, CM-157 (3-[[4-[2-tert-butyl-1-(tetrahydropyran-4-ylmethyl)benzimidazol-5-yl]sulfonyl-2-pyridyl]oxy]propan-1-amine), which was useful for pharmacological characterization of CB2R by using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. This methodology does not require radiolabeled compounds and may be undertaken in homogeneous conditions and in living cells (i.e., without the need to isolate receptor-containing membranes). The affinity of the labeled compound was similar to that of the unlabeled molecule. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays disclosed a previously unreported second affinity site and showed conformational changes in CB2R forming receptor heteromers with G protein-coupled receptor GPR55, a receptor for l-¿-lysophosphatidylinositol. The populations displaying subnanomolar and nanomolar affinities were undisclosed in competitive assays using a well known cannabinoid receptor ligand, AM630 (1-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl]-2-methyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-6-iodoindole), and TH-chrysenediol, not previously tested on binding to cannabinoid receptors. Variations in binding parameters upon formation of dimers with GPR55 may reflect decreases in binding sites or alterations of the quaternary structure of the macromolecular G protein-coupled receptor complexes. In summary, the homogeneous binding assay described here may serve to better characterize agonist binding to CB2R and to identify specific properties of CB2R on living cells.
Autores: Valenzuela, R.; Costa-Besada, M. A.; Iglesias-González, J.; et al.
ISSN 2041-4889  Vol. 7  Nº 10  2016  págs. e2427
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system controlling blood pressure, being kidney the key control organ. In addition to the 'classical' humoral RAS, a second level in RAS, local or tissular RAS, has been identified in a variety of tissues, in which local RAS play a key role in degenerative and aging-related diseases. The local brain RAS plays a major role in brain function and neurodegeneration. It is normally assumed that the effects are mediated by the cell-surface-specific G-protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1 and AT2). A combination of in vivo (rats, wild-type mice and knockout mice) and in vitro (primary mesencephalic cultures, dopaminergic neuron cell line cultures) experimental approaches (confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, laser capture microdissection, transfection of fluorescent-tagged receptors, treatments with fluorescent angiotensin, western blot, polymerase chain reaction, HPLC, mitochondrial respirometry and other functional assays) were used in the present study. We report the discovery of AT1 and AT2 receptors in brain mitochondria, particularly mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors in mitochondria regulates superoxide production, via Nox4, and increases respiration. Mitochondrial AT2 receptors are much more abundant and increase after treatment of cells with oxidative stress inducers, and produce, via nitric oxide, a decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria from the nigral region of aged rats displayed altered expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors. AT2-mediated regulation of mitochondrial respiration represents an unrecognized primary line of defence against oxidative stress, which may be particularly important in neurons with increased levels of oxidative stress such as dopaminergic neurons. Altered expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors with aging may induce mitochondrial dysfunction, the main risk factor for neurodegeneration.
Autores: Franco, R.; Casadó Anguera, V.; Muñoz, A.; et al.
ISSN 0893-7648  Vol. 53  Nº 8  2016  págs. 5436 - 5445
Dopamine receptors in striatum are important for healthy brain functioning and are the target of levodopa-based therapy in Parkinson¿s disease. Lateralization of dopaminergic neurotransmission in striata from different hemispheres occurs in patients, but also in healthy individuals. Our data show that the affinity of dopamine binding to dopamine D1 receptors is significantly higher in left than in right striatum. Analysis of data from radioligand binding to striatal samples from naïve, 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned, levodopa-treated and levodopa-induced dyskinetic rats shows differential receptor structure and gives hints on the causes of right/left lateralization of dopamine binding to striatal D1 receptors. Moreover, binding data showed loss of lateralization in levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinetic rats.
Autores: Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Lana Vega, Hugo; et al.
ISSN 0142-9612  Vol. 110  2016  págs. 11-23
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) remains the most potent neurotrophic factor for dopamine neurons. Despite its potential as treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), its clinical application has been hampered by safety and efficacy concerns associated with GDNF's short in vivo half-life and with significant brain delivery obstacles. Drug formulation systems such as microparticles (MPs) may overcome these issues providing protein protection from degradation and sustained drug release over time. We therefore sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GDNF delivered via injectable biodegradable MPs in a clinically relevant model of PD and to investigate the mechanism contributing to their beneficial effects. MPs were injected unilaterally into the putamen of parkinsonian monkeys with severe nigrostriatal degeneration. Notably, a single administration of the microencapsulated neurotrophic factor achieved sustained GDNF levels in the brain, providing motor improvement and dopaminergic function restoration. This was reflected by a bilateral increase in the density of striatal dopaminergic neurons 9 months after treatment. Moreover, GDNF was retrogradely transported to the substantia nigra increasing bilaterally the number of dopaminergic and total neurons, regardless of the severe degeneration. GDNF-MP injection within the putamen elicited no adverse effects such as immunogenicity, cerebellar degeneration or weight loss. MPs are therefore a safe, efficient vehicle for sustained protein delivery to the brain, supporting the therapeutic benefit of GDNF when encapsulated within MPs for brain repair. Overall, these findings constitute important groundwork for GDNF-MP clinical development.
Autores: Blesa, J.; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; Obeso Inchausti, José Ángel
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 9  2015  págs. A125
Autores: Rodríguez-Pérez, A. I.; Borrajo, A.; Valenzuela, R.; et al.
ISSN 0197-4580  Vol. 36  Nº 2  2015  págs. 1194 - 1208
The neuroprotective effects of menopausal hormonal therapy in Parkinson's disease have not yet been clarified, and it is not known whether there is a critical period. Estrogen induced significant protection against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration when administered immediately or 6 weeks, but not 20 weeks after ovariectomy. In the substantia nigra, ovariectomy induced a decrease in levels of estrogen receptor-¿ and increased angiotensin activity, NADPH-oxidase activity, and expression of neuroinflammatory markers, which were regulated by estrogen administered immediately or 6 weeks but not 20 weeks after ovariectomy. Interestingly, treatment with angiotensin receptor antagonists after the critical period induced a significant level of neuroprotection. In cultures, treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium induced an increase in astrocyte-derived angiotensinogen and dopaminergic neuron death, which were inhibited by estrogen receptor ¿ agonists. In microglial cells, estrogen receptor ß agonists inhibited the angiotensin-induced increase in inflammatory markers. The results suggest that there is a critical period for the neuroprotective effect of estrogen against dopaminergic cell death, and local estrogen receptor ¿ and renin-angiotensin system play a major role.
Autores: Deng, Y.; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; Kerkerian Le Goff, L,; et al.
ISSN 1662-5137  Vol. 9  2015  págs. 51
In prior studies, we described the differential organization of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal inputs to the spines of direct pathway (dSPNs) and indirect pathway striatal projection neurons (iSPNs) of the matrix compartment. In the present electron microscopic (EM) analysis, we have refined understanding of the relative amounts of cortical axospinous vs. axodendritic input to the two types of SPNs. Of note, we found that individual dSPNs receive about twice as many axospinous synaptic terminals from IT-type (intratelencephalically projecting) cortical neurons as they do from PT-type (pyramidal tract projecting) cortical neurons. We also found that PT-type axospinous synaptic terminals were about 1.5 times as common on individual iSPNs as IT-type axospinous synaptic terminals. Overall, a higher percentage of IT-type terminals contacted dSPN than iSPN spines, while a higher percentage of PT-type terminals contacted iSPN than dSPN spines. Notably, IT-type axospinous synaptic terminals were significantly larger on iSPN spines than on dSPN spines. By contrast to axospinous input, the axodendritic PT-type input to dSPNs was more substantial than that to iSPNs, and the axodendritic IT-type input appeared to be meager and comparable for both SPN types. The prominent axodendritic PT-type input to dSPNs may accentuate their PT-type responsiveness, and the large size of axospinous IT-type terminals on iSPNs may accentuate their IT-type responsiveness. Using transneuronal labeling with rabies virus to selectively label the cortical neurons with direct input to the dSPNs projecting to the substantia nigra pars reticulata, we found that the input predominantly arose from neurons in the upper layers of motor cortices, in which IT-type perikarya predominate. The differential cortical input to SPNs is likely to play key roles in motor control and motor learning.
Autores: Sierra San Nicolás, Salvador; Luquin, N.; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; et al.
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 220  Nº 5  2015  págs. 2721 - 2738
Although type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed abundantly throughout the brain, the presence of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2Rs) in neurons is still somewhat controversial. Taking advantage of newly designed CB1R and CB2R mRNA riboprobes, we demonstrate by PCR and in situ hybridization that transcripts for both cannabinoid receptors are present within labeled pallidothalamic-projecting neurons of control and MPTP-treated macaques, whereas the expression is markedly reduced in dyskinetic animals. Moreover, an in situ proximity ligation assay was used to qualitatively assess the presence of CB1Rs and CB2Rs, as well as CB1R¿CB2R heteromers within basal ganglia output neurons in all animal groups (control, parkinsonian and dyskinetic macaques). A marked reduction in the number of CB1Rs, CB2Rs and CB1R¿CB2R heteromers was found in dyskinetic animals, mimicking the observed reduction in CB1R and CB2R mRNA expression levels. The fact that chronic levodopa treatment disrupted CB1R¿CB2R heteromeric complexes should be taken into consideration when designing new drugs acting on cannabinoid receptor heteromers.
Autores: Erro Aguirre, M. E.; Zelaya, M. V.; Sánchez Ruiz de Gordoa, J.; et al.
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 9  2015  págs. 25
Objective: To analyze the frequency and distribution of ¿-synuclein deposits in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Methods: The brains of 25 cases of pathologically confirmed PSP were evaluated with immunohistochemistry for ¿-synuclein and tau. Multiple immunofluorescent stains were applied to analyze the expression of tau and ¿-synuclein aggregates in catecholaminergic neurons. Patients¿ clinical symptoms were retrospectively recorded. Results: Deposits ¿-synuclein in the form of typical Lewy bodies (LBs) were only found in two PSP cases (8%) that fulfilled the clinical subtype of PSP known as Richardson¿s syndrome (RS). LBs were present in the locus ceruleus (LC), substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), basal forebrain, amygdala and cingulated cortex in a distribution mimicking that of Parkinson¿s disease (PD). Triple-immunolabeling revealed co-expression of ¿-synuclein and tau proteins in some tyrosine hydroxilase (TH)-positive neurons of the LC and SNc. Conclusions: There is no apparent clinical correlation between the presence of LBs in PSP. Tau protein co-aggregate with ¿-synuclein in catecholaminergic neurons of PSP brains suggesting a synergistic interaction between the two proteins. This is in keeping with the current view of neurodegenerative disorders as "misfolded protein diseases".
Autores: Martínez Pinilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Pérez, A. I.; Navarro Díez, Gemma; et al.
ISSN 0006-2952  Vol. 96  Nº 2  2015  págs. 131 - 142
Identification of G protein-coupled receptors and their specific function in a given neuron becomes essential to better understand the variety of signal transduction mechanisms associated with neurotransmission. We hypothesized that angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and dopamine D2 receptors form heteromers in the central nervous system, specifically in striatum. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, a direct interaction was demonstrated in cells transfected with the cDNA for the human version of the receptors. Heteromerization did not affect cAMP signaling via D2 receptors but attenuated the coupling of AT1 receptors to Gq. A common feature of heteromers, namely cross-antagonism, i.e. the blockade of the signaling of one receptor by the blockade of the partner receptor, was tested in co-transfected cells. Candesartan, the selective AT1 receptor antagonist, was able to block D2-receptor mediated effects on cAMP levels, MAP kinase activation and ß-arrestin recruitment. This effect of candesartan, which constitutes a property for the dopamine-angiotensin receptor heteromer, was similarly occurring in primary cultures of neurons and rat striatal slices. The expression of heteromers in striatum was confirmed by robust labeling using in situ proximity ligation assays. The results indicate that AT1 receptors are expressed in striatum and form heteromers with dopamine D2 receptors that enable drugs selective for the AT1 receptor to alter the functional response of D2 receptors.
Autores: Farré, D.; Muñoz, A.; Moreno, E.; et al.
ISSN 0893-7648  Vol. 52  Nº 3  2015  págs. 1408 - 1420
Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1¿D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (l-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or l-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from l-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.
Autores: Liberia, T.; Blasco-Ibáñez, J. M.; Nácher, J.; et al.
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 9  2015  págs. 28
The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals receives cholinergic afferents from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB). At present, the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons on the circuits of the OB has only been investigated in the rat. In this report, we analyze the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the OB of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Our aim is to investigate whether the cholinergic innervation of the bulbar circuits is phylogenetically conserved between macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals. Our results demonstrate that the cholinergic axons form synaptic contacts on interneurons. In the glomerular layer, their main targets are the periglomerular cells, which receive axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses. In the inframitral region, their main targets are the granule cells, which receive synaptic contacts on their dendritic shafts and spines. Although the cholinergic boutons were frequently found in close vicinity of the dendrites of principal cells, we have not found synaptic contacts on them. From a comparative perspective, our data indicate that the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic circuits is highly preserved in the OB of macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals.
Autores: Brugarolas, M.; Navarro, G.; Martínez Pinilla, Eva; et al.
ISSN 1755-5930  Vol. 20  Nº 8  2014  págs. 703 - 709
The overall architecture of the nervous system, especially the CNS, is remarkable. The anatomy of the nervous system is constituted not only by macroscopic and microscopy identifiable regions and neuronal cell types, but also by protein complexes whose identification and localization require sophisticated techniques. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute an example of proteins that are the key factors in the framework needed to sustain brain and nerve structure and function. The versatility underlying nervous system anatomy takes advantage of a recently discovered feature of GPCRs, the possibility to form heteromers that, placed at specific neuronal subsets and at specific locations (pre-, post-, or peri-synaptic), contribute to attain unique neural functions.
Autores: Zamarbide González, Marta; Etayo-Labiano I; Ricobaraza Abarquero, Ana; et al.
ISSN 1050-9631  2014 
GPR40, the free fatty acid receptor 1, is expressed strongly in the primate pancreas and brain. While the role of pancreatic GPR40 in glucose homeostasis has been extensively studied, the absence of this G-protein-coupled receptor from the brain of rodents has hampered studies into its role in the central nervous system. However, we found intense GPR40 mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in mouse hippocampal and motor cortex neurons. Furthermore, in a neuroblastoma cell GPR40 was activated by docosahexaenoic acid and selective agonists, yet not by palmitic acid. Significantly, the activation of GPR40 provoked the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein, CREB. The receptor was also functional in primary cultures of murine neurons, in which its activation by a selective agonist produced the phosphorylation of CREB and of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, ERK1/2. These results suggest that mice represent a suitable model for elucidating the role of GPR40 in brain function.
Autores: Cerri, S.; Levandis, G.; Ambrosi, G.; et al.
ISSN 0022-3069  Vol. 73  Nº 5  2014  págs. 414 - 424
The development of nondopaminergic therapeutic strategies that may improve motor and nonmotor deficits, while possibly slowing down the neurodegenerative process and associated neuroinflammation,is a primary goal of Parkinson disease (PD) research. We investigated the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory potential of combined and single treatment with adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists MSX-3 and rimonabant, respectively, in a rodent model of PD. Rats bearing a unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesion were treated chronically with MSX-3 (0.5or 1 mg/kg/d) and rimonabant (0.1 mg/kg/d) given as monotherapy or combined. The effects of the treatments to counteract dopaminergic cell death and neuroinflammation were assessed by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and glial cell markers, respectively. Both rimonabant and MSX-3 (1 mg/kg/d) promoted dopaminergic neuron survival in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) when given alone; this effect was weakened when the compounds were combined. Glial activation was not significantly affected by MSX-3 (1 mg/kg/d), whereas rimonabant seemed to increase astrocyte cell density in the SNc. Our findings demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of single treatments and suggest that glial cells might be involved in this protective effect. The results also indicate that the neuroprotective potential of combined therapy may not necessarily reflect or promote single-drug effects and point out that special care should be taken when considering multidrug therapies in PD.
Autores: Martínez Pinilla, Eva; Reyes Resina, Irene; Oñatibia-Astibia, A.; et al.
ISSN 0014-4886  Vol. 261  2014  págs. 44 - 52
Heteromerization of G-protein-coupled receptors is an important event as they integrate the actions of extracellular signals to give heteromer-selective ligand binding and signaling, opening new avenues in the development of potential drug targets in pharmacotherapy. The aim of the present paper was to check for cannabinoid CB1¿GPR55 receptor heteromers in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically in striatum. First, a direct interaction was demonstrated in cells transfected with the cDNA for the human version of the receptors, using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). In the heterologous system, a biochemical fingerprint consisting on cross-antagonism in ERK1/2 phosphorylation was detected. The cross-antagonism was also observed on GPR55-mediated NFAT activation. Direct identification of GPR55 receptors in striatum is here demonstrated in rat brain slices using a specific agonist. Moreover, the heteromer fingerprint was identified in these rat slices by ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays whereas PLA assays showed results consistent with receptor¿receptor interactions in both caudate and putamen nuclei of a non-human primate. The results indicate not only that GPR55 is expressed in striatum but also that CB1 and GPR55 receptors form heteromers in this specific CNS region.
Autores: Bonaventura, J.; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; Moreno, E.; et al.
ISSN 0028-3908  Vol. 79  2014  págs. 90 - 100
The molecular basis of priming for l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease (PD), which depends on the indirect pathway of motor control, is not known. In rodents, the indirect pathway contains striatopallidal GABAergic neurons that express heterotrimers composed of A2A adenosine, CB1 cannabinoid and D2 dopamine receptors that regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. The present study was designed to investigate the expression of these heteromers in the striatum of a primate model of Parkinson's disease and to determine whether their expression and pharmacological properties are altered upon l-DOPA treatment. By using the recently developed in situ proximity ligation assay and by identification of a biochemical fingerprint, we discovered a regional distribution of A2A/CB1/D2 receptor heteromers that predicts differential D2-mediated neurotransmission in the caudate¿putamen of Macaca fascicularis. Whereas heteromers were abundant in the caudate nucleus of both naïve and MPTP-treated monkeys, l-DOPA treatment blunted the biochemical fingerprint and led to weak heteromer expression. These findings constitute the first evidence of altered receptor heteromer expression in pathological conditions and suggest that drugs targeting A2A¿CB1¿D2 receptor heteromers may be successful to either normalize basal ganglia output or prevent L-DOPA-induced side effects.
Autores: Afonso-Oramas, D.; Cruz-Muros, I.; Castro-Hernández, J.; et al.
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 8  2014  págs. 84
Nowadays it is assumed that besides its roles in neuronal processing, dopamine (DA) is also involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. However, studies on the hernodynamic actions of DA have been mainly focused on the cerebral cortex, but the possibility that vessels in deeper brain structures receive dopaminergic axons and the origin of these axons have not been investigated. Bearing in mind the evidence of changes in the blood flow of basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the pivotal role of the dopaminergic mesostriatal pathway in the pathophysiology of this disease, here we studied whether striatal vessels receive inputs from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The injection of an anterograde neuronal tracer in combination with immunohistochemistry for dopaminergic, vascular and astroglial markers, and dopaminergic lesions, revealed that midbrain dopaminergic axons are in close apposition to striatal vessels and perivascular astrocytes. These axons form dense perivascular plexuses restricted to striatal regions in rats and monkeys. Interestingly, they are intensely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser19 and Ser40 residues. The presence of phosphorylated TH in vessel terminals indicates they are probably the main source of basal TH activity in the striatum, and that after activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, DA release onto vessels precedes that onto neurons. Furthermore, the relative weight of this "vascular component" within the mesostriatal pathway suggests that it plays a relevant role in the pathophysiology of PD.
Autores: González-Dopeso Reyes, Iria María; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; Roda Recalde, Elvira; et al.
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 8  2014 
Calbindin (CB) is a calcium binding protein reported to protect dopaminergic neurons from degeneration. Although a direct link between CB content and differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons has long been accepted, factors other than CB have also been suggested, particularly those related to the dopamine transporter. Indeed, several studies have reported that CB levels are not causally related to the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxins. Here we have used dual stains for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CB in 3 control and 3 MPTP-treated monkeys to visualize dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and in the dorsal and ventral tiers of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNcd and SNcv) co-expressing TH and CB. In control animals, the highest percentages of co-localization were found in VTA (58.2%), followed by neurons located in the SNcd (34.7%). As expected, SNcv neurons lacked CB expression. In MPTP-treated animals, the percentage of CB-ir/TH-ir neurons in the VTA was similar to control monkeys (62.1%), whereas most of the few surviving neurons in the SNcd were CB-ir/TH-ir (88.6%). Next, we have elucidated the presence of CB within identified nigrostriatal and nigroextrastriatal midbrain dopaminergic projection neurons. For this purpose, two control monkeys received one injection of Fluoro-Gold into the caudate nucleus and one injection of cholera toxin (CTB) into the postcommissural putamen, whereas two more monkeys were injected with CTB into the internal division of the globus pallidus (GPi). As expected, all the nigrocaudate- and nigroputamen-projecting neurons were TH-ir, although surprisingly, all of these nigrostriatal-projecting neurons were negative for CB. Furthermore, all the nigropallidal-projecting neurons co-expressed both TH and CB. In summary, although CB-ir dopaminergic neurons seem to be less prone to MPTP-induced degeneration, our data clearly demonstrated that these neurons are not giving rise to nigrostriatal projections and indeed CB-ir/TH-ir neurons only originate nigroextrastriatal projections.
Autores: Garcia Barroso, Carolina; Ugarte, A.; Martínez Villar, Martín; et al.
ISSN 1387-2877  Vol. 42   Nº Suppl. 4  2014  págs. S561 - S573
Understanding the cellular and molecular processes involved in learning and memory will help in the development of safe and effective cognitive enhancers. The cAMP response element-binding (CREB) may be a universal modulator of processes required for memory formation, and increasing the levels of second messengers like cAMP and cGMP could ultimately lead to CREB activation. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors regulate signaling pathways by elevating cAMP and/or cGMP levels, and they have been demonstrated to improve learning and memory in a number of rodent models of impaired cognition. The aim of this review is to summarize the outstanding progress that has been made in the application of PDE inhibitors for memory dysfunction. In addition, we have introduced some recent data we generated demonstrating that tadalafil could be considered as an optimal candidate for drug re-positioning and as a good candidate to enhance cognition.
Autores: Pinna, A.; Bonaventura, J.; Farré, D.; et al.
ISSN 0014-4886  Vol. 253  2014  págs. 180 - 191
Long-term therapy with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), still the most effective treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD), is associated with severe motor complications such as dyskinesia. Experimental and clinical data have indicated that adenosine A2A receptor antagonists can provide symptomatic improvement by potentiating l-DOPA efficacy and minimizing its side effects. It is known that the G-protein-coupled adenosine A2A, cannabinoid CB1 and dopamine D2 receptors may interact and form functional A2A-CB1¿D2 receptor heteromers in co-transfected cells as well as in rat striatum. These data suggest that treatment with a combination of drugs or a single compound selectively acting on A2A¿CB1¿D2 heteromers may represent an alternative therapeutic treatment of PD. We investigated the expression of A2A¿CB1¿D2 receptor heteromers in the striatum of both naïve and hemiparkinsonian rats (HPD-rats) bearing a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion, and assessed how receptor heteromer expression and biochemical properties were affected by l-DOPA treatment. Radioligand binding data showed that A2A¿CB1¿D2 receptor heteromers are present in the striatum of both naïve and HPD-rats. However, behavioral results indicated that the combined administration of A2A (MSX-3 or SCH58261) and CB1 (rimonabant) receptor antagonists, in the presence of l-DOPA does not produce a response different from administration of the A2A receptor antagonist alone. These behavioral results prompted identification of heteromers in l-DOPA-treated animals. Interestingly, the radioligand binding results in samples from lesioned animals suggest that the heteromer is lost following acute or chronic treatment with l-DOPA.
Autores: Liberia, T.; Blasco-Ibáñez, J. M.; Nácher, J.; et al.
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 218  Nº 4  2013  págs. 873 - 887
The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals is the brain region that receives the sensory information coming from the olfactory epithelium. The entrance of the olfactory information occurs in spherical structures of neuropil named olfactory glomeruli and is modulated by a population of interneurons known as periglomerular cells (PG). It has been demonstrated that there are two types of PG in the OB of some macrosmatic mammals, including rats and mice. Type 1 PG (PG-1) receive synapses from the olfactory nerve, whereas type 2 PG (PG-2) do not receive synapses from the olfactory axons. To date, the presence of the two types of PG has not been investigated in microsmatic mammals. In this context, we analyze the presence of PG-1 and PG-2 in the OB of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). For that, we used the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, the neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase and the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k and calretinin as neurochemical markers. Our results demonstrate that the OB of the macaque contains PG-1 and PG-2. A subpopulation of PG-1 expresses tyrosine hydroxylase and another expresses the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, a subpopulation of PG-2 expresses calbindin D-28k and another expresses calretinin. Double immunofluorescence demonstrates that there is no colocalization of two markers in the same PG. These results mimic those found in macrosmatic animals. The presence of two types of PG in the glomerular circuits seems to be a key principle for the organization of the OB of mammals.
Autores: Rodríguez-Pérez, A. I.; Dominguez-Meijide, A.; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
Revista: AGE
ISSN 0161-9152  Vol. 35  Nº 5  2013  págs. 1675 - 1690
The possible interaction between brain hypoperfusion related to aging and/or vascular disease, vascular parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease, as well as the possible contribution of aging-related chronic brain hypoperfusion in the development or severity of Parkinson's disease are largely unknown. We used a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion to study the long-term effects of hypoperfusion on dopaminergic neurons and the possible synergistic effects between chronic hypoperfusion and factors that are deleterious to dopaminergic neurons, such as the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. Chronic hypoperfusion induced significant loss of dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopaminergic terminals and a reduction in striatal dopamine levels. Furthermore, intrastriatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine in rats subjected to chronic hypoperfusion induced a significantly greater loss of dopaminergic neurons than in sham-operated control rats. The dopaminergic neuron loss was significantly reduced by oral treatment with angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist candesartan (3 mg/kg/day). The levels of angiotensin type 2 receptors were lower and the levels of angiotensin type 1 receptors, interleukin-1 beta and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity were higher in the substantia nigra of rats subjected to chronic hypoperfusion than in control rats; this was significantly reduced by treatment with candesartan. The results suggest that early treatment of vascular disease should be considered in the treatment of aged Parkinson's disease patients and Parkinson's disease patients with cerebrovascular risk factors. The findings also suggest that inhibition of brain renin-angiotensin activity may be useful as a neuroprotective strategy.
Autores: Garrido Gil, P.; Valenzuela, R.; Villar-Cheda, B.; et al.
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 218  Nº 2  2013  págs. 373 - 388
We have previously obtained in rodents a considerable amount of data suggesting a major role for the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in dopaminergic neuron degeneration and potentially in Parkinson's disease. However, the presence of a local RAS has not been demonstrated in the monkey or the human substantia nigra compacta (SNc). The present study demonstrates the presence of major RAS components in dopaminergic neurons, astrocytes and microglia in both the monkey and the human SNc. Angiotensin type 1 and 2 and renin-prorenin receptors were located at the surface of dopaminergic neurons and glial cells, as expected for a tissular RAS. However, angiotensinogen and receptors for angiotensin and renin-prorenin were also observed at the cytoplasm and nuclear level, which suggests the presence of an intracrine or intracellular RAS in monkey and human SNc. Although astrocytes and microglia were labeled for angiotensin and prorenin receptors in the normal SNc, most glial cells appeared less immunoreactive than the dopaminergic neurons. However, our previous studies in rodent models of PD and studies in other animal models of brain diseases suggest that the RAS activity is significantly upregulated in glial cells in pathological conditions. The present results together with our previous findings in rodents suggest a major role for the nigral RAS in the normal functioning of the dopaminergic neurons, and in the progression of the dopaminergic degeneration.
Autores: Garcia Barroso, Carolina; Ricobaraza, A. ; Pascual-Lucas, M.; et al.
ISSN 0028-3908  Vol. 64  2013  págs. 114 - 123
Previous studies have demonstrated that cognitive function can be restored in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) following administration of sildenafil, a specific PDE5 inhibitor (Puzzo et al., 2009; Cuadrado-Tejedor et al.). Another very potent PDE5 inhibitor with a longer half-life and safe in chronic treatments, tadalafil, may represent a better alternative candidate for AD therapy. However, tadalafil was proven unable to achieve similar benefits than those of sildenafil in AD animal models (Puzzo et al., 2009). The lack of efficacy was attributed to inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this paper we first measured the blood and brain levels of tadalafil to prove that the compound crosses BBB and that chronic treatment leads to accumulation in the brain of the J20 transgenic mouse model of AD. We demonstrated the presence of PDE5 mRNA in the brain of the mice and also in the human brain. After a 10 week treatment with either of these PDE5 inhibitors, the performance of the J20 mice in the Morris water maze test improved when compared with the transgenic mice that received vehicle. Biochemical analysis revealed that neither sildenafil nor tadalafil altered the amyloid burden, although both compounds reduced Tau phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus. This study provides evidence of the potential benefits of a chronic tadalafil treatment in AD therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.
Autores: Rodríguez-Pérez, A. I.; Dominguez-Meijide, A.; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0969-9961  Vol. 58  2013  págs. 209 - 219
The mechanism by which estrogen protects dopaminergic neurons has not yet been clarified. It is not known if changes in RhoA/Rho kinase activity are involved in the enhanced vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons observed after estrogen depletion. The present study shows that the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons is increased by estrogen depletion and inhibited by estrogen replacement, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 and deletion of the angiotensin type-1 receptor. In ovariectomized mice, treatment with MPTP induced a marked increase in Rho kinase activity, and RhoA and RhocK II mRNA and protein expression, which were significantly higher than in ovariectomized mice treated with MPTP and estrogen replacement or type-1 receptor deletion. Estrogen depletion increased Rho kinase activity, via enhancement of the angiotensin type-1 receptor pathway, and Rho kinase activation increased type-1 receptor expression suggesting a vicious cycle in which Rho kinase and type-1 receptor activate each other and promote the degenerative process. The results suggest that type-1 receptor antagonists and Rho kinase inhibitors may provide a new neuroprotective strategy, which may circumvent the potential risks of estrogen replacement therapy and be particularly useful in elderly women or women affected by long-term lack of estrogen.
Autores: Lanciego Pérez, José Luis
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 6  2012  págs. 4
Autores: Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; Vázquez, A.;
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 217  Nº 2  2012  págs. 613 - 666
A stereotaxic brain atlas of the basal ganglia and thalamus of Macaca fascicularis presented here is designed with a surgical perspective. In this regard, all coordinates have been referenced to a line linking the anterior and posterior commissures (ac¿pc line) and considering the center of the ac at the midline as the origin of the bicommissural space. The atlas comprises of 43 different plates (19 coronal levels, 10 sagittal levels and 14 horizontal levels). In addition to `classical¿ cyto- and chemoarchitectural techniques such as the Nissl method and the acetylcholinesterase stain, several immunohistochemical stains have been performed in adjacent sections, including the detection of tyrosine hydroxylase, enkephalin, neurofilaments, parvalbumin and calbindin. In comparison to other existing stereotaxic atlases for M. fasicularis, this atlas has two main advantages: firstly, brain cartography is based on a wide variety of cyto- and chemoarchitectural stains carried out on adjacent sections, therefore enabling accurate segmentation. Secondly and most importantly, sagittal and horizontal planes are included. Sagittal planes are very useful for calculating oblique trajectories, whereas, clinical researchers engaged in neuroimaging studies will be more familiar with horizontal sections, as they use horizontal (also called ¿axial¿) brain images in their daily routine of their clinical practices.
Autores: Callén, L.; Moreno, E.; Barroso Chinea, Pedro Javier; et al.
ISSN 0021-9258  Vol. 287  Nº 25  2012  págs. 20851 - 20865
Exploring the role of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the brain, we present evidence of CB2 receptor molecular and functional interaction with cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches, we discovered that CB2 receptors can form heteromers with CB1 receptors in transfected neuronal cells and in rat brain pineal gland, nucleus accumbens, and globus pallidus. Within CB1-CB2 receptor heteromers expressed in a neuronal cell model, agonist co-activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors resulted in a negative cross-talk in Akt phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, one specific characteristic of CB1-CB2 receptor heteromers consists of both the ability of CB1 receptor antagonists to block the effect of CB2 receptor agonists and, conversely, the ability of CB2 receptor antagonists to block the effect of CB1 receptor agonists, showing a bidirectional cross-antagonism phenomenon. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which CB2 receptors can negatively modulate CB1 receptor function.
Autores: Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; Luquin Barrado, Natasha; Obeso Inchausti, José Ángel
ISSN 2157-1422  Vol. 2  Nº 12  2012 
The "basal ganglia" refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field.
Autores: Luquin, N.; Sierra San Nicolás, Salvador; Rico, A. J.; et al.
ISSN 0969-9961  Vol. 47  Nº 3  2012  págs. 347 - 357
The A2AR has become a therapeutic target in Parkinson disease due to its functional role in the striatum, capable of modulating dopaminergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. No conclusive evidence, however, has been provided to demonstrate the existence of A2ARs in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia: the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques we have confirmed the presence of A2ARs in both the striatum (medium spiny and cholinergic neurons) and the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), in the monkey. The antibody routinely used to label A2ARs failed to detect A2AR-positive neurons in the GPi and SNr, however, in situ hybridization showed that A2AR mRNA transcripts were indeed present in both these nuclei. Surprisingly, by labeling pallidothalamic and nigrothalamic projection neurons originating in the GPi and SNr with the neuronal retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), the receptor protein was unmasked and detectable using the antibody. This unmasking of the protein was specific to CTB and not an artifact of the tracer. We have shown unequivocally that the A2AR is present in the output nuclei of the primate basal ganglia, however, to be able to detect the receptor immunohistochemically, unmasking the protein with CTB was necessary. The presence of A2ARs in the GPi and SNr suggests that these output nuclei could be targeted therapeutically in Parkinson disease to restore abnormal activity in the basal ganglia.
Autores: Fernández Suárez, Diana; Celorrio, M.; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0022-3069  Vol. 71  Nº 11  2012  págs. 973-982
The external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) in humans and the equivalent structure in rodents, the globus pallidus (GP), influence signal processing in the basal ganglia under normal and pathological conditions. Parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity defines 2 main neuronal subpopulations in the GP/GPe: PV-immunopositive cells that project mainly to the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the GP and PV-negative cells that mainly project to the striatum. We evaluated the number of neurons in the GP/GPe in animal models of Parkinson disease. In rats, dopaminergic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) provoked a significant decrease in the number of GP neurons (12% +/- 4%, p < 0.05), which specifically affected the PV+ subpopulation. A similar trend was observed in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys. Markers of GABAergic activity (GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA) were not different from those of controls in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for nondopaminergic neuronal cell loss in the basal ganglia of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and suggest that a similar loss may occur in the MPTP monkey. These data suggest that in patients with Parkinson disease, the loss of GABAergic neurons projecting to the subthalamic nucleus may contribute to the hyperactivity of this nucleus despite the absence of gross alterations in GAD mRNA expression.
Autores: Armentero, MT; Pinna, A; Ferré, S; et al.
Revista: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
ISSN 0163-7258  Vol. 132  Nº 3  2011  págs. 280-299
Autores: Pañeda Rodríguez, María Astrid; Collantes Martínez, María; Beattie, SG; et al.
Revista: Human Gene Therapy (Print)
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 22  Nº 8  2011  págs.  999-1009
Autores: Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; Barroso Chinea, Pedro Javier; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; et al.
ISSN 0269-8811  Vol. 25  Nº 1  2011  págs. 97 - 104
Autores: Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; Wouterlood, FG
Revista: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
ISSN 0891-0618  Vol. 42  Nº 3  2011  págs. 157 - 183
Most of our current understanding of brain function and dysfunction has its firm base in what is so elegantly called the `anatomical substrate¿, i.e. the anatomical, histological, and histochemical domains within the large knowledge envelope called `neuroscience¿ that further includes physiological, pharmacological, neurochemical, behavioral, genetical and clinical domains. This review focuses mainly on the anatomical domain in neuroscience. To a large degree neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods have paved the way in this domain. Over the past few decades, a great number of neuroanatomical tracers have been added to the technical arsenal to fulfill almost any experimental demand. Despite this sophisticated arsenal, the decision which tracer is best suited for a given tracing experiment still represents a difficult choice. Although this review is obviously not intended to provide the last word in the tract-tracing field, we provide a survey of the available tracing methods including some of their roots. We further summarize our experience with neuroanatomical tracers, in an attempt to provide the novice user with some advice to help this person to select the most appropriate criteria to choose a tracer that best applies to a given experimental design.
Autores: Obeso Inchausti, José Ángel; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis
ISSN 1662-5129  Vol. 5  Nº 39  2011  págs. 1 - 6
The current model of basal ganglia (BG) was introduced two decades ago and has settled most of our current understanding of BG function and dysfunction. Extensive research efforts have been carried out in recent years leading to further refinement
Autores: Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0885-3185  Vol. 26  Nº 10  2011  págs. 1943 - 1947
Background: Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor is a survival factor for dopaminergic neurons and a promising candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, the delivery issue of the protein to the brain still remains unsolved. Our aim was to investigate the effect of long-term delivery of encapsulated glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor within microspheres. Methods: A single dose of microspheres containing 2.5 mu g of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor was implanted intrastriatally in animals 2 weeks after a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Results: The amphetamine test showed a complete behavioral recovery after 16 weeks of treatment, which was maintained until the end of the study (week 30). This effect was accompanied by an increase in dopaminergic striatal terminals and neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. Conclusions: The main achievement was the long-term neurorestoration in parkinsonian animals induced by encapsulated glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, suggesting that microspheres may be considered as a means to deliver glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor for Parkinson's disease treatment.
Autores: Conte Perales, Lorena; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; Barroso Chinea, Pedro Javier; et al.
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 216  Nº 4  2011  págs. 371 - 386
GABAergic neurons within the internal division of the globus pallidus (GPi) are the main source of basal ganglia output reaching the thalamic ventral nuclei in monkeys. Following dopaminergic denervation, pallidothalamic-projecting neurons are known to be hyperactive, whereas a reduction in GPi activity is typically observed in lesioned animals showing levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Besides the mRNAs coding for GABAergic markers (GAD65 and GAD67), we show that all GPi neurons innervating thalamic targets also express transcripts for the isoforms 1 and 2 of the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGlut1 and vGlut2 mRNA). Indeed, dual immunofluorescent detection of GAD67 and vGlut1/2 confirmed the data gathered from in situ hybridization experiments, therefore demonstrating that the detected mRNAs are translated into the related proteins. Furthermore, the dopaminergic lesion resulted in an up-regulation of expression levels for both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA within identified pallidothalamic-projecting neurons. This was coupled with a down-regulation of GAD65/67 mRNA expression levels in GPi neurons innervating thalamic targets in monkeys showing levodopa-induced dyskinesia. By contrast, the patterns of gene expression for both vGlut1 and vGlut2 mRNAs remained unchanged across GPi projection neurons in control, MPTP-treated and dyskinetic monkeys. In summary, both GABAergic and glutamatergic markers were co-expressed by GPi efferent neurons in primates. Although the status of the dopaminergic system directly modulates the expression levels of GAD65/67 mRNA, the observed expression of vGlut1/2 mRNA is not regulated by either dopaminergic removal or by continuous stimulation with dopaminergic agonists.
Autores: Barroso Chinea, Pedro Javier; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; Conte Perales, Lorena; et al.
ISSN 1863-2653  Vol. 216  Nº 4  2011  págs. 319 - 330
The tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a basal ganglia-related structure that has recently gained renewed interest as a potential surgical target for the treatment of several aspects of Parkinson's disease. However, the underlying anatomical substrates sustaining the choice of the PPN nucleus as a surgical candidate remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized the chemical phenotypes of different subtypes of PPN efferent neurons innervating the rat parafascicular (PF) nucleus. Emphasis was placed on elucidating the impact of unilateral nigrostriatal denervation on the expression patterns of the mRNA coding the vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 (vGlut2 mRNA). We found a bilateral projection from the PPN nucleus to the PF nucleus arising from cholinergic and glutamatergic efferent neurons, with a small fraction of projection neurons co-expressing both cholinergic and glutamatergic markers. Furthermore, the unilateral nigrostriatal depletion induced a bilateral twofold increase in the expression levels of vGlut2 mRNA within the PPN nucleus. Our results support the view that heterogeneous chemical profiles account for PPN efferent neurons innervating thalamic targets. Moreover, a bilateral enhancement of glutamatergic transmission arising from the PPN nucleus occurs following unilateral dopaminergic denervation, therefore sustaining the well-known hyperactivity of the PF nucleus in parkinsonian-like conditions. In conclusion, our data suggest that the ascending projections from the PPN that reach basal ganglia-related targets could play an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.
Autores: Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; Wouterlood, F. G., (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 0165-0270  Vol. 194  Nº 1  2010  págs. 1
Autores: Rodríguez-Pérez, A. I.; Valenzuela, R.; Villar-Cheda, B.; et al.
ISSN 0014-4886  Vol. 224  Nº 2  2010  págs. 517 - 526
Epidemiological studies have reported that the incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women of similar age. Several laboratory observations have revealed that estrogen has protective effects against dopaminergic toxins. The mechanism by which estrogen protects dopaminergic neurons has not been clarified, although estrogen-induced attenuation of the neuroinflammatory response plays a major role. We have recently shown that activation of the nigral renin-angiotensin system (RAS), via type 1 (AT1) receptors, leads to NADPH complex and microglial activation and induces dopaminergic neuron death. In the present study we investigated the effect of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on the nigral RAS and on dopaminergic degeneration induced by intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA. We observed a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in ovariectomized rats treated with 6-OHDA, which was significantly reduced by estrogen replacement or treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist candesartan. We also observed that estrogen replacement induces significant downregulation of the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme as well as downregulation of AT1 receptors, upregulation of AT2 receptors and downregulation of the NADPH complex activity in the substantia nigra in comparison with ovariectomized rats. The present results suggest that estrogen-induced down-regulation of RAS and NADPH activity may be associated with the reduced risk of PD in premenopausal women, and increased risk in conditions causing early reduction in endogenous estrogen, and that manipulation of brain RAS system may be an efficient approach for the prevention or coadjutant treatment of PD in estrogen-deficient women.
Autores: Valenzuela, R; Barroso Chinea, Pedro Javier; Villar-Cheda, B; et al.
Revista: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology (Print)
ISSN 0022-3069  Vol. 69  Nº 11  2010  págs. 1130 - 1142
Angiotensin II acts via angiotensin type 1 receptors and is a major inducer of inflammation and oxidative stress. Local renin-angiotensin systems play a major role in the development of age-related disorders in several tissues. These processes are delayed, but not totally abolished, by blockade of angiotensin signaling. A specific receptor for renin and its precursor prorenin has recently been identified. We previously showed that neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic (DA) cell loss is decreased by inhibition of angiotensin receptors, but the location and functional effects of prorenin receptor (PRR) in the brain, including theDA system, are unknown. In the substantia nigra of Macaca fascicularis and in rat primary mesencephalic cultures, double immunofluorescence analysis revealed PRR immunoreactivity in neurons (including DA neurons) and microglia, but not in astrocytes. Administration of the PRR blocker, handle region peptide, led to a significant decrease in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced DA cell death in the cultures,whereas administration of renin with simultaneous blockade ofangiotensin receptors led to an increase in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death. These results suggest that active agent angiotensin II-independent PRR intracellular signaling may contribute to exacerbation of DA cell death in vivo. Therefore, potential neuroprotective strategies for DA neurons in Parkinson disease should address both angiotensin and PRR signaling.
Autores: Conte Perales, Lorena; Barroso Chinea, Pedro Javier; Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; et al.
Revista: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
ISSN 0165-0270  Vol. 194  Nº 1  2010  págs. 28 - 33
Most of our current understanding of brain circuits is based on hodological studies carried out using neuroanatomical tract-tracing. Our aim is to advance one step further by visualizing the functional correlate in a given circuit. In this regard, we believe it is feasible to combine retrograde tracing with fluorescence, non-radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) protocols. The subsequent detection at the single-cell level of the expression of a given mRNA within retrograde-labeled neurons provides information regarding cellular function. This may be of particular interest when trying to elucidate the performance of brain circuits of interest in animal models of brain diseases. Several combinations of retrograde tracing with either single- and double-ISH are presented here, together with some criteria that influence the selection of the tracer to be used in conjunction with the strong demands of the ISH.
Autores: Rico Martin, Alberto Jose; Barroso-Chinea, P.; Conte-Perales, L.; et al.
Revista: Neurobiology of Disease
ISSN 0969-9961  Vol. 39  Nº 3  2010  págs. 381 - 392
Autores: López García, Iciar Paula; Salin, P; Kachidian, P; et al.
Revista: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
ISSN 0165-0270  Vol. 194  Nº 1  2010  págs. 21 - 27
Rabies virus (RV) has widely been used as a trans-synaptic retrograde tracer to analyze chains of connected neurons. The use of antibodies directed against the viral nucleoprotein enables viral nucleocapsids to be visualized within the cell soma, as well as within the thickest main dendrites. However, through this approach it is often difficult to accurately define post-synaptic elements (thin dendrites and/or dendritic spines). This limitation can now easily been circumvented by taking advantage of antibodies directed against a soluble viral phosphoprotein that spreads throughout the cytoplasm of the infected neuron, thereby producing Golgi-like immunofluorescent labeling of first-order projection neurons that are infected with RV. Furthermore, when combined with anterograde tracers such as Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), this procedure to detect RV facilitates the accurate visualization of both the pre- and post-synaptic elements. Finally, this method of viral detection is sufficiently sensitive to detect weakly labeled second-order neurons, which can then be further characterized neurochemically. Several examples are provided to illustrate why retrograde trans-synaptic tracing using RV can be regarded as an important breakthrough in the analysis of brain circuits, providing an unprecedented level of resolution.
Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Garbayo Atienza, Elisa; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 385  Nº 1-2  2010  págs. 6 - 11
The administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of several diseases of the nervous system as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury and nerve regeneration as well as ocular diseases and drug addictions. A procedure for the purification of human recombinant glycosylated GDNF using a mammalian expression system as the source of the protein is discussed in the present paper. The neurotrophic factor was purified using cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration. A human cell line was chosen as the source of therapeutic protein, since a recombinant protein with a structure and glycosylation pattern equivalent to the native form is desirable for its prospective therapeutic utilization. The activity of the highly pure protein obtained was confirmed with a cell-based bioassay. The purified protein is suitable for its in vivo evaluation in animals and for possible subsequent clinical application.
Autores: Ferre, S; Lluis, C; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis; et al.
ISSN 1871-5273  Vol. 9  Nº 5  2010  págs. 596 - 600
A number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are currently under consideration as potential therapeutic targets for drugs acting in the central nervous system (CNS). Attempts to discover new medications have operated under the assumption that GPCRs are monomers and that a specific drug activates one single receptor coupled to one single signal transduction mechanism. In the neuronal membrane, GPCRs are now known to be arranged into homo- and hetero-oligomers; drugs acting on a single receptor within a specific heteromer context are thought to induce a particular downstream signaling. However, there is recent evidence showing that heteromer-tailored drugs can be designed that display different affinities for a given receptor depending on the receptor partners contained within the heteromer. It can therefore be predicted that customized drugs targeting a specific receptor heteromer in the CNS might imporove safety and efficacy for their therapeutic targets. Finally, it will be important to identify receptor heteromers that are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, such as the recently discovered dopamine D-1-D-3 receptor heteromer, which might play a key role in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.
Autores: Sierra San Nicolás, S.; Lanciego Pérez, José Luis
Libro:  Velázquez. Farmacología Básica y Clínica
2018  págs. 259 - 270
Autores: Lanciego Pérez, José Luis